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Little Europe: The Vatican City

在五世纪罗马帝国灭亡之后 罗马城逐渐被罗马主教所控制
After the Roman Empire fell in the fifth century, the city of Rome gradually came under control
实际上 好几个世纪以来 主教都被称为“教皇”
of the pope. In fact for centuries, the pope was called the “King Pope.” Little by little,
教皇逐渐建立了自己的帝国 约在17世纪其权利达到顶峰
the “King Pope” built his own empire. At its peak around the 17th century, the “Papal States,”
正如其名 教皇国囊括了大部分意大利半岛
as they were called, encompassed much of the Italian peninsula. When the modern nation
现代意大利成立时横扫了教皇辖境 包括罗马城
of Italy was united, it absorbed most of the Papal States, including the city of Rome.
但是教皇仍然在位 他被迫退居梵蒂冈城60年
But the pope held out. For sixty years the pope was holed up here,
behind the Vatican Walls. Finally, in 1929, the pope and Mussolini signed the Lateran
建立梵蒂冈作为自己的国家 一座花园城市
Treaty, establishing the Vatican as its own nation. The garden-like core of the country
— where serious administration takes place — is closed to the public.
梵蒂冈军队有瑞士护卫队组成 在1506年,教皇征用了很多从瑞士来的雇佣兵
The Vatican “military” is made up of the Swiss Guard. In 1506, the pope imported mercenaries
他们以忠诚和勇猛著称 如今 大约100瑞士
from Switzerland, who were known for their loyalty and courage. Today, about 100 Swiss
军人仍然保护着教皇 维持着如潮搬游客的秩序
soldiers still protect the pope, keep the crush of tourists as orderly as possible…and
穿着华丽的文艺复兴风格的制服 因此很多游客前来合照
wear the flamboyant Renaissance-style uniform that tourists just love to photograph.
梵蒂冈有他们自己的邮电业 许多人觉得它比穿街邮寄更可靠
The Vatican has its own postal service. Many consider it to be more reliable than mailing
在意大利 和 梵蒂冈 邮票是很不错的纪念品
things from across the street, in Italy…and Vatican stamps are a fun souvenir.
The Vatican is built on the memory and tomb of the first pope, St. Peter. Piazza San Pietro
sits on what was the site of a Roman racetrack. Imagine chariots making their hairpin turns
为了给比赛增添乐趣 基督徒就在这里比赛
around that obelisk. For added entertainment during the games,
主后65年 圣彼得被钉死在十字架上
Christians were executed here. In about 65 A.D., the apostle Peter was crucified within
就发生在方尖碑附近 朋友们把他埋在简陋的墓地上
sight of this obelisk. His friends buried him in a humble graveyard atop what pagan
那里被异教徒称为梵蒂冈高地 基督徒默默在此祭拜了他250余年
Romans called the Vatican Hill. For about 250 years Christians worshipped quietly on
主后313年 君士坦丁大帝宣布基督教合法 在圣彼得墓地
this spot. Then, when Emperor Constantine legalized Christianity in 313 A.D., a basilica
修建了一处教堂 圣彼得大教堂是罗马教堂之首
was built here, and this became the head of the Roman Catholic Church.
1200年后 圣彼得大教堂重建成为天主教最神圣的教堂
Twelve hundred years later, the original St. Peter’s was replaced by this, the most glorious
进入教堂后 你的第一反应就是 太大了 绝对超过600英尺
church in all Christendom. Upon entering, your first impression is: It’s big…
沐浴在阳光下 里面可以容纳上千个礼拜者
over 600 feet long, bathed in glorious sunbeams. It can accommodate thousands of worshippers.
Near the entrance, Michelangelo’s Pietà is adored by pilgrims and tourists alike.
Here the 25-year-old Michelangelo intends to make the theological message very clear: Jesus
耶稣原来活着 但现在死了 他用生命拯救了世人
— once alive but now dead — gave his life for our salvation. The contrast provided by
即使穿着坚硬的大理石雕刻而成的简便长袍 圣母玛利亚似乎也是温柔 可信的
Mary’s rough robe makes his body — even carved in hard marble — seem soft and believable.
一如众多梵蒂冈艺术品 这个祭坛是杰出巴洛克艺术大师贝尔尼尼的大作
The high altar, like so much of the art decorating the Vatican, is a masterpiece by the great
阳光照耀着洁白的窗户 宛若流淌的圣灵
Baroque artist Bernini. With sunlight illuminating its alabaster window — as if powering the
Holy Spirit, it encrusts the legendary throne of St. Peter with a starburst of Baroque praise.
Directly above the altar which marks the tomb of St. Peter, stands Bernini’s bronze canopy,
青铜华盖之上是米开朗基罗精巧的穹顶 比一个足球场还高
and above that Michelangelo’s dome — taller than a football field on end. The inscription
这些拉丁文的意思是:你是彼得 我要把我的教会建造在这磐石之上
declares, in Latin: Tu es Petrus…”You are Peter and upon this rock I will build my church.”
This is the scriptural basis for the primacy of Rome in the Catholic Church.
A viewing perch gives travelers a close-up look at those huge letters and a heavenly
perspective into the church. From the rooftop you can size up the dome you’re about to climb.
为了看清楚米开朗基罗穹顶上的壁画 你要爬过300个台阶
For a close look at Michelangelo’s dome-within-a-dome design, lean in as you climb 300 steps to
上面风光壮丽 能同时看到罗马和梵蒂冈城
the cupola. The view from the top is unrivaled: both of
the city of Rome…and of the Vatican grounds. You can survey the entire country from this lofty perch.
The long rectangular building is the Vatican Museum with the adjacent Sistine Chapel.
These buildings and courtyards display some of the greatest art of Western civilization.
几个世纪以来 教皇收藏了足够填满欧洲最富有博物馆的艺术品
Over the centuries the popes have amassed enough art to fill what many consider Europe’s
长廊中奢侈的饰以名贵的挂毯 精巧的壁画和古老的雕像
richest museum. Long halls are sumptuously decorated with precious tapestries, frescoed
ceilings, and ancient statues. The museum features art from every age.
Its exquisite painting gallery includes Raphael’s much-loved painting of the Transfiguration.
门厅和庭院里充斥着古希腊大师的杰作 例如Laocoön……
Halls and courtyards are littered with ancient Greek masterpieces — like the Laocoön…
so inspirational to the great masters of the Renaissance.
教皇的藏室彰示了基督教的历史 是君士坦丁大帝
And the pope’s apartments tell Christian history — this is the battle in which Emperor Constantine
在天使和神圣十字架的指引下 为重要军事和个人信仰战斗的经历
was led by angels and a holy cross both to a key military victory and to his own religious conversion.
And these rooms celebrate pre-Christian philosophy.
拉斐尔的《雅典学院》 这幅画讨论谁是古雅典的智者
Here Raphael paints the School of Athens…the who’s who of ancient Greek intellectual heroes…
画中有许多文艺复兴大师 李奥纳多 米开朗基罗
many painted with the features of Renaissance greats…Leonardo, Michelangelo…and a
还有带黑帽子拉斐尔的自画像 但是我们只看到了表面
self-portrait of Raphael — in the black cap. But of course, we’ve just scratched the surface.
假如你正在思考人生 试着走完梵蒂冈博物馆吧
If you’re pondering eternity, try covering the Vatican Museum thoroughly.