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潜水艇的工作机制

Living Underwater: How Submarines Work

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In all of World War Two,
第二次世界大战期间
the world used about 5 megatons of explosives.
全球一共用了约500万吨炸药
Now, this is a Trident II missile,
这是一枚三叉戟II型导弹
capable of carrying 12 nuclear warheads together equivalent in power
能同时携带12枚核弹头
to about 5 megatons of explosives.
总爆炸威力相当于500万吨炸药
A single American Ohio Class submarine
仅一艘美国俄亥俄级潜艇
can carry 24 Trident II missiles.
就能装载24枚三叉戟II型导弹
A single submarine can carry a devastating,
仅一艘潜艇装载的火力就能造成一场
catastrophic, inconceivable amount of firepower.
人类无法想象的空前的灾难
While in reality due to arms reduction treaties and practicality,
但事实上 出于武器削减公约和实用性考虑
these boats often carry far less than their maximum armament,
潜艇实载的武器数量通常会远少于它的最大限额
submarines can still creep up anywhere, undetected
还能悄无声息的潜藏在任何地方
ready to unleash their firepower,
为导弹发射做好准备
more powerful than the entire arsenal of some countries, in an instant.
产生的瞬间火力超过某些国家整个军械库之和
Submarines are different in purpose to some other elements of a navy.
潜艇的建造目的不同于其它海军装备
While an aircraft carrier, for example,
比如说航母
is intended to be big, for boarding and noticeable
就是要大 引人注目 用来起降飞机
as a means to display a nation’s power to the world,
作为向世界展示国家军事实力的一种手段
submarines are meant to to be unseen, undetected,
而潜艇要隐蔽 不能被发现
an invisible silent force that could
是一种隐蔽且无声的武器
or could not be anywhere at any given time.
在任何时间 任何地点都能出现或消失
in a way, submarines almost serve a purpose of psychological warfare
某种程度上 潜艇大多是用来进行心理战的
an enemy can never know for sure
敌人永远无法准确得知
whether a submarine is looming off its shore.
是否有潜艇在本国海岸线徘徊
While dozens of countries operate submarines,
很多国家都有潜艇
the most powerful and often largest of these boats
其中威力最强大 通常也是体型最大的潜艇
are those capable of firing ballistic missiles carrying nuclear warheads.
是那些能发射携带核弹头的弹道导弹的潜艇
Only six nations are confirmed to have these submarines—
只有6个国家被证实拥有这种潜艇
The US, UK, France, India, Russia, and China.
分别是美国 英国 法国 印度 俄罗斯和中国
In addition, analysts have found evidence suggesting
此外 分析人士有证据表明
that North Korea and Israel also each have nuclear-missile capable submarines.
朝鲜和以色列也拥有弹道导弹核潜艇
Nowadays, there are essentially two different types of military submarines
现在主要有两种不同类型的军事潜艇
with two different missions
用来执行两种不同的任务
The attack submarine, the more common kind,
攻击潜艇 这是比较常见的一种
is generally smaller and in combat, attacks other close-range targets
一般体积较小 在战斗中用来攻击近距离目标
like ships using torpedoes, shorter range missiles, and other armaments.
用鱼雷 短程导弹和其他武器来攻击船只
The other, often larger type of submarine
另一种通常体型较大
are those ballistic missile submarines which
即弹道导弹潜艇
essentially serve the purpose of being a mobile,
这种潜艇作为一个可移动的
hidden launch platform for nuclear missiles.
隐蔽的核弹发射台使用
The idea is that, as a stealth launch platform,
其宗旨是 作为一个隐蔽的发射台
a country’s submarines would survive any nuclear first strike
一个国家的潜艇必须能经受任何核弹的第一次攻击
and therefore be able to retaliate against an aggressor.
这样才能有机会反击侵略者
Ballistic missile submarines are therefore crucial to the idea of mutually assured destruction
因此 弹道导弹潜艇在导弹防御战中至关重要
if anyone attack with nuclear weapons
如果有敌人用核武器来攻击
assuming those attacked had nuclear weapons
且被攻击的一方也有核武器
that would survive a strike and they retaliated,
只要能抵抗住第一次进攻 他们就能开始反击
both the attacker and those attacked would be destroyed.
通常而言袭击者和被袭击者会同归于尽
Therefore,many consider these nuclear missile equipped submarines
因此 很多人认为这类核导弹潜艇
to actually be a form of nuclear deterrence
实际上是作为一种核威慑
they say they reduce the likelihood of others using nukes
他们宣称这会让对手使用核武器的可能性降低
since they assure their subsequent destruction.
