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文学:居斯塔夫·福楼拜 – 译学馆
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文学:居斯塔夫·福楼拜

LITERATURE - Gustave Flaubert

文学
居斯塔夫·福楼拜
Gustave Flaubert was a great French 19th century novelist
居斯塔夫·福楼拜是法国19世纪一位伟大的小说家
who deserves our love and sympathy as much for what he wrote as who he was.
他的作品和他的为人一样值得我们爱戴和同情
We can admire him for four reasons at least.
我们至少可以从四个方面来欣赏他
他明白悲剧的目的
Flaubert wrote arguably the single greatest tragic novel ever written,
福楼拜写了一部可以说是有史以来最伟大的悲剧小说
Madame Bovary,
《包法利夫人》
which he worked on for five years and published in 1857.
这本书他写了五年 并于1857年出版
The point of a tragedy
悲剧的意义
is to allow us to experience a degree of sympathy for others’ failures
在于让我们对他人的失败有一定程度的理解
that’s so much greater than what we ordinarily feel.
这比我们平时感受的要强烈得多
It shakes us from our customary moralism and brittle superiority.
它动摇了我们的传统道德和脆弱的优越感
It helps us empathize in the way the modern media usually prevents.
它以现代媒体通常阻止的方式帮我们产生共情
In the summer of 1848,
1848年夏
a terse item appeared in many newspapers across Normandy.
诺曼底各地的许多报纸都刊登了一篇简短的文章
A 27-year-old woman named Delphine Delamare,
一名叫德尔芬妮·德拉马尔
living in Ry, just outside Rouen,
住在鲁昂郊外小村子Ry的27岁的少妇
had become dissatisfied with the routines of married life.
她对婚姻生活的乏味感到不满
She’d run up huge debts on superfluous clothes and household goods
她因过奢的衣服和家具用品欠下了巨额债务
and she’d committed suicide under emotional and financial pressure.
在情感和经济压力下自杀了
Madame Delamare was leaving behind a young daughter and a distraught husband.
德拉马尔夫人留下了一个年幼的女儿和悲痛欲绝的丈夫
One of those reading the newspaper was the 27-year-old aspiring novelist Gustave Flaubert
27岁的有抱负的小说家居斯塔夫·福楼拜就是看报人之一
who grew so fascinated by the story
他对这个故事很着迷
that he used it to provide him with the exact plot structure
用这个故事为他最终的小说《包法利夫人》
for his eventual novel Madame Bovary.
提供了确切的情节结构
One of the things that happened when Madame Delamare, the adulteress from Ry, turned into
来自Ry的奸妇德拉马尔夫人变成
Madame Bovary, the adulteress from the fictional town of Yonville,
来自虚构的Yonville的奸妇包法利夫人时 发生了一件事
was that her life ceased to bear the dimensions of a black and white morality tale.
她的生活不再是一个黑白分明的道德故事
Readers of the novel saw how easy it is to have a thoroughly miserable marriage
读者都知道一个无论如何都不能看作坏人的人
without being in any way a bad person.
却拥有一段彻底悲剧的婚姻是多么容易
Flaubert’s novel shows us the tensions and travails of married life
福楼拜的小说向我们展示了婚姻生活的紧张和艰辛
without ever really taking sides.
却没有偏袒任何一方
Emma gets bored with her husband Charles, loses interest in her child,
爱玛厌倦了她的丈夫查理 对孩子失去兴趣
runs up debts, has affairs and eventually kills herself.
负债累累 有外遇 最终自杀
But by the time readers are taken in how she’d pushed arsenic into her mouth
但当读者了解到她是如何把砒霜塞进嘴里
and been laid down in her bedroom to await her death,
躺在卧室里等待死亡的时候
they would not be in a mood to judge.
他们就没有心情去评判
All they’d be able to feel was pity,
他们能感受到的只是对她的怜悯
the cruelty and senselessness of life.
以及生活的残酷和毫无意义
