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文学:歌德

LITERATURE - Goethe

文学
约翰·沃尔夫冈·冯·歌德
People have always had trouble pronouncing his name;
大家总是难以念出他的名字
if you don’t speak German it’s not at all obvious how you’re supposed to say it.
如果你不会说德语 你就根本不知道该怎么念
A safe bet is to start with a hard G on Ger- and end with a -ter: Ger-ter.
最安全的读法是先发“Ger-”中的重音G 再以“ter”结尾:即歌德
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe has often been seen as
约翰·沃尔夫冈·冯·歌德常被视为
one of Europe’s big cultural heroes,
欧洲文学巨匠之一
comparable to the likes of Shakespeare, Dante, and Homer.
比肩莎士比亚 但丁和荷马
During his life, Goethe’s admirers were impressed by his literary works,
在歌德的一生中 他的仰慕者对其文学作品印象深刻
but more than any of his books, what impressed people at the time,
但相对于他的作品 当时使人们印象更深的是
was how he lived his life, the kind of person he was.
他的生活方式和人格魅力
We can pick up some vital lessons from him:
我们可以从他的身上汲取一些重要的经验教训
1. Stop being so romantic
1. 勿浪漫过头
Goethe’s first proper job after law school was as an assistant at a national tribunal
歌德从法学院毕业后的第一份正式工作是国家法庭助理
judging cases between the many minor German states that,
负责处理当时神圣罗马帝国属下的
at that time, made up the Holy Roman Empire.
各个德国小邦之间的案件
While he was working, Goethe fell in love with the fiance of one of his colleagues.
在这里工作期间 歌德爱上了同事的未婚妻
He then committed a huge indiscretion
随即他犯了一个很轻率的错误
and wrote up the love affair as an novel.
把这段感情写成了小说
He called it, “The Sorrows of Young Werther”.
将之定名为《少年维特的烦恼》
The central character, Werther, is a lightly disguised self-portrait.
主人公维特是歌德稍加伪装的自画像
The book tells the story of how, Werther/Goethe
这本书讲述了歌德/维特
falls in love with a young woman, Charlotte.
如何爱上一位年轻女子夏洛特的故事
It’s a very detailed description of all the tiny steps one takes
它极其细致地描述了维特在迷恋过程中
on the road to infatuation:
采取的所有微小步骤:
they danced together, at one point their feet accidentally touch under the table,
他们一起跳舞 有一刻他们的脚不小心在桌子下相碰
they smile, they write each other flirtatious little notes;
他们微笑着 用小纸条互相写些调情的话
it makes being in love seem like the most romantic experience in life;
这让恋爱看起来宛若生命中最浪漫的经历
Werther asks himself, “what is a life without romantic love?
维特问自己:“没有浪漫爱情的生活会是什么样的?
A magical lantern without a lamp”.
就像没有光的魔灯罢了”
This deeply charming novel was a best-seller across Europe for the next 25 years.
这本极具魅力的小说在接下来的25年里成了欧洲的畅销书
Napoleon boasted he’d read it seven times.
拿破仑就吹嘘他读过七遍
The story has a miserable ending:
这个故事的结局很悲惨:
Charlotte doesn’t really love Werther and finally rejects him.
夏洛特并不是真的爱维特 最终拒绝了他
In despair he kills himself.
在绝望中 维特自杀了
The tragic denouement shows Goethe beginning to see
悲惨的结局表明歌德开始看到
the limitations of the romantic view of life.
浪漫主义人生观的局限性
Romantic love is deeply attractive but it causes us immense problems too.
浪漫的爱情十分迷人 但也会给我们带来严重的问题
The core problem, as Goethe came to see it, is this:
歌德认为 核心问题是:
romantic love hopes to freeze a beautiful moment;
浪漫的爱情希望定格在一个美好的瞬间
it’s a summer’s evening after dinner;
那是夏天的一个晚饭后的傍晚
Werther is walking in the woods with his beloved;
维特和爱人漫步在树林里
he wants it to be always like this so he feels they should get married,
他希望今后的日子都是如此 所以他觉得他们应该结婚
have a house together, have children;
共筑爱巢 养儿育女
though, in reality marriage will be nothing at all like the lovely June night;
然而在现实中 婚姻根本不像六月那个夜晚那么美好
There’ll be exhaustion, bills to pay, squabbles, and a sense of confinement.
会让人疲惫 会有待缴账单 争吵和束缚感
By comparison, with the extreme hopes of Romanticism, real love, as Goethe came to see,
与浪漫主义的极大希望相比 正如歌德看到的那样
is always, necessarily, a terrible disappointment.
真正的爱情总是必然地令人究极失望
That’s why Goethe gradually moved away from romanticism
这就是为什么歌德逐渐从浪漫主义
