ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

文学:列夫托尔斯泰 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

文学:列夫托尔斯泰

LITERATURE: Leo Tolstoy

文学
The Russian novelist, Leo Tolstoy was a believer
俄国小说家列夫·托尔斯泰
in the novel not as a source of entertainment
认为小说不是一种娱乐
but as a tool for psychological education and reform.
而应作为心理教育和推进改革的工具
It was in his eyes, the supreme medium by which we can get to know others
在他眼中 小说是我们了解他人的最高媒介
especially those who might from the outside seem unappealing
尤其是那些外表似乎毫无吸引力的人
and thereby expand our humanity and tolerance.
从而变得更加博爱和宽容
Leo Tolstoy was born in 1828 at Yasnaya Polyana,
托尔斯泰于1828年出生在亚斯纳亚·波利亚纳的
a huge family estate, a hundred miles south of Moscow.
一个巨大的庄园主家庭 位于莫斯科以南一百英里处
It was to be his home on and off for the rest of his life.
他的余生中 他断断续续地住在这里
His parents died when he was young
双亲在他年幼时就去世了
and he was brought up their relatives.
他被亲戚收养并抚育长大
He flopped at university.
他在大学肄业了
One lecturer described him as being unable and unwilling to learn.
一位讲师形容他能力不足也不愿意学习
He spent a few years gambling and drinking and chasing gypsy women
在成为克里米亚战争的炮兵军官之前
before signing on as an artillery officer in the Crimean War.
他花了几年时间在赌博 酗酒 追逐吉普赛女人之上
He got married in his early thirties.
他三十出头就结婚了
His wife Sophia, who came from a sophisticated
他的妻子索菲亚 来自一个高雅的
high-cultured background was only 18.
有文化教养背景的家庭 当时只有18岁
They had 13 children, 9 of whom survived infancy.
他们生了13个孩子 其中9个免于夭折
It was a difficult marriage.
这段婚姻很艰难
There were huge arguments about sex and bitterness on both sides.
双方对性和痛苦都有巨大的分歧
Leo grew a very long beard,
列夫蓄了很长的胡子
became a fitness fanatic and
成了健身狂
spent most of his time in his study.
大部分时间都在学习
What he did there was to write several hugely successful books among them
他的成就在于创作了几本非常成功的书
“War and Pace”, “Anna Karenina” and “The Death of Ivan Ilyich”.
其中包括《战争与和平》《安娜·卡列尼娜》和《伊凡·伊里奇之死》
Tolstoy didn’t believe in the idea of art for art’s sake.
托尔斯泰不相信为艺术而艺术的观念
He was deeply invested in the belief that
他深信 好的艺术
good art should make us less moralistic and judgmental
就发掘我们内在的善良和道德而言
and should be a supplement to religion
应该使我们少一些说教和批判
in terms of developing our reserves of kindness and morality.
并且应该是对宗教的一种补充
This crusading moralistic side of Tolstoy
现代批评家们常常忽视掉
has often been ignored by modern critics
托尔斯泰这种革命式大胆的道德观
who don’t wish to dirty art with a mission,
他们不希望让使命感来玷污艺术
but it is in fact the most important side of Tolstoy,
但这实际上是托尔斯泰最重要的一面
and none of his efforts can properly be appreciated without keeping it in mind.
如果不记住这一点 就无法真正认识他作品的价值
Tolstoy’s first great novel was “War and Peace”
托尔斯泰的第一部巨著是《战争与和平》
published in 1869, when he was 41.
出版于1869年 彼时他41岁
In it, we meet Natasha Rostova,
在书中 我们遇见了娜塔莎·罗斯托娃
a delightful free-spirited young woman.
一名活泼开朗 自由奔放的年轻女子
At the start she’s engaged to Andrei,
一开始 她和安德烈订婚了
a kind and sincere man who loved her deeply,
安德烈是一位善良真诚 深爱着她的男人
But is also rather emotionally remote and avoidant.
但在感情上他表现得相当疏远和逃避
While Andrey is away travelling in Italy,
安德烈在意大利旅行期间
Natasha meets a handsome cynical waster called Anatole
娜塔莎遇到了一个名叫阿纳托利的帅气男人 他愤世嫉俗 挥霍无能
and falls under his spell.
而娜塔莎被他迷住了
He almost manages to seduce her and persuades her to run away with him.
他设法诱惑并说服她与其私奔
Though her family managed to stop her at the very last minute.
不过她的家人在最后一刻阻止了她
Everyone is appalled and furious with Tasha.
所有人都对娜塔莎感到震惊和愤怒
This sort of madness wrecks her own prospects and deeply shames her family.