Flaubert seemed almost deliberately to enjoy
福楼拜似乎刻意在享受
unsettling the desire to find easy answers.
打乱人们对于找到简单的答案的期望
No sooner had he presented Emma in a positive light
他刚给爱玛以肯定的评价
than he would undercut her with an ironic remark.
马上又用讽刺的话来贬低她
But then, just as readers were losing patience with her,
但当读者对她失去耐心时
he would draw them back to her,
他会把他们拉回她的身边
would tell them something about her sensitivity
告诉他们她内心的敏感
that would bring tears to the eyes.
让他们热泪盈眶
We end Flaubert’s novel with fear and sadness
我们看完福楼拜的小说后感到恐惧和悲伤
that how we’ve been made to live before we begin to know how,
为在我们开始知道如何生活前自己的生活而后悔
that how limited our understanding of ourselves and others is,
为我们对自己和他人的理解是多么有限
that how great and catastrophic are the consequences of our actions,
我们的行为所造成的后果是多么巨大和灾难性
that how pitiless and vengeful the upstanding members of the community can be in response to our errors.
社区中正派的人们对我们的错误是多么冷酷和心存报复而恐惧
Tragedy inspires us to
悲剧启发我们
abandon ordinary life’s simplified, judgmental perspective on failure and defeat,
摒弃日常生活中对失败和困难的简单的 批判性的看法
rendering as generous towards the foolishness and errors that are endemic to our nature.
使我们对天性中特有的愚蠢和错误能心怀宽容
我们读什么很重要
A particular aspect of Madame Bovary’s tragic end sticks out.
《包法利夫人》悲剧结局的一个特殊层面表现在
Flaubert tells us in no uncertain terms
福楼拜明确地告诉我们
that the reason Emma Bovary grew so dissatisfied unfairly so, with marriage,
包法利夫人之所以对婚姻如此不满 感到不公
and therefore embarked on her disastrous affairs
并因而开始了她灾难性的婚外情
was because of the books she had read.
是因为她读过的书
Flaubert tells us that
福楼拜告诉我们
from a young age Emma used to read bad romantic novels
爱玛从小就喜欢读一些糟糕的浪漫小说
that gave her an unrealistic, overly rosy picture of love
这些小说让她对爱情有一种不切实际的 过于美好的幻想
and that meant that she was unprepared for the reality of marriage.
这让她对婚姻的现实毫无准备
Emma didn’t know how boring it can be to have dinner with the same person every night
爱玛不知道每天晚上和同一个人共进晚餐有多么无聊
and how difficult it is to keep a relationship alive after once had a baby.
也不知道生了孩子后要维持一段感情是多么困难
And therefore she responded to these situations with too greater degree of panic
因此她对这些情况的反应过于恐慌
having multiple affairs to remind herself that she was still capable of passion
用多重婚外情来提醒自己仍然拥有激情
and going shopping for far more than she could afford
去买远远超出她承受能力的东西
as an alternative to the sometimes tedious business of bringing up a child.
来作为抚养孩子这种有时很乏味的工作的一种替代
What might ultimately have saved Emma Bovary
最终拯救爱玛·包法利的可能是
was to read the novel of which she is the heroine.
读了一本以她为女主角的小说
It’s a novel about love designed to
这是一本关于爱情的小说
cure us of the naive illusions about love created by bad novels.
旨在治愈我们因烂小说而产生的关于爱情的天真幻想
现代媒体的愚蠢
Flaubert couldn’t stand newspapers.
福楼拜受不了报纸
He belonged to a generation that had experienced the rise of mass circulation media at first hand
他属于曾亲身经历过大众传媒的兴起的一代人
and he believed that this was spreading a new kind of stupidity
他认为这是在传播一种新的愚昧
which he termed ‘la bêtise’ (stupidity)
到法国的每一个角落
into every corner of France.
