未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫的文学世界

LITERATURE - Virginia Woolf

LITERATURE
文学
VIRGINIA WOOLF
弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫
Virginia Woolf was a writer concerned, above all,
弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫是一位作家
with capturing in words the excitement, pain, beauty, and horror
她最擅用语言捕捉兴奋 痛苦 美丽和恐怖的瞬间
of what she termed, the Modern Age.
首开“现代文学”之先河
Born in 1882,
她生于1882年
she was conscious of herself as a distinctively modernist writer
自诩为一位别具一格的现代主义作家
and odds with a raft of the staid and complacent assumptions
她的作品与19世纪英国文学中
of nineteenth-century English literature.
守旧而自满的装腔作势格格不入
She realized that
她意识到
a new era, marked by extraordinary developments
一个以城市化 科技 战争 消费主义
in urbanism, technology, warfare, consumerism, and family life
以及家庭生活的非凡发展为标志的新时代
would need to be captured by a different sort of writer.
需要另一种类型的作家来描绘
Along with Joyce and Proust,
与乔伊斯和普鲁斯特一样
she was a relentlessly creative writer in search of new literary forms
她不懈地创作着 试图寻找新的文学形式
that could do justice to the complexities of modern consciousness.
以充分展现现代意识的复杂性
Her books and essays retain a power to convey
直到今天 她的作品和散文仍魅力不减
the thrill and drama of living in the 20th century.
绘声绘色地描绘了20世纪人们生活的巨变
Woolf was born in London.
伍尔夫出生于伦敦
Her father was a famous author and mountaineer,
她的父亲是一位著名的作家和登山家
and her mother, a well known model.
她的母亲则是有名的模特
Her family hosted many of the most influential
她的家庭招待了许多维多利亚文学协会
and important members of Victorian Literary Society.
最有影响力和重要的成员
Woolf was largely cynical about these grand types,
伍尔夫对这些所谓的大人物冷眼相待
accusing them of pomposity and narrow-mindedness.
指责他们的自负和心胸狭隘
Woolf and her sister weren’t even allowed to go to Cambridge like their brothers,
因此 伍尔夫和她妹妹甚至不能像她们的兄弟们那样去剑桥读书
but had to steal an education from their father’s study.
而不得不从她们父亲的书房中偷偷学习
After her mother died when she was only thirteen,
伍尔夫仅十三岁时 她的母亲去世
Woolf had the first of a series of mental breakdowns
伍尔夫开始经历一系列的精神崩溃
that would plague her for the rest of her life;
这将折磨她余生
partly caused, too, by the sexual abuse she suffered at the hands of her half-brother, George Duckworth.
部分原因是她遭到同母异父的哥哥乔治·达克沃斯的性侵
Despite her illness, she became a journalist, and then a novelist,
尽管如此 她还是当了记者 后来又成了小说家
and the central figure in the Bloomsbury Group,
成为布鲁姆斯伯里派的核心人物
which included John Maynard Keynes,
该派别包括约翰·梅纳德·凯恩斯
E. M. Forster, and Lytton Strachey.
E·M·福斯特和利顿·斯特·雷奇
She married one of the members: the writer and journalist, Leonard Woolf.
她嫁给了其中一个成员:作家兼记者伦纳德·伍尔夫
she and Leonard bought a small hand printing press,
她和伦纳德创办了一家小型出版社
named it “The Hogarth Press,”
取名为“霍加斯出版社”
and published books from their dining room.
并开始在他们家里的餐厅里出版书籍
They printed Woolf’s radical novels and political essays
他们出版了伍尔夫的激进派小说和政治散文
when no one else would
当时没有人会这样做
and they produced the first full English edition of Freud’s works.
他们首先出版了弗洛伊德所有作品的英文版
In just four short years between World Wars I and II,
在第一次和第二次世界大战之间的短短四年里
Woolf wrote four of her famous works:
伍尔夫写出了四部著名的作品:
“Mrs. Dalloway,” “To the Lighthouse,” “Orlando,”
《达洛维夫人》《灯塔行》《奥兰多》
and the essay, “A Room of One’s Own.”
以及散文随笔《一间自己的房间》
In March 1941, feeling the onset of another bout of mental illness,
1941年3月 伍尔夫因为精神疾病发作
Woolf drowned herself in the River Ouse.
在乌兹河投河自杀身亡
Her work has many vital things to teach us.