因为大家都明白双方会同归于尽
Considering that these submarines might survive
考虑到国家和政府有可能先被打击
when a country and its government do not,
而潜艇却可能幸存下来
they therefore need the independent authority to use their missiles.
因此使用导弹需要独立授权
While other operators likely have similar setups,
其他的操作也有类似的配置
it’s known that the UK’s four ballistic missile submarines
众所周知 英国的四艘弹道导弹潜艇
each have a letter locked in a safe
每一艘潜艇都会有一封锁在保险箱里的信
instructing their commander on what to do
用来指示潜艇指挥官
if the UK is wiped out by a nuclear strike.
当英国遭受毁灭性核袭击时该如何行动
These letters are written by each prime minister at the beginning of their term
这些信由历任首相在任期开始时写下
and destroyed, unread, at the end.
任期结束后销毁 且不会打开
Each PM essentially has to chose which of the four potential options
每位首相都必须从以下四个选项中选择
they want to instruct the sub commanders to do nothing
1.命令潜艇指挥官什么都不做
to place themselves under the command of an ally like the US or Australia,
2.令其听从盟国的指示 如美国或澳大利亚
for the commander to use their judgment,
3.授权指挥官自行判断
or to retaliate and launch nuclear missiles at the attacker.
4.令其发射核导弹对袭击者进行报复
Of course, what gives submarines their stealth is the blanket of water.
当然 海面可以让潜艇隐匿踪迹
American Ohio class submarines are publicly known to
众所周知 美国俄亥俄级潜水艇
be able to go down as deep as 800 feet or 250 meters.
能够下潜至800英尺 即250米的深海
In reality, it is believed they can go much further.
实际上 很多人认为它能下潜到更深的地方
As soon as a sub surfaces, though, their stealth is lost
但要是潜艇浮出水面 它的隐身功能就会消失
especially in today’s era of satellite tracking
尤其是在当今这个卫星追踪技术发达的时代
Therefore, it is important that submarines can stay underwater for long periods
因此 潜艇在水下长时间停留的功能至关重要
so that that can dive underwater on one side of the world
这样它就能从世界的一方潜至
and make their way to the other undetected.
世界的另一方 且不会被发现
Of course, almost all of the world’s ballistic missile equipped submarines
当然 几乎全球所有的弹道导弹潜艇
are nuclear powered
都是采用核动力的
meaning they have virtually unlimited range.
这意味着 潜艇的潜行范围几乎没有限制
These boat’s reactor cores only need to be swapped every few decades.
这类潜艇的反应堆要几十年才需更换一次
In addition, most submarines have oxygen generators and desalinators
此外 多数潜艇还配备制氧机和海水淡化机
so, like nuclear-powered aircraft carriers
所以 与使用核能的航空母舰一样
the only thing that really limits how long they can stay deployed
唯一真正限制它们下潜时间的因素是
is their food supply.
食物供应
How it works on American nuclear subs,
美国核潜艇的运行方式
which work similarly to those of other countries,
和其他国家的核潜艇运行方式差不多
is that each boat has two fully staffed crews at any given time
任何时间 每艘潜艇都有两套完整的队伍编制
—the Blue and Gold crews.
蓝队船员和金队船员
The Blue crew will first man the boat while on patrol
蓝队船员将先执行巡航任务
which lasts, on average, 77 days.
平均巡航时间为77天
The different submarines different patrols are scheduled
因不同的潜艇巡航时间规划不同
so that there are always submarines deployed.
所以总是有潜艇在巡航中
Despite this long patrol period,
虽然巡航时间很长
in the US Navy at least, submarines are actually known
但至少在美国海军中 潜艇上的伙食
to have the best food of any vessel.
是所有军舰上最好的
Some say it’s because submarines are small,
有人说这是因为潜艇很小
the chef has nowhere to hide if a meal is bad.
如果伙食不好吃 主厨没处躲
It more likely has to do with the fact that
但这更可能是因为
submarines get a higher food budget than other vessels.
潜艇上的伙食预算比其他军舰更高
Food is important to morale especially considering submarine duty
食物对士气很重要 特别是考虑到潜艇任务
is one of the Navy’s toughest jobs.
是海军最艰难的工作之一
Of course, fresh food can only last, at most, two weeks,
当然 新鲜食物最多只能保存两周
so the meal quality deteriorates as the weeks go by
所以随着时间的推移 餐食的质量也会降低
Eventually, the only ingredients left are canned, dried, or frozen.