他称这愚昧为’la bêtise’ (愚昧)
Idiocy wasn’t the same as ignorance for Flaubert
对福楼拜来说 愚昧并不意味着无知
because it was compatible with knowing a lot of things
因为它与知道很多事情是可共存的
it just meant understanding nothing.
只是愚昧意味着什么都不懂
The most loathsome character in Madame Bovary, the pharmacists Homais,
《包法利夫人》中最令人厌恶的角色 药剂师郝麦
is introduced early on as an avid consumer of news
早期被介绍成一个新闻的狂热户
who sets aside a special hour every day to study ‘le journal’.
他每天都会抽出特定的时间来研究《每日新闻》
Flaubert keeps the word in italics throughout
福楼拜一直用斜体写这个词
to send up the neo religious reverence in which this object is held.
来嘲弄人们对它的新宗教崇拜
In the 1870s, Flaubert began keeping a record of
1870年代 福楼拜开始记录
what he judged to be the most idiotic patterns of thought
他认为现代社会 尤其是报纸所提倡的
promoted by the modern world in general and by newspapers in particular.
最愚蠢的思想模式
Published posthumously as ‘The Dictionary of Received Ideas’
在他去世后出版的《庸见词典》
this collection of clichés organized by topic
这本按主题组织的陈腔滥调集
was described by its author as an “encyclopédie de la bêtise humaine”
被作者描述为 “encyclopédie de la bêtise humaine”
an encyclopedia of human stupidity.
一部关于人类愚昧之处的百科全书
Here is a random sampling of its entries:
随便列几个它的条目:
Budget – never balanced.
预算-从不平衡
Catholicism – has had a very good influence on art.
天主教-对艺术有很好的影响
Christianity – freed the slaves.
基督教-解放了奴隶
Crusades – benefited Venetian trade.
十字军东征-促进了威尼斯的贸易
Diamonds – to think that they’re nothing but coal
钻石-认为它们不过是煤
if we came across one in its natural state
如果我们无意中发现一个天然状态的钻石
we wouldn’t even bother to pick it up off the ground.
我们甚至不会费心把它从地上捡起来
Exercise – prevents all illnesses, to be recommended at all times.
运动-预防所有疾病 总是被推荐
Photography – will make painting obsolete.
摄影-将使绘画过时
It’s worth noting
值得注意的是
how many of the dictionary’s clichés touch on sophisticated disciplines
词典中有很多陈词滥调涉及复杂的学科
like theology, science and politics
像神学 科学和政治
without, however, going anywhere very clever with them.
但没有对它们进行巧妙的解读
The modern idiot can routinely know what only geniuses had known in the past
现代的白痴通常知道过去只有天才才知道的事
and yet he is still an idiot,
但他仍然是一个白痴
a depressing combination of traits
这些令人沮丧的特点组合
that previous eras had never had to worry about.
在以前的时代从来不用担心
The newspapers had, for Flaubert, armed stupidity and given authority to fools.
在福楼拜看来 报纸把愚昧武装起来 把权力交给了愚人
对法国资产阶级的憎恨
Gustave Flaubert was a bourgeois, a middle-class Frenchman,
居斯塔夫·福楼拜是资本家 一个法国中产阶级
and yet he loathed a great deal to do with his country and his class.
然而他对自己的国家和阶级深恶痛绝
For Flaubert, the French bourgeoisie could be
对福楼拜来说 法国资产阶级充斥着
a repository of the most extreme prudery, snobbery, smugness, racism and pomposity.
可能是最极端的拘谨 势利 装模作样 种族主义和自负的人
“It’s strange how the most banal utterances of the bourgeoisie sometimes make me marvel”
“奇怪的是 资产阶级最平庸的言论有时会让我惊叹”
he once complained in stifled rage,
他曾怒气冲冲地抱怨
“there are gestures, sounds of people’s voices that I just can’t get over,
“有些手势 有些人的声音 我无法忘怀
silly remarks that almost give me vertigo,