这种疯狂破坏了她的前途 使她的家庭丢尽了脸
By the world standards, Natasha has failed terribly.
按照世俗标准 娜塔莎的人生一败涂地
If we encountered a news clip about such a person,
如果我们看到关于这样一个人的新闻
we might rapidly come to the conclusion that
我们可能很快得出结论:
she lies beyond the range of normal sympathy.
她超出了正常的可被同情的范围
She had so much; she thought only of herself,
她拥有了那么多 却还是只想到她自己
she got what she deserved.
她罪有应得
And yet Tolstoy’s view is that if we grasp what things are like for Natasha inside her mind,
然而托尔斯泰的观点是 如果我们了解娜塔莎的内心深处
we can’t and won’t withdraw our sympathy.
我们不能也不会撤回我们的同情
She isn’t in truth self-indulgent, frivolous or totally lacking in devotion.
事实上 她并不是自我放纵 轻浮或完全缺乏奉献精神
She’s just a sexually inexperienced young woman
她只是一个性经验不足的年轻女性
who feels abandoned by her preoccupied boyfriend.
因为男朋友心不在焉 她感觉被抛弃了
She is someone who has a deeply impulsive and warm nature
她是一个非常冲动和热情的人
and is easily carried away by joy and happiness.
极容易被快乐和幸福冲昏头脑
She is also acutely worried about letting other people down,
她也非常担心让别人失望
which is what leads her into trouble with the scheming and manipulative Anatole.
这就是导致她被诡计多端的阿纳托利操纵的原因
Tolstoy keeps us on Natasha’s side and by doing so,
托尔斯泰让我们站在娜塔莎一边 通过这样
he is getting us to rehearse a move
他让我们预演了一个
he believes is fundamental to an ethical life:
他认为是道德生活的必要举措:
if we more accurately saw the inner lives of others,
如果我们能更准确地看到别人的内心世界
they couldn’t appear to us in the normal cold and one-dimensional way,
他们就不会以常见的冷漠和一维的方式出现在我们面前了
and we would treat them with the kindness which they truly need and deserve.
我们也会以他们真正需要和应得的善意来对待他们
No one should be outside the circle of sympathy and forgiveness.
任何人都不应该被排除在同情和宽恕的圈子之外
For Tolstoy, a particular task of the novel is
对于托尔斯泰来说 小说的一个特殊任务
to help us to understand the so-called ‘dislikeable’ characters.
是帮助我们理解那些所谓不讨喜的人物
One of the most initially repellant characters in his fiction
在他的小说中 最开始让人反感的角色之一
is the husband of Anna Karenina,
是安娜·卡列尼娜的丈夫
the heroine of his great novel of the same name,
安娜是这本同名小说的女主角
the pompous and stiff Karenin.
她的丈夫傲慢又呆板
The novel, a tragedy, tells the story of
这部小说是一个悲剧 讲述了
the beautiful, clever, lively and generous hearted married Anna,
美丽聪明 活泼大方的已婚安娜的故事
whose life falls apart when she falls in love with Vronsky,
当她爱上优秀的年轻骑兵军官渥伦斯基时
a splendid young cavalry officer.
她的生活分崩离析
Anna’s husband – Count Alexei Alexandrovich Karenin
安娜的丈夫阿列克谢·亚历山德罗维奇·卡列宁伯爵
is a fussy, status conscious, mannered high-ranking government official
是一名挑剔 地位意识强 彬彬有礼的政府高级官员
who is often callous towards Anna
他对安娜经常很冷漠
and unable to answer her emotional yearnings.
无法回应她的情感渴望
As Anna’s affair with Vronsky develops, her husband’s main worry is that
随着安娜和渥伦斯基的恋情发展 她丈夫主要担忧的是
it might lead to social gossip which could undermine his public standing.
这可能会引起风言风语 从而有损他的社会地位
He appears to have no sincere feelings at all about the marriage itself.
他似乎对婚姻本身完全没有真诚的感情
He comes across as simply cold and brutish.
他给人的印象就是冷酷而野蛮
But then Anna gives birth to her lover’s child,
但后来安娜生下了情人的孩子
she is ill, and in a highly touching scene Karenin is deeply moved,
她生病了 在一个非常感人的场景中 卡列宁深受感动
weeps for the infant, for the mother, and forgives Anna:
为婴儿和妻子落泪 并原谅了安娜
No, you can’t forgive me, says Anna.
安娜说:不 你不能原谅我
And yet he suddenly felt a blissful spiritual condition
然而 他突然感到一种幸福的精神状态
that gave him all at once a new happiness he had never known:
一下子给了他一种从未有过的幸福感
a glad feeling of love and forgiveness for his enemies filled his heart.