towards an ideology of love he termed “classicism” :
转移到他所谓的“古典主义”的爱情观
marked by a degree of pessimism and acceptance of the troubles
其特征是 随着时间的推移 所有夫妻对困扰他们的问题
that afflict all couples over time,
都表现出一定程度的悲观和接受
and of the need to abandon some of the heady hopes of the early days
而且为了安宁和料理好生活
for the sake of tranquility and administrative competence.
需要放弃一些早期令人兴奋的希望
Goethe was a critic of romantic ideology,
歌德批判浪漫主义思想
not because he was cold-hearted or lacking in imagination,
并不是因为他冷酷无情或是缺乏想象力
but because he so deeply and intimately understood
而是因为他深刻并切身地理解了
the attractions of romanticism and therefore its dangers.
浪漫主义的魅力也是它的危险之处
2. Get a real job
2. 找一份实在的工作
In April 1775, not long after his big success with Werther,
1775年4月 在《维特》大获成功后不久
Goethe got a job as a civil servant.
歌德成了一名公务员
Karl August, the Duke of Weimar, appointed him as his chief adviser
魏玛公国的卡尔·奥古斯特公爵任命他为
and senior administrator to help run his country.
首席顾问和高级行政官员 以协助管理领地
Goethe continued in this employment for most of the rest of his life.
歌德在以后的大部分时间都在此任职
His main jobs was Minister for Roads
他主要负责管理道路
and as the overseer of the state-owned silver mining operation.
以及监管国有银矿业务
It can sound like a strange move
对于一个成功的创造人才来说
for a very successful creative figure,
这些听起来像奇怪的举动
as if the winner of the Booker Prize became a civil servant;
就像布克奖得主成了一名公务员
we just assume that art and literature
我们只是认为 从事艺术和文学创作
are at odds with an enthusiasm for government administration.
与热衷于政府管理是大相径庭的
But Goethe didn’t see it that way;
但歌德不这么认为
he felt that understanding administration would help him put big ideas into practice.
他认为懂得管理能帮他把大想法付诸实践
Later in his life, instead of writing about how good it would be to have a national theater,
在后来的人生 他不是书面阐述有国家剧院的好处
he was able to establish one,
而是建立了一个国家剧院
and instead of just saying that cities should have green spaces,
不是口头上说城市应该拥有绿地
he was able to rev up the governmental machinery into action
而是敦促政府部门采取实际行动
and actually create a model urban park.
真的建立了一座模范的城市公园
3. Travel as therapy
3. 旅行疗法
In September 1786, after 10 years in the Weimar civil service,
1786年9月 歌德在魏玛任职公务员10年后
when his 40th birthday was coming into view,
他即将迎来40岁的生日
Goethe got fed up with Germany: the cold, the bad food,
他受够了德国寒冷的天气 难吃的食物
and this was key for him, the lack of sex.
最关键的是性的匮乏
So he went to Rome with a very classical idea of the point of travel:
所以他带着一个极其经典的旅行观点去了罗马:
the outer journey was intended to support an inner journey towards maturity.
外在的旅程是为了支持内在走向成熟
He felt that there were parts of himself that could only be discovered in Italy.
他觉得只有在意大利才能发现某些自我的方面
But, like many visitors to Rome,
但是就像到过罗马的众多游客一样
when he got there he felt a bit disappointed.
歌德来到这里后感到有点失望
In the famous book of poems he later wrote about his experience, the Roman Elegies;
后来他写了一本有关这次经历的著名诗集《罗马哀歌》
he describes how the great city
书中描绘了这座伟大的城市
seemed to be filled with lifeless ruins
似乎到处都是死气沉沉的遗迹
that were famous but didn’t actually mean anything to him;
似乎非常有名 但对他来说毫无意义
“Speak to me, you stones!”, he pleads.
他恳求道:“跟我说话 你们这些石头!”
It’s a feeling many later visitors have had.
许多后来的游客都有同感
Goethe realized that what he needed was not a more elaborate guidebook,
歌德意识到 他需要的不是更详尽的旅行指南
but the right person to have an affair with;
而是一个合适的人来谈一场恋爱
someone who would embody the spirit of the place he was in.
一个能体现他所在地方精神的人
In his poems he describes the woman he meets, whom he calls Faustina.
在他的诗歌中 他描述了遇到的那个名为福斯蒂娜的女人
They spend lazy afternoons in bed.
他们在床上度过慵懒的下午
She’s not a great intellectual, but she breathes the spirit of Rome;
她不是一个伟大的智者 但她具有罗马精神
she tells him about her life,
她向歌德讲述她的生活
