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文学:陀思妥耶夫斯基

LITERATURE - Fyodor Dostoyevsky

文学
费奥多尔·陀思妥耶夫斯基
A good trick, with his name, is to say
念这个名字的时候 有个好记的技巧
‘toy’ in the middle: Dos-toy-ev-ski.
就是中间发“toy”的音: Dos-toy-ev-ski
He was born in 1821
陀思妥耶夫斯基1821年出生
and grew up on the outskirts of Moscow.
在莫斯科郊外长大
His family were comfortably off –
家里挺宽裕的
his father was a successful doctor,
他父亲是一位事业有成的医生
though he happened to work at a charitable hospital
但恰好是在一家慈善医院工作
that provided medical services for the very poor.
这类医院为穷人提供医疗服务
The family had a house in the hospital complex,
一家人住在院区的一栋房子里
so the young Dostoevsky was from the very beginning
所以陀思妥耶夫斯基从小时候开始
powerfully exposed to experiences
就被迫暴露在这种环境下
from which other children of his background
而其他医生家庭的孩子们
were usually carefully sheltered.
却被保护的很好
Like almost everyone in Tsarist Russia
跟沙俄的大部分百姓一样
his parents were devout Orthodox Christians
他父母都是虔诚的东正教徒
and Dostoevsky’s own religious faith
而陀思妥耶夫斯基的宗教信仰
got deeper and stronger throughout his life.
在他的一生中不断得到加强和深化
At the age of 12
12岁时
he was sent away to school first in Moscow
他先是被送到莫斯科去上学
and later in the capital, St Petersburg.
后来转到首都圣彼得堡
He got a good education,
他受到了良好的教育
though as a child of the tiny professional middle-class
但作为职业中产阶级小家庭的孩子
he felt out of place among his more aristocratic classmates.
同学们大多都是贵族 这让他显得格格不入
While he was away at school his father died
还在学校的时候 他父亲去世了
possibly murdered by his own serfs.
可能是被他手下的农奴谋杀的
After graduating Dostoevsky worked as an engineer for a while.
毕业后 陀思妥耶夫斯基做了一段时间的工程师
He started gambling and losing money,
他开始赌博 输多赢少
something that was to plague him all his life.
这个恶习折磨了他一辈子
In his late twenties,
快30岁时
he became friends with a group of radical writers and intellectuals.
他结识了一群激进的作家和知识分子
He wasn’t deeply involved
他不是这个群体的核心成员
but when the government decided to crack down on dissent,
但是因为政府坚决打击反动分子
Dostoevsky was rounded up too
陀思妥耶夫斯基也被抓了
and sentenced to be shot by a firing squad.
判刑后 由行刑队执行枪决
However, at the last moment –
但在最后一刻
just when the soldiers were ready to fire
就在士兵们打算开枪的时候
a message of a reprieve arrived.
他们接到了一道赦免令
Dostoyevsky was sent instead to Siberia
陀思妥耶夫斯基被送到了西伯利亚
for four years of forced labour in horrific conditions.
在条件恶劣的劳改所待了4年
It was only after his return from Siberia
从西伯利亚回来后
that Dostoevsky established himself as a writer.
陀思妥耶夫斯基才开始成为职业作家
Starting in middle age,
中年提笔的他
he produced a series of major books.
此后完成了一系列代表作
《地下室手记》(1864)
《罪与罚》(1866)
《白痴》(1869)
《群魔》(1872)
《卡拉马佐夫兄弟》(1880)
They are dark, violent and tragic –
这些作品都很黑暗 暴力 悲惨
and usually very long and complicated.
而且基本上篇幅都很长 情节复杂
He wrote them to preach five important lessons to the world.
他写这五部著作 是想告诉世界五个重要的道理
Incidentally, the discussion of Dostoevsky’s ideas
碰巧的是 若要讨论陀思妥耶夫斯基的思想
does involve revealing the plots of some of his novels.
就会剧透一些小说情节
It’s not something that would have worried him
他本人应该觉得这无所谓
because his books are written to be read more than once.
因为他写的小说 读一遍是不够的
But if it bothers you,
如果你还是介意的话
this is the place to break off.
就停在这吧
Dostoyevsky’s first big book –
陀思妥耶夫斯基的第一部代表作
“Notes from the Underground” –
《地下室手记》
is an extended rant against life and the world
是一个退休公务员
delivered by a retired civil servant.
对世界和生活的狂啸怒吼
This civil servant is deeply unreasonable,
这位公务员对所有人
inconsistent and furious with everyone,
都很不讲道理 前后不一 脾气很差
including himself.
对他自己也是这样
He’s always getting into rows,
他经常跟别人吵起来
he goes to a reunion of some former colleagues,
他去参加前同事们的聚会时
and tells them all how much he has always hated them.
跟大家说他一直都很讨厌他们
He wants to puncture everyone’s illusions
他想要刺破所有人的幻想
and make them as unhappy as he is.
让大家变得和他一样不开心
He seems like a grotesque character to build a book around.
这种丑恶的角色似乎不太适合做主角
But he’s doing something important.
但他的行为是有重要价值的
He’s insisting with a peculiar kind of intensity –
他异常古怪地执着于
on a very strange fact about the human condition.
人类处在一种很奇怪的状态中
We want happiness
即我们想要幸福
but we have a special talent
但我们特别懂得
for making ourselves miserable.
怎么让自己不幸福
“人有时候会爱上苦难
爱得无与伦比 充满激情
这是事实”
He asserts.
他如此断言
In the novel, Dostoevsky is taking aim at
在小说中 陀思妥耶夫斯基将矛头对准
philosophies of progress and improvement –
发展进步的哲学
which were highly popular in his age,
这种哲学在他生活的时代十分盛行
as they continue to be in ours.
在当代也是如此
He is attacking our habit of telling ourselves
我们习惯告诉自己
that if only this or that thing were different,
如果这件事或那件事不是这样的话
we could leave suffering behind.
我们就能够把苦难抛在脑后
If we got that great job,
如果我们能得到那份好工作
changed the government,
改革政府
could afford that great house,
能够买得起那栋好房子
invented a machine to fly us faster around the world,
发明一种飞得更快 带我们环游世界的机器
could get together with, or divorced from a particular person,
能够跟某人在一起或分开
then all would go well.
然后一切都会好起来
This, Dostyevsky argues, is a delusion.
这一切被陀思妥耶夫斯基抨击为 