他心中充满了对敌人的爱和宽恕
He knelt down, and laying his head in the curve of Anna’s arm;
他跪了下来 把头靠在安娜的臂弯里
he sobbed like a little child.
像个小孩一样抽泣
Thanks to the judicious Tolstoy,
感谢明智的托尔斯泰
we see entirely unexpected aspects of the man.
让我们看到了这个男人完全出乎意料的一面
His inner life is not at all what we would expect, judging from the outside.
从外表看 他的内心生活完全不是我们所期望的那样
But Tolstoy’s point is that Karenin is not really an exceptional character.
但托尔斯泰的观点是 卡列宁并不是一个特殊的角色
He is just the normal mixture of bad and good.
他只是一个有好有坏的普通人
It is highly usual for rather off-putting people to have huge reserves of buried tenderness,
这是非常常见的 相当令人不快的人也拥有深藏于心的巨大温柔
to have dimensions to their characters very different from
与他们的角色反差巨大
and often much nicer than those that their forbidding appearance suggests.
尽管外表令人生畏 但实际却比想象的要友好得多
We are invited on a comparable journey in relation to another character in Tolstoy’s fiction,
我们应邀与托尔斯泰小说中另一人物踏上了相似的旅程
the hero of the The Death of Ivan Illych, published in 1886.
他便是1886年出版的《伊凡·伊里奇之死》的主人公
At the start of the novel, we meet Ivan,
在小说的开头 我们遇到了伊凡
a high court judge at the pinnacle of society
他是一名处于上层的高等法院法官
who appears selfish, vain and cynical.
他自私 虚荣 愤世嫉俗
But one day, while helping hang some curtains,
但是有一天 伊凡在帮忙挂窗帘的时候
Ivan falls from a ladder and becomes aware of an inner pain
从梯子上掉了下来 随即发现体内疼痛
which is the first sign of a disease which is soon diagnosed as fatal.
这是疾病的初始迹象 很快被确诊为绝症
He will have just a few months left to live.
他只剩几个月的活头了
As his health declines, Ivan spends a lot of time sitting on the sofa at home.
随着身体变差 伊凡把大段时日耗在了家里的沙发上
His family, aware at just how inconvenient his death will be
家人意识到他的病会给他们的社会地位和经济水平
to their social and financial standing,
带来诸多不便
begin to resent him and his illness.
于是开始怨恨他和他的疾病
He’s short and ill-tempered back.
他的脾气愈发暴躁
And yet inside, Ivan is going through a range of epiphanies.
但在内心 伊凡正在经历一系列顿悟
He looks back over his life and atones for its shallowness.
他回顾了自己的一生 为自己的浅薄而赎罪
He becomes newly sensitive to nature
他重新对自然变得敏感
and to the ordinary kindness of his manservant,
还感受到了男仆平常的善意
a humble uneducated man of peasant stock.
虽然他一介农夫 地位地下也没受过教育
He grows furious at the stupid way
伊凡对这种愚蠢的行为感到十分愤怒
in which everyone avoids paying attention to the one really crucial fact about life:
那就是每个人都无视掉了生命中真正重要的事:
that we all die.
我们都会死去
He realises that our mortality should be constantly before our minds
他意识到死亡应该经常出现在我们的脑海里
and should inspire continual kindness and sympathy.
并应该持续地激发善意和同情
As he dies, Tolstoy imagines Ivan finally
当伊凡去世时 托尔斯泰想象出
feeling pity and forgiveness for all those around him.
他终于对周围的所有人感到怜悯和宽恕
As is typical in his writing,
正如他作品中典型的方式
Tolstoy recounts in detail the vast philosophical and psychological
托尔斯泰详细地叙述了在主人公头脑中发生的
dramas going on inside his hero’s head.
巨大的哲学和心理学戏剧
All that those around him – the doctors and his family
他周围的医生和家人
get to see is a sullen man who spends a lot of time with his face to the wall
看到的都是一个阴沉的人 在面壁上花了很多时间
and yet we can see a visionary, a prophet
然而我们可以看到一个有远见的人 一个先知
and a man of outstanding moral courage and generosity.
一个有着非凡道德勇气和包容度的人
In writing about Ivan,
在写伊凡时
Tolstoy wanted us to see his life as representative of all human potential,
托尔斯泰希望我们把他的一生视为所有人类潜能的代表
if only we could wake up to it before it is too late.
但愿我们能在为时未晚之前醒悟过来
When he was about seventy,
在他70岁左右的时候
Tolstoy pulled together his thinking about being a writer in a long essay,
