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月食101 |国家地理 – 译学馆
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月食101 |国家地理

Lunar Eclipse 101 | National Geographic

当地球遮挡了全部或部分直射到月亮上的
A lunar eclipse happens when the earth blocks some
太阳光 月食就会发生
or all of the sun’s direct light from reaching the moon.
此天文现象只发生在满月之时
This cosmic event only takes place during a full moon,
也就是每29天半发生一次
which happens once every twenty-nine and a half days,
即月亮绕地球一周的时长
or the length of one full orbit of the moon around the earth.
月食为何不是每个月都能看到?
So why don’t we have an eclipse every month?
月球的运行轨道相较地球有几度的倾斜
The moon’s orbit is tilted a few degrees in relation to the earth.
所以地球 月球与太阳并不总能形成一条直线
So the earth, moon and sun don’t always align.
当地球挡住太阳时
When the earth does eclipse the sun,
它将在月球上投下两种阴影
it casts two types of shadows on the moon.
较大的阴影 称为“半影”
A larger shadow, known as the Penumbra.
较小较暗的阴影 称为“本影”
And the smaller, darker shadow known as the Umbra.
月食共分为三种
There are three types of lunar eclipses.
第一种叫做“月全食”
The first is the total lunar eclipse.
发生在太阳 月亮与地球形成完美一线
When the sun, moon and earth are in perfect alignment,
也就是月亮被地球完全遮挡住之时
And the moon falls within the earth’s umbral shadow.
月全食为三种月食中最为显著的
Total lunar eclipses are the most striking of the three types,
因为此时月亮呈现出明显的夕阳红色
because they turn the moon a sunset red.
当太阳光线中波长较短的蓝光
While shorter blue wavelengths of light
被地球大气层向外散射
are scattered outward by the earth’s atmosphere.
而波长较长的红色波光
Longer red wavelengths are refracted or bend
则向内折射向月球
inward towards the moon making it appear red.
月亮呈现红色的亮度取决于
The brightness of the moon’s red glow depends upon
地球大气层中有多少灰尘与云
how much of dust and clouds are in the earth’s atmosphere.
火山活动后 火山灰通过
Following volcanic activity,
阻挡足够阳光将月亮渲染呈暗红甚至全黑
ash can block out enough light to render the moon a darker red or even mere black.
第二种为“月偏食”
A partial lunar eclipse,
由于地球 月亮与太阳并未形成完美一线
the second type occurs when the earth, moon and sun don’t perfectly align,
部分月球经过地球的本影而产生
so only part of the moon passes into earth’s umbra.
在月球朝向地球的一面 地球阴影会很暗
Earth shadow appears very dark on the side of the moon facing earth.
最后一种为“半影月食”
Last, a penumbral lunar eclipse,
发生在月球绕过地球的半影
occurs when the moon passes through the earth’s penumbral shadow.
半影月食的变化微乎其微 很难被人发现
The event is so subtle that most people don’t even noticed.
此时的月亮只会比平日稍暗一点
The moon will appear just slightly darker than normal.
月食的发生次数可高达每年3次
Lunar eclipses occur up to three times a year
整个地球的夜班球都可以看到
and can be observed from the entire night time half of the earth.
不同于日食
Unlike during the solar eclipse,
人们只需裸眼就能安全观察到月食
it’s safe to look at the moon with the naked eye during a lunar eclipse.
而我们可以观察到月全食
It is only because of the distances of the sun and the moon from the earth
也仅仅因为太阳 月亮与地球的距离恰好
that we are able to witness total lunar eclipses.
随着月亮年年与地球渐远
As the moon inches away from the earth each year,
终有一天 在几十亿年后 月球将会
one day, billions of years from now,
由于离地球过远而无法落入地球本影之中
the moon will be too far away to fall completely within a earth’s umbral shadow.
但在这之前 我们仍然可以时常看到自己
Until then, we can occasionally enjoy seeing our own planet shadow
星球的影子投射在夜空中最大物体之上
cast upon the largest object in the night sky.

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月食是如何形成的?血月为何为红色?月食共分为几种?如何观察月食?美国国家地理在此为你解答。

听录译者

•-• 张楚玥

翻译译者

•-• 张楚玥

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审核员 NA

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VW2xRR75lKE

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