最后就剩下罐头 风干的或冷冻的食品
The sign of food quality deteriorating
食品质量的恶化
does mean that the end of patrol is coming
预示着巡航任务也即将结束
at which time the first crew, the Blue crew,
此时第一批船员 即蓝队船员
would take the boat back to either its home port
会将潜艇开回母港
or a allied overseas port.
或去盟国的海外港口
The Gold crew will then arrive
金队船员随即到达
and then both crews will work to complete a turnover, restocking,
之后两组船员将完成为期25天的
and maintenance period of 25 days.
交接 物资补充和维护任务
Then, the Blue crew will fly home for vacation and subsequent training
然后蓝队成员会飞回本国度假 并接受训练
before the cycle repeats again.
直到下个巡航周期的到来
Most crew members keep this cycle going for years on end.
大多数船员会进行好几年这样的巡航周期
Submariners even live their days in cycles as well.
潜艇人员们的日常生活甚至都是围着巡航周期转的
They work eight hours on then have sixteen off to train,
他们每天工作8小时 剩下16小时训练
conduct maintenance, work out, eat,and sleep.
进行维护工作 锻炼 吃饭和睡觉
Now, to get a sense of the scale of the largest of these submarines,
为了让大家更好地理解这类潜艇的大小
here’s a Boeing 747-400
我们把波音747-400
and here’s an American Ohio-Class submarine.
和美国的俄亥俄级潜艇放在一起对比
It is almost 2.5 times longer with a hull circumference
潜艇的长度将近飞机的2.5倍
far larger than the plane’s fuselage.
船体也比机身长很多
But even this is not the world’s largest submarine.
即便如此 它还不是世界上最大的潜艇
That title goes to slightly longer and far wider
比它稍长 稍宽的俄罗斯“台风”级潜艇
Russian Typhoon-class submarine.
持有这项头衔
These are so large that
“台风”级潜艇非常大
their amenities include a sauna and small pool.
配套设施里还有桑拿房和小游泳池
On American and most other submarines,
但美国潜艇和其他多数潜艇
the amenities are more lacking, though.
配套设施则相对缺乏
It’s important that submariners have things to do in their down-time
潜艇船员在工作之余能有事做是很重要的
considering they’ll spend three months without sunlight in a metal tube,
因为他们要在不见阳光的金属管里呆三个月
but there just isn’t much space.
而且艇内空间也不大
The mess is really the only open space not devoted to work.
餐厅是唯一一个不涉及工作开放场所
Submarines tend to have gym equipment
潜艇一般会配备有健身器械
but it’ s not usually consolidated in one room
但通常不会集中在一个舱室
more often it’s just spread out in different nooks and crannies.
更多是分布在潜艇的各个角落
On large Ohio-class submarines,
在一艘大型俄亥俄级潜艇上
a submariners tiny bunk is their only true personal space.
潜艇员的小床是他们唯一的真正的个人空间
On smaller submarines, like the American Virginia-class,
小一些的潜艇 如美国弗吉尼亚级潜艇
the number of sailors exceeds the number of bunks
水手的人数超过了床位的数量
so the most junior sailors will have to share bunks
因此大多数初级船员要共享床位
while one works the other sleeps and vice versa
一人工作时另一人在睡觉
and there’s no true personal space.
这样就没有真正的个人空间了
Compared to many surface Navy ships, which have phones,
和其他许多的有电话 有频繁的邮件送达
frequent mail deliveries, and even internet,
甚至有网络的海面舰艇相比
communication to the outside world is limited on submarines.
潜艇与外界的交流受到了限制
Each submariner is given an email address that
每位船员都有一个邮件地址
their family can send messages to.
家人可以给其发邮件
When the submarine is able to receive communications,
只有当潜艇能接收通讯时
all these messages are then sent electronically.
这些电子邮件才会发送
On board, the messages are all reviewed by a dedicated crew member.
在潜艇上 这些邮件会经过专门的人员检查
They check through to be sure that no information
通过检查确保这里面没有
is being sent that they don’t want known by the sailor.
他们不想让船员知道的信息
For example, they might choose to not pass
比如 他们可能会选择不让
on information of a family death
亲人的死讯这种邮件被发送
in order to not affect crew morale.
因为不能影响船员士气
There’s often no way to get sailors off anyways
通常 船员们没有任何途径离开
so many believe it’s better to leave that news
因此许多人觉得还是
for the end of the patrol.
巡航结束时再知道更好
How submarines communicate, though, is complicated
潜艇上的通讯是很复杂的
because they do,of course, spend months underwater.