托尔斯泰在一篇长文中总结了自己作为作家的想法
What is art?
即《艺术论》
It is one of his most important books.
这是他最重要的书之一
In it, Tolstoy proposes that art has a great mission.
在这本书中 托尔斯泰提出艺术有一个伟大的使命
Through great art, he tells us
他告诉我们 通过伟大的艺术
‘Lower feelings – less kind and less needed for the good of humanity
“低层次的情感 不够仁慈 于人类幸福而言无足轻重的情感
are forced out and replaced by kinder feelings
被驱逐出去 取而代之的是更仁慈的情感
which better serve us individually and collectively.
其对我们个人和集体都有好处
This is the purpose of art.’
这就是艺术的意义”
As a supremely skilled and seductive writer,
作为一个极具技巧和魅力的作家
Tolstoy knew that novels need to be entertaining,
托尔斯泰知道小说需要有娱乐性
or we simply won’t bother to read them.
否则我们根本就懒得去读它们
But he was also convinced that they have to aspire to be something else as well:
但他也相信 小说也必须立志成为别的东西:
key supports for our own stumbling path to maturity and kindness.
使我们跌跌绊绊走向成熟和仁慈的重要支撑
And they can do this because they are able to get into a place we need
小说能够做到这一点 因为它们能够进入一个
but rarely have access to: the inner lives of other people.
我们很少访问但需要造访的地方:他人的内心世界
In What is art?, Tolstoy was mostly writing about the works of other authors,
在《艺术论》中 托尔斯泰主要撰写其他作家的作品
but it is really his own achievement that he is, indirectly and modestly, summing up.
但他也间接而谦虚地总结了自己的成就
Great writers shouldn’t ever be just helping their readers pass the time.
伟大的作家不应该只是帮助读者打发时间
Their writing must be a form of therapy,
他们的文章必须是治愈人心的
an attempt to educate us towards emotional health and ethical good sense.
或者能引导我们注意情绪健康和培养良好道德意识
As they aged, the tensions between Leo and and his wife Sophia grew.
随着年纪变大 列夫和妻子索菲亚之间的关系愈发紧张
He complained that they had “totally opposite ideas of the meaning of existence”.
他抱怨道:他们对存在的意义有着迥然不同的看法
Ye he insisted that even as Sophia
他坚信 即使索菲亚
“grew more and more irritable, despotic and uncontrollable”
变得越来越急躁 专横和无法控制
he continued to love her,
他仍然爱她
though he admitted that he had given up trying to express his feelings.
哪怕他承认他已经放弃尝试表达自己的感受了
“There is no greater tragedy than the tragedy of the marital bed”, he wrote.
他写道:没有比同床异梦更惨痛的悲剧了
Finally, when he was past eighty, Tolstoy couldn’t take it any more,
最后 当他80多岁时 托尔斯泰再也无法忍受了
and deserted his wife and family.
抛弃了他的妻子和家庭
He ran away in the middle of a freezing November night,
他在11月一个寒冷的夜晚逃跑了
caught pneumonia and died at the nearby railway station,
随即染上了肺炎 在附近的火车站
where he was waiting for a train.
候车时去世了
Tolstoy’s funeral was a major public occasion.
托尔斯泰的葬礼十分隆重盛大
Thousands showed up from across Russia and the world.
成千上万的人从俄罗斯和世界各地赶来吊唁
This was fitting, for his central proposal has enormous social implications.
这很合理 因为他的精神内核极大地影响了社会
Tolstoy realised that our picture of what other people are like
托尔斯泰意识到 我们对他人的看法
is a great driving force of relationships, economics and politics.
是人际关系 经济和政治的重要推动力
He held up the tantalising idea that
他提出了一个诱惑力很大的想法
art could be the major vehicle for getting more accurate
即艺术可以成为更准确的 并且往往更仁慈的
and often much kinder – ideas about what is going on in the minds and lives of other people.
了解关于他人思想和生活的主要工具
His body was taken back to his house and buried in the garden,
他的遗体被运回了他的房子 并被埋在花园里
under some trees where he liked to play as a child.
就在他小时候喜欢玩耍的树下

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

读大师的书,尝人间百态。我们可能无法经历别人的人生,但我们可以阅读,不断地拓宽个人经历,让自己变得冷静不偏颇。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

乏善

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lr6DYLBkyG0

相关推荐