about the building she passes on her way to the market, the Pantheon,
讲述她在去市集路上所经过的建筑:万神殿
a Baroque church designed by Bernini,
她甚至没有意识到这是一座
which she hadn’t even realized were famous;
由贝尔尼尼设计的著名巴洛克式教堂
they were just the buildings that happened to be around
万神殿只是她在去拿牛奶和茄子的路上
when she was getting the milk and the aubergines.
碰巧经过的建筑
For Goethe, the point of travel isn’t relaxation or just taking a break from routine,
对歌德来说 旅行的意义不在于放松身心或仅仅休息一下
he had a bigger goal in mind;
他心中有一个更大的目标
the aim of travel is to go to a place
旅行的目的是去一个地方
where we can find a missing ingredient of our own maturity.
在那里可以找到让自己变得成熟的缺失部分
4. Living Life to the Fullest
4. 充实地生活
One of the most striking things about Goethe is how much he did,
歌德最惊人的事情之一是他竟做了那么多的事
how broad his horizons were, and how wide his interest came to be;
他的视野如此广阔 兴趣如此广泛
He explored this particularly through his most famous work, Faust.
他在最有名的作品《浮士德》上穷尽探索
Goethe worked on Faust all his life;
歌德一生都在创作《浮士德》
the earliest sketches go back to his teens
最早的草稿可追溯到他的青年时期
and he only decided he was done with it when he was in his early eighties.
直到他八十多岁的时候 才觉得可以定下稿来
Faust comes in two parts and together the performance takes about 13 hours.
《浮士德》分为两部分 整部诗剧共约13个小时
Goethe himself never saw the whole thing and few people have ever since.
歌德本人未曾看过整部剧作 也很少有人看完
Faust is a medieval academic and scholar,
浮士德是一位中世纪的学者
he’s very learned, but he doesn’t do very much.
他很博学 但没有太多成果
He’s unfulfilled in love, he hasn’t made any money, and he has no power.
他未曾从爱情中获得满足感 他无钱无势
His knowledge is sterile, his life feels pointless, and he wishes he could die.
他的知识没有多大用处 生活毫无意义 甚至希望尽快死掉
But then he is visited by a devil, called Mephistopheles,
但后来一位名为梅非斯托的魔鬼造访了他
who offers him boundless energy, good looks,
魔鬼给了他无穷的能量 英俊的外表
and the ability to do whatever he wants.
以及为所欲为的能力
The question is: what will Faust want to do?
问题是:浮士德想要拿这些做什么?
The first danger for Faust is to just stay an academic who resists worldly impact;
浮士德面临的首要危险是继续做一个不受世俗影响的学者
with the Devil’s help he could be the ultimate bookworm;
在魔鬼的帮助下 他可以成为终极书虫
he could get his hands on the oldest rarest manuscripts.
他能够得到最古老 最珍贵的手稿
But Faust gets weary of words and longs for action.
但浮士德厌倦了文字 渴望实践
Now the second danger is that he will use his new powers
现在 第二个危险是他会利用他的新力量
to gratify every sensual appetite;
来满足每一个感官欲望
he might become just a pure hedonist.
他可能会变成一个纯粹的享乐主义者
Faust goes some way down this path;
浮士德在这条路上走了一小段
he goes to a bar and gets everyone very drunk, he goes to huge orgy,
他去了酒吧 让每个人都酩酊大醉 他又去狂欢
but then he realizes that what he really seeks is beauty and love,
但后来意识到他真正追求的是美和爱
and this leads him on from sex and alcohol.
这让他从性和酒精中走出来
The third danger is that Faust will become a confident, but shallow political leader;
第三个危险是浮士德将成为一个自信而肤浅的政治领袖
but in a second part of the play, Faust pursues a grander purpose:
但在该剧的第二部分 浮士德开始追求更宏伟的目标:
eventually he organizes the development of a new country,
最终他组织并建立了一个新国家
somewhat reminiscent of the Dutch Republic,
有点类似荷兰共和国
which at that time was the most enlightened and successful society in the world.
当时荷兰是世界上最开明 最成功的国家
Faust is a morality tale for all of us;
浮士德是给我们所有人的道德故事
he shows us both the pitfalls of life and how we might avoid them.
他向我们展示了生活的陷阱 以及闪避之策
Faust knows a great deal, but he resists being an academic;
浮士德博学多才 但他拒绝成为一个学者
he love sex, but he doesn’t give way to debauchery;
他喜欢性 但并不沉溺于声色
he likes power but he doesn’t use it for megalomania;
他喜欢权力 但不妄自尊大
he puts it to work in the service of noble ends.
而是让它为崇高的目标服务
Faust’s career path is not unlike Goethe’s.
浮士德的职业道路和歌德的没有什么不同
Faust is essentially tracing for us a theory of how to live a full life:
浮士德实际上是在为我们探索如何过上充实生活的理论
he’s very interested in ideas, but not a scholar;
他对思想很感兴趣 但不是学者
he visits Italy, but he doesn’t stay there;
他去了意大利 但没有留在那儿
he goes back to work: he tries out administration and learns how to wield power,
他回去工作 他尝试管理 学习如何运用权力
but once he’s mastered this side of himself he moves on.
但一旦掌握了这方面的能力 他就会继续前进
The Faustian idea is that in order to develop fully,
浮士德的观点是 为了全面发展
we have to flirt with things that are quite dangerous,
我们必须与相当危险的事物斡旋
but hold on to a sense of higher purpose.
但要保持一种更高的目标感
5. Science for Artsy People
5. 艺术的科学
Goethe was the last European to do a certain kind of remarkable things:
歌德是最后一个做出这种非凡成绩的欧洲人:
to write great novels and plays, and also to play a significant role in science.
创造出伟大的小说和戏剧 并在科学上取得显著成就
His interest ranged through geology, meteorology, physiology, and chemistry,
他的兴趣涉及了地质学 气象学 生理学 化学
and his most important work was in botany.
最突出的工作是在植物学领域
In 1790 he produced a study: The Metamorphosis of Plants,
1790年 他发表了一篇研究报告《植物变形记》
and a book on optics and color, called The Theory of Colors, was published in 1810.
1810年出版了一本关于光学和色彩的书 叫做《颜色学》
Thereafter this combination of very significant work in the arts and in the sciences
自此以后 欧洲文明史再也没有过这样
disappears from the European civilization.
将艺术和科学结合起来的巨著
Goethe gives us some guidance as to why this has happened.
歌德指引了我们去理解为什么会发生这种情况
He’s a hero for people of a more literary and artistic sensibility,
对文学和艺术感受力较强的人视他为英雄
who are attracted from a distance to the broad subject matter of science,
这些人被科学这一广阔的主题远远吸引
but who find the details a bit less appealing.
但发现细节并不那么有趣
Goethe liked science that you can do yourself,
歌德热衷可以亲身试验的科学
by looking carefully at the world around you;
可以通过仔细观察周围的世界实现
for example, he did a lot of his research on plants in his own back garden in Weimar,
例如 他在魏玛家里的后花园做了很多关于植物的研究
he did a lot of his research on optics with candles and colored pieces of paper in his study;
他在书房里用蜡烛和彩纸做了许多光学方面的研究
he liked the training this gave in asking oneself, “what do I actually see?”
他喜欢通过发问来训练自己:“我到底看到了什么?”
Goethe was very interested in the psychological aspect of our relationship
歌德极其关注我们与科学研究对象之间心理层面的关系
to the sorts of things that science investigates: plants, light, stones;
比如我们与植物 光 石头等事物之间的关系
rather than exclude the issues of personal meaning,
而不是抹去个人意义来单独研究它们
Goethe sees these essential to the proper and full investigation of nature.
歌德认为这些对于正确全面地研究自然是至关重要的
Goethe was worried by the direction that science was taking,
歌德担忧科学的发展方向
which he particularly associated with the work of Isaac Newton.
他特别将其与艾萨克·牛顿的研究联系起来
As Goethe saw it, the academic professional scientist
歌德发现 学术型的专业科学家
wasn’t interested in a personal meaning of the things they were investigating,
对他们研究对象的个人意义并不感兴趣
and thereby helped to kill the subject.
从而会促使扼杀这门学科
As he aged, Goethe kept on working,
即使年事增高 歌德仍然坚守工作
and he kept on seeking love and sex;
继续追寻爱情和性
in his seventies, he fell in love with a woman called Ulkrike;
在七十多岁的时候 他爱上了一位叫乌尔莉克的女人
his passion was unrequited.
但他的热情没有得到回应
He died at his house in Weimar in 1832, aged 83.
1832年 他在魏玛的家中去世 享年83岁
We have so much to learn from him;
我们从他身上受益良多
we don’t often hear people declaring a wish to be a little more like Goethe,
我们不常听到人们宣称想成为歌德那样的人
but if we did,
但如果我们向他靠拢
the world would definitely be a more vibrant and humane place.
这个世界一定会变得更有活力 更具人性美

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视频概述

文学巨匠歌德的一生。永远生机勃勃,充满活力和人性美。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

乏善

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zNEpojtXotE

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