因为它要在水下呆上数月
Almost all radio waves can’t travel through salt water
几乎所有的无线电波都不能在海水中传播
but submarines do need communications to receive orders.
但潜艇又确实需要通讯来接收命令
Very low frequency radio waves, though,
但超低频无线电波能在
do penetrate water to an extent.
一定程度上穿过海水
That’s why VLF radio forms the core of
这就是为什么甚低频无线电构成
submarine communication systems.
潜艇通讯系统核心的原因
Different navies have large VLF transmitters
各国海军都有大型的甚低频发射机
for example, the US has ones in Maine, Washington, Hawaii, and elsewhere;
如美国在缅因 华盛顿 夏威夷等地都有一台
India has one on its southern coast;
印度在其南海岸有一台
and Australia has one in Western Australia.
澳大利亚的建在西部地区
These VLF signals are able to penetrate the ocean
这种甚低频信号能穿过海水
and be picked up by a submarine
并被潜艇接收
as deep as 60 feet or 20 meters.
深度可达60英尺 即20米
One major disadvantage of VLF, though,
但甚低频电波主要缺点是
is that it is very low bandwidth.
它的带宽很低
It can’t even transmit real-time audio signals
它甚至不能传输实时音频信号
the most it can do is about 700 words per minute in text.
它最多只能每分钟传输700个单词的文本
When deeper, some submarines also have the capability
下潜至深处时 一些潜艇还能
to launch buoys to shallower depths to receive signals.
通过发射浮标到浅的地方来接收信号
Submarines also typically can’t respond with VLF frequencies
潜艇一般不能用甚低频频率来回复
since they don’t have large enough transmitters
因为潜艇上没有足够大的发射机
so they have to raise to shallow depths
所以必须得上升到较浅深度
so they can have antennas sticking out of the water to respond.
这样才能把天线伸出水面来回复
It’s at this depth that modern submarines will often have
在这个深度 现代潜艇通常会
quick transmissions with satellites
通过卫星进行快速传输
in order to download and upload information.
以便下载和上传信息
There are a few other techniques used less commonly,
此外还有其他的通讯技术 但并不常用
some new technologies under development,
新技术也正在研发中
and some separate systems designed for use
一些独立系统也被设计出来
when the main systems are compromised,
可以在主系统受损时使用
but VLF radio forms the bulk of communications
但甚低频无线电仍是大多数潜艇的
with most submarines.
主要的通讯方式
But the fact that submarines spend their time underwater in stealth
潜艇要在水下潜行这一事实
also makes another crucial element difficult—navigation.
让另一件事也变得很困难 即导航
both GPS and Radar don’t work underwater
GPS和雷达都不能在水下工作
since they use higher frequency waves
因为它们要用高频电波
that can’t make their way through any depth of water.
但高频电波在水下任何深度都无法传播
What does work underwater is Sonar
唯一能在水下工作的是声纳
where the submarine essentially generates a sound and
潜艇在水下发出声音
then listens to when and how the sound comes back
声纳根据回声的时间和方式来
to map out its surroundings
绘制潜艇的周围环境
but emitting this sound makes it quite easy
但声音也会让潜艇很容易
for others to track a submarine.
就被其他舰船追踪到
Therefore, when operating in stealth conditions,
因此在隐身状态时
submarines can’t use active sonar.
潜艇不能使用主动式声纳
Rather, they use an inertial navigation system.
相反 他们使用惯性导航系统
These are essentially systems of accelerometers and gyroscopes
这类系统本质上是加速计和陀螺仪
that take the last-known accurate GPS position of a submarine
可以捕捉到潜艇最后一个准确的GPS位置
and then tracks the submarines movements relative to that.
并根据这点位置来判断潜艇位移
It uses this to estimate position
潜艇用这种系统来预估位置
but of course, as time goes on from the last reliable reading,
但显然 随着时间变化 从最后一个准确读数开始
the accuracy of this system diminishes.
该系统的精确度会逐渐下降
24 hours after the last reading,
24小时后 距离最后一次读数
these will drift to only about 1.15 miles or 1.85 kilometers of accuracy
系统会偏差1.15英里 即1.85千米左右
Now, this technique combined with the consultation of maps
现在此项技术和地图匹配技术结合
is usually fine since most of the time
效果很好 因为大多时候
the ocean is a big, wide open space
海洋是个大的开放区域
but there are a few objects floating below the surface
但水下一些漂浮着的物体
that submarines could collide with—submarines.