她的作品教给我们许多大智慧
1.NOTICE EVERYTHING
1.注意到每一件事
Woolf was one of the great observers of English literature.
伍尔夫是英国文学的杰出观察家之一
Perhaps the finest short piece of prose she ever wrote
也许她写过的最好的一篇散文
was the essay, “The Death of the Moth,” published in 1942.
就是她于1942年发表的《飞蛾之死》
It contains her observations as she sits in her study,
书中记录了她坐在书房里
watching a humble moth trapped by a pane of glass.
如何观察一只被玻璃困住的小飞蛾
Rarely have so many profound thoughts been eked out
很少有人能从这样一个明显不需思考的情况中
from such an apparently mindless situation–
产生这么多深刻的思想和见解
though for Woolf, there were no such things as mindless situations.
不过对伍尔夫来说 “无需深思”的情况根本不存在
“One could not help watching him.
你无法不去注视他
One was, indeed, conscious of a queer feeling of pity for him.
心底里不由得生出一丝爱怜
The possibilities of pleasure seemed, that morning, so enormous and so various,
那天早晨 生命的快乐表现得如此宏大宽阔又千姿百态
that to have only a moth’s part in life–
因此 仅仅拥有一只飞蛾般短暂的生命
and a day moth’s at that– appeared a hard fate…
而且是一只日间飞蛾 这运命实在过于悲惨
and his zest in enjoying his meager opportunities
然而 飞蛾却尽情地享受着任何一点微不足道的快乐
to the full, pathetic.
这热情真叫人唏嘘不已
He flew vigorously to one corner of his compartment,
他生机勃勃地飞到了领地的一角
and after waiting there a second, flew across to the other.
停留片刻 又飞向另外一角
What remained for him,
然后 继续飞向第三个、第四个角落
but to fly to a third corner and then to a fourth.
除此之外它还能做些什么呢?
That was all he could do in spite of the width of the sky, the far off smooth of houses,
它能做的只有这些 尽管群山壮阔 天空浩瀚 炊烟辽远
and the romantic voice, now and then, of a steam out at sea.
海上的汽船还时不时地发出一阵引人遐思的汽笛声
Woolf noticed everything that you and I tend to walk past:
我们容易忽视的一切事物 伍尔夫都注意到了
the sky, the pain in others’ eyes,
高阔的天空 他人眼中的痛苦
the gaze of children, the stoicism of wives,
孩子们的凝视 妻子的坚忍
the pleasures of department stores,
百货商店里的休闲娱乐
the interests of harbors and docks.
港口和码头的趣事趣闻
Emerson, one of her favorite writers,
爱默生是她最喜欢的作家之一
may have been speaking generally,
爱默生对她的评价也许只是泛泛而谈
but he captured everything that makes Woolf special when he remarked,
但他恰恰抓住了伍尔夫作品与众不同之处
“In the work of a writer of genius,
他说:“在一位天才作家的作品中
we rediscover our own neglected thoughts.”
我们重新发现自己曾忽视的思想”
In another great essay, “On Being Ill,”
在另一篇伟大的散文《论生病》中
Woolf lamented how seldom writers stoop to describe illness-
伍尔夫哀叹 很少有作家会屈尊 去描述疾病
an oversight that seemed characteristic of a snobbery against the everyday in literature.
这似乎是对日常文学的一种势利的特征
English, which can express the thoughts of Hamlet and the tragedy of Lear,
英语可以表达哈姆雷特的思想和李尔王的悲剧
has no words for the shiver and the headache.
却无法表达出颤抖和头痛
The mere schoolgirl, when she falls in love,
一个女学生 当她坠入爱河时
has Shakespeare or Keats to speak her mind for her,
有莎士比亚或济慈为她倾吐心声
but let us suffer her trying to describe a pain in his head to a doctor
但是我们让患者试着向医生描述他头部的疼痛
and language at once runs dry.
我们的语言却立马枯竭了
This would be her mission; Woolf tried throughout her life to make sure language would do a better job
这将是她的使命 伍尔夫一生都在努力
at defining who we really are,
让语言帮助我们更好地表达真正的自己
with all our vulnerabilities, confusions, and bodily sensations.
以及我们直面所有的脆弱 困惑 和身体感觉
Woolf raised her sensitivity to the highest art form.
伍尔夫把她的敏感性提高到最高的艺术形式
She had the confidence and seriousness to use what happened to her-
她有信心 并且认真利用发生在她身上的事情
the sensory details of her own life-
以及她在生活中的感官细节
as the basis for the largest ideas.
作为她最伟大思想的基础
2.ACCEPT THE EVERYDAY
