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胎盘前置

Low Lying Placenta - Placenta Previa, Animation

胎盘是连接胎儿的器官
The placenta is the organ that connects the fetus,
它通过脐带
via the umbilical cord,
连接到妈妈的子宫壁
to the uterine wall of the mother.
是母亲与胎儿发生血液交换的地方
This is where the exchange between maternal and fetal blood takes place.
胎盘会给胎儿提供氧气和营养物质
The placenta provides the fetus with oxygen and nutrients
并带走二氧化碳之类的废物
and takes away waste, such as carbon dioxide.
正常情况下 胎盘会依附在子宫的顶部或者边缘
Normally, it attaches at the top or side of the uterus.
在分娩的第三阶段 胎儿出生时
At birth, it is delivered after the baby,
胎盘会随婴儿排出
in the third stage of labor.
胎盘前置
Placenta previa,
有时候也被称为低位胎盘
or sometimes referred to as low lying placenta
这是一种妊娠并发症
is a pregnancy complication
也就是胎盘依附到子宫的下端
in which the placenta attaches to the lower end of the uterus,
临近或者覆盖宫颈口
near or covering the cervical opening.
胎盘前置可以分为完全前置或末端前置
Placenta previa can be classified as complete or marginal.
主要症状就是在下半孕期会出现无痛性出血
The main symptom is painless bleeding in the second half of pregnancy.
在开始分娩时 由于子宫的下部会逐渐变窄
As the lower part of the uterus gradually thins in preparation for the onset of labor,
胎盘的连接物就会被破坏 导致出血
placental attachment is disrupted resulting in bleeding.
胎盘前置发展的诱发危险因素包括:
Risk factors for the development of placenta previa include:
多次妊娠
previous pregnancies,
子宫手术史
previous surgeries of the uterus,
胎盘前置病史
previous placenta previa,
超过一个胎儿
carrying more than one fetus,
孕妇年龄35岁以上
maternal age of 35 or older,
抽烟或者使用可卡因
smoking and cocaine use.
通常在怀孕中期的常规超声泼孕检中
The location of the placenta is usually checked
会检查一下胎盘的位置
during a routine ultrasound mid pregnancy.
但此时低位胎盘
But a low-lying placenta at this point
可能并不足以成为你担忧的原因
may not be a cause for concern.
在大多数情况下
In most cases, the placenta grows toward
胎盘会往子宫上部血液供应充足的位置生长
the richer blood supply in the upper uterus
因为在晚期妊娠中子宫会扩张
as the uterus expands in the third trimester.
只有10%的低位胎盘会持续到分娩
Only about 10% of all low-lying placentas persist until delivery.
若胎盘完全覆盖子宫颈
A placenta that completely covers the cervix
那它往往会一直保持原状而非改变位置
is more likely to stay that way than one that’s bordering it.
胎盘前置对母亲和婴儿来说都有非常重大的风险
Placenta previa presents significant risks to both the mother and the baby.
通常这种情况下会进行剖腹产
A caesarean delivery is usually indicated
因为胎盘可能会堵住整个产道
because the placenta may block the birth canal completely,
或者分娩时会出现由于宫颈扩张引起的大出血
or bleed profusely during labor as the cervix dilates.
此时母亲会出现大出血
The mother may experience excessive blood loss
而由于血液供应不足
and the baby may suffer from hypoxia,
婴儿会出现氧气不足的状况
as a result of inadequate blood supply.
治疗目标就是随着生产日期的临近
The goal of treatment is to manage bleeding to
尽量控制出血
get as close to the due date as possible.
为了少出血或者不出血 推荐卧床休息和骨盆休息
In case of little or no bleeding, bed rest and pelvic rest are recommended.
严重地出血是紧急情况 可能需要输血
Heavy bleeding is an emergency and might require a blood transfusion.
如果不满37周时有分娩的必要
If delivery is necessary before 37 weeks,
可以注射激素帮助婴儿肺发育
corticosteroids may be given to help the baby’s lungs develop.
若出现不可控的大出血 就算婴儿早产
And uncontrollable bleeding would require an emergency C-section,
也需要急性剖腹产
even if the baby is premature.

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视频概述

胎盘前置的成因以及治疗方案。

听录译者

来吧!尉英俊

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员 RN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nEa6E-BtYRw

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