可能与潜艇相撞 那就是其他潜艇
Some modern submarines are so well cloaked
一些现代潜艇非常善于隐藏
that another submarine just feet away might
即便另一艘潜艇就在不远处
not be able to detect it.
可能也无法发现它
That’s what happened on the night of February 3rd, 2009
09年2月3号晚就发生了这样的事情
when the British Navy’s HMS Vanguard submarine felt a resounding bump
英国海军前卫号潜艇在东大西洋航行时
while sailing in the East Atlantic ocean.
听到了一声响亮的撞击声
It had collided with the French submarine Le Triomphant
它与法国凯旋号潜艇撞上了
seemingly just by chance.
看起来似乎只是偶然
Luckily they were going at low speed and there were no injuries
所幸它们的速度都很慢 碰撞没有造成伤亡
but considering both these subs were both equipped with nuclear warheads,
但考虑到两艘潜艇都装有核弹头
one can only imagine the potential consequences
可以想象如果碰撞得更严重
of a more damaging collision.
会带来什么样的后果
Submarines are dangerous—even in peacetime.
即便是在和平时期 潜艇也是危险的
They are designed to disappear
潜艇的设计意图是销声匿迹
so after something does go wrong,
所以当出现某些故障时
they often do just disappear.
它们通常就是真的销声匿迹了
Many submarine operating countries have rescue submarines
很多有潜艇的国家都有救援潜艇
that can hypothetically be used to save stranded submariners
理论上 它们可以对被困艇员进行救援
by going down, latching on,and shuttling sailors to the surface
通过下潜 锁定 把艇员送回水面的方式
but in practice, these have never really had much action.
但实际中 救援潜艇是做不到这么多的
Sometimes submarines sink, their systems fail,
有时潜艇下沉后 系统失效
and nobody can get to them before oxygen runs out.
氧气用完之前 没人能找到它
As submarines become better at masking themselves
随着潜艇的隐藏技术越来越好
submarine tracking technology is simultaneously advancing.
潜艇追踪技术也在同步发展
There’s some thought that there will be a time
有人认为任何事物
when nothing can hide in the ocean’s depths
都无法在深海中隐藏的时代终将到来
but until then,
但在那之前
submarines are a crucial aspect of any modern navy.
潜艇都还是每支海军队伍的重要组成部分
Nowadays, just as they were in World War Two,
如今 就像在二战时那样
even traditional, non ballistic-missile submarines
即便是传统的非弹道导弹的潜艇
and their torpedos are effective and deadly.
它们的鱼雷也是有效而且是致命的
One of the best ways to track submarines is also
追踪潜艇最好的方式之一是
by sonar equipped submarines
用配备有声呐的潜艇
so it’s a situation where countries need submarines
所以导致了国家需要潜艇
because others have submarines.
因为别国有潜艇这样的情况出现
That’s why there are still hundreds of them somewhere,
这就是为什么全球有上百艘潜艇 潜藏在某处
or rather, anywhere,
确切地说是在任何地方
ready to strike at any moment.
时刻准备出击
So you know those short, free moments during your day like
那么 大家都会有些短暂的空闲时间
when waiting for the bus, or the train,
如等公交时 等火车时
or for an appointment, or a call.
等人赴约时 等电话时
It’s hard to do anything productive during these times
这些时间里我们很难做什么有效的事
But Brilliant tackle this in a great way
但是Brilliant栏目很好地解决了这个问题
Every day, their short Daily Problems give you
每天 篇幅短小的日常问题
the context and framework needed to solve a problem
会为你提供解决问题所需的环境和框架
and let you tackle it on your own.
然后让你独立解决问题
They publish a huge variety of problems
栏目会发表各种各样的问题
so once you’ve figured one out,
你可以选择一个
if you find it interesting
如果你觉得这个问题很有趣
you can also try their corresponding course.
你还可以试试相对应的课程
These are great ways to help learn a little more in a little time.
这是能帮你在零碎时间里学习多一点知识的好方法
To start solving Brilliant’s Daily Problems and taking their great courses,
想参与解决Brilliant日常问题并获取课程的话
go to brilliant. org/ Wendover.
请登录brilliant. org/ Wendover
The first 200 that go to that link will also get 20 % off
前200位登陆的用户还将获得
their annual premium subscription.
八折年费优惠
you can mark all the problem courses
你可以获取全部的课程
and every daily problems in your guides
还能参与每天的问题讨论

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视频概述

本视频详细地介绍了潜艇的作用、结构、发展历程。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Minya

审核员

审核员1024

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gdy0gBVWAzE

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