2 接纳每一天
Woolf was always profound, but never afraid of what others called “trivial.”
伍尔夫总是深刻的 但她从不害怕他人所谓的“浅显一面”
She was confident that the ambitions of her mind
她相信 在她的头脑中
were completely compatible with an interest in shopping, cakes, and hats-
与她对购物 蛋糕和帽子的兴趣彼此兼容
subjects on which she wrote with almost unique eloquence and depth.
在这些主题上 她以几乎独特的口才和思考深度进行表达
In another particularly good essay of hers called the “Oxford Street Tide,”
在她另一篇优秀作品《牛津街之潮》中
she celebrates the gaudy vulgarity of this huge London shopping street.
她对伦敦这条巨大的购物街的明艳庸俗大加赞赏
“The moralists point the finger of scorn at Oxford Street;
道德家对牛津街毫无道德地指摘
it reflects, they say, the levity, the ostentation,
他们说 牛津街反映了我们这个时代的轻率 浮夸
the haste, and the irresponsibility of our age.
仓促和不负责任的风气
Yet perhaps, they are as much out in their scorn as we should be
但如果道德家要求用青铜制一朵百合
if we asked of the lily that it should be cast in bronze,
或用不朽的珐琅制成雏菊花瓣
or of the daisy that it should have petals of imperishable enamel.
道德家们也只会遭到等同的的责备和否定
The charm of modern London is that
因为现代伦敦的魅力在于
it isn’t built to last- it is built to pass.”
它不是为了持久而建——而是为了流动而建”
In an accompanying essay,
伍尔夫在这篇文章的姊妹篇中
equally open to the un-prestigious side of modern life,
对现代生活中不光彩的一面同样持开放态度
Woolf goes to visit the giant docks of London.
伍尔夫去参观伦敦巨型码头
“A thousand ships with thousand cargoes are being unladen every week…
“每周有一千艘船装载着一千件货物卸货……
and not only is each package of this vast and varied merchandise picked up and set down accurately,
而只有少数几个工人将货物精确地运输 安置到指定位置
but each is weighed and opened, sampled and recorded, and again stitched up and laid in its place,
随后再称重 打开取样 记录 然后再打包放回原处
without haste or waste or hurry, or confusion,
在这个极其复杂庞大的体系内
by a very few men in shirt sleeves
工人们穿着衬衣 挽起衣袖 为了共同利益而合作无间
who, working with the utmost organization in the common interest,
他们沉着 冷静 有序 从容地工作着
are yet able to pause in their work
有时停下手里的活
and say to the casual visitor,
对某个游客说
‘Would you like to see what sort of thing we sometimes find in sacks of cinnamon?
“想看看这一袋袋肉桂里有什么其他东西吗
Look at this snake!'”
有一条蛇!”
3.BE A FEMINIST
3.做一个女权主义者
Woolf was deeply aware that men and women fit themselves into rigid roles,
伍尔夫深深地意识到男人和女人都适应了刻板的角色
and as they do so, overlook their fuller personalities.
在他们这样做的时候 忽视了他们更完整的个性
In her eyes, in order to grow, we need to do something gender bending-
在她看来 为了成长 我们需要做一些跨越性别的事情
we need to seek experiences
我们需要做一些
that blur what it means to be a “real man” or a “real woman.”
模糊“男子汉”或“女人味”意味的事情
Woolf had a few lesbian affairs in her life,
伍尔夫一生中有过几段女同性恋的风流韵事
and she wrote a magnificently bold queer text, “Orlando,”
她写了一部非常大胆的同性恋小说 《奥兰多》
a portrait of her lover, Vita,
小说刻画了她的情人维塔
described as a nobleman who becomes a woman.
将她描绘成一个从贵族变成女人的男人
She wrote, “It is fatal to be a man or woman, pure and simple.
她写道 做一个纯粹的男人或女人是致命的
One must be woman-manly, or man-womanly.”
女人必须有男子气概 男人必须有女人的气质
In her anti-war track, “Three Guineas,” Woolf argued that
在她的反战之作《三个基尼金币》中 伍尔夫指出
we will only ever end war
停止战争的唯一方式
by rethinking the habit of pitting of sex against sex;
是重新思考男女两性对立对抗的习惯
all this claiming of superiority and impudent inferiority
早期建立私立男校 而女生无法接受学校教育
belonged to the private school stage of human existence
也是自命优越和无耻自卑形成的原因
where there are sides, and it is necessary for one side to beat another side,
只要有对立面存在 则一方必须战胜另一方