有些愚蠢的言论几乎让我眩晕
the bourgeoisie is for me something unfathomable.”
资产阶级对我来说是深不可测的东西”
Flaubert wrote that he had nothing but disdain for this good civilization
福楼拜曾写道 他对这种良好文明不屑一顾
that prided itself on having produced railways, poisons, cream tarts, royalty and the guillotine.
这种文明为制造铁路 毒药 奶油馅饼 皇室和断头台而自豪
What Flaubert hated above all was pomposity.
福楼拜最讨厌的是浮夸
This quote to his girlfriend, Louise Colet, written in 1846 gives us an insight.
这句写于1846年 给他的女友路易丝·高莱的引述 让我们洞悉
“What stops me from taking myself seriously,
“阻止我认真对待自己的原因是
even though I’m essentially a serious person,
虽然我本质上是一个严肃的人
is that I find myself extremely ridiculous.
但我发现自己非常可笑
Not the kind of small-scale ridiculousness of slapstick comedy
不是那种闹剧的小规模的荒谬
but rather a ridiculousness that seems intrinsic to human life
而似乎是人类生活中固有的荒谬
and manifests itself in the simplest actions and most ordinary gestures.
表现在最简单的动作和最普遍的手势上
For example, I can never shave without starting to laugh,
比如 我每次刮胡子都会忍不住笑起来
it seems so idiotic.
这看起来太傻了
All this is very difficult to explain.”
这一切都很难解释”
Flaubert in the end wanted to be a global citizen.
福楼拜最终想成为一个世界公民
“I’m no more modern than ancient,
“我既不比古代人更现代
no more French than Chinese”, he wrote,
也不比中国人更法式” 他写道
“and the idea of having a native country, that is to say,
“拥有一个祖国的想法 也就是说
the imperative to live on one bit of ground marked red or blue on the map
必须生活在地图上标记成红色或蓝色的土地上
and to hate the other bits in green or black
憎恨其他标记为绿色或黑色的部分
has always seemed to me narrow minded, blinked and profoundly stupid.
在我看来 这非常心胸狭窄 目光短浅 极其愚蠢
I am a soul brother to everything that lives,
我是万物的灵魂兄弟
to the giraffe and to the crocodile as much as to the man.”
无论是长颈鹿 鳄鱼还是人”
In his “Dictionary of Received Ideas”
在他的《庸见词典》中
there was an entry on ‘French’.
有一个词条是关于“法国”的
How proud one is to be French
当一个法国人看着旺多姆圆柱时
when one looks at the Colonne Vendôme.
他是多么自豪
Paradoxically, one can perhaps be proudest to be French
自相矛盾的是 当一个人读居斯塔夫·福楼拜的书时
when one reads Gustave Flaubert.
可能最为身为法国人而自豪
Foreside from hating a lot about his country,
福楼拜虽然对自己的国家深恶痛绝
Flaubert also captures some of its best and wisest sides.
他也捕捉到了这个国家最好 最智慧的一面
We should read him for his earthiness, his humanity, his frankness
我们应该读他的质朴 他的人性 他的坦率
and above all else his generosity of spirit.
尤其是他豁达的精神
At the age of 17, in a somewhat melodramatic mood Flaubert wrote
17岁时 福楼拜以一种夸张的情绪写道
“Art is superior to everything,
“艺术高于一切
a book of poetry is worth more than a railway.”
一本诗集比一条铁路更有价值”
It rarely is,
很少是这样
but it might almost be worth giving up a railway line or two
但为了福楼拜的作品
for the sake of Flaubert’s works.
放弃一两条铁路可能是值得的

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视频概述

福楼拜有四点值得我们钦佩,他对悲剧意义的洞察,他明白读好书的重要性,现代媒体的愚蠢以及他对法国资产阶级的仇恨,他的著作《包法利夫人》和《庸见词典》来自他对人性的思考与对世态的揶揄

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Hlq

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XK8lZO39T-0

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