and the utmost importance
最重要的是
to walk up to a platform and receive from the hands of the headmaster,
是走上讲台 从校长手里
a highly ornamental pot.
接过一只装饰精美的上等茶壶
Woolf wished desperately to raise the status of women in her society.
伍尔夫迫切希望提高妇女在社会中的地位
She recognized that the problem was largely down to money.
她认识到问题主要在于钱
Women didn’t have freedom, especially freedom of the spirit,
女性没有自由 尤其没有精神上的自由
because they didn’t control their own income.
因为她们不能控制自己的收入
“Women have always been poor,” she cried.
女人一向很穷 她哭着说
“Not for two hundred years merely, but from the beginning of time,
不只是这两百年 而是从一开始
women have had less intellectual freedom than the sons of Athenian slaves.
雅典奴隶的儿子享有的精神自由 妇女却无权拥有
Women have not had a dog’s chance of writing poetry.”
女人写诗的机会渺茫
Her great feminist rallying cry, “A Room of One’s Own,”
她在《一间自己的房间》提出了伟大女权主义战斗口号
culminated in a specific political demand:
并在妇女提出特定政治要求时达到高潮
in order to stand on the same intellectual footing as men,
为了和男人一样拥有精神自由
women not only needed dignity,
女性不仅需要尊严
but also equal rights to education,
还要有平等受教育权
an income of five hundred pounds a year,
每年500英镑的收入
and a room of one’s own.
以及一间属于自己的房间
Woolf was probably the best writer in the English language
伍尔夫没有采用临床心理学术语来描述人们的思想
for describing our minds without the jargon of clinical psychology.
这让她冠以最佳英语作家的称号
The generation before hers, the Victorians, wrote novels focused on external details:
在她之前的维多利亚时代 小说侧重于外部细节
city scenes, marriages, wills.
城市场景 婚姻 遗嘱
Woolf envisaged a new form of expression that would focus instead,
伍尔夫设想了一种新的表达方式
on how it feels inside to know ourselves and other people.
专注于了解自己和他人的内心感受
Books like Woolf’s, which aren’t overly sarcastic,
像伍尔夫写的这一类书 没有太多的讽刺
aren’t caught up in adventure plots, or cradled in convention
没有冒险情节 也没有被传统约束
are our contract.
就像给我们的一份契约
She’s expecting us to turn down the outside volume, to try on her perspective,
她希望我们调小外界的音量 尝试从她的角度思考
and to spend energy with subtle sentences…
用精力去揣摩感情微妙的句子
and in turn, she offers us the opportunity to notice the tremors we normally miss,
反过来 她让我们有机会注意到我们通常忽略的震撼
and to better appreciate moths, our own headaches,
让我们更好地欣赏飞蛾 头痛
and our fascinating, fluid sexualities.
以及人类性取向的动态变化 以及变化其中的趣味
If you like this video,
如果你喜欢这个视频
then I think you’ll really appreciate “Wisecrack,” another fine channel on YouTube
那么你也会非常喜欢YouTube上另一个优秀频道“Wisecrack”
that also celebrates literature, philosophy, cinema, psychology, and more.
它也向观众讲述文学 哲学 电影 心理学等方面内容
Click here to visit their channel page,
点击此处 可访问他们的频道页面
and see how they’re introducing important topics and critical analysis
看看他们是如何通过喜剧的镜头讨论重要话题
through the lens of comedy.
并进行批判性分析的
If you’re interested in smart, yet hilarious, breakdowns of classic literature,
如果你对聪明又搞笑的经典文学剖析感兴趣
be sure to watch their popular series,
一定要看他们的热门剧集
“Thug notes.”
暴徒笔记
They have over 80 titles in their library to choose from, including:
他们的图书馆里有超过80多种书籍可供选择 包括
“Pride and Prejudice,” “The Great Gatsby,” “Lolita,”
《傲慢与偏见》《了不起的盖茨比》《洛丽塔》
“Dune,” “Crime and Punishment,” and many more.
《沙丘》 《罪与罚》等等
I think you’ll enjoy them as much as we do.
我想 你会和我们一样喜欢它们的

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

介绍了文学家弗吉尼亚.伍尔夫在文学领域的贡献,以及她在生活中的点点滴滴。包括如何成长,如何创作,她的派系等等。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

审核员

审核员LG

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d1W7wqXD_b0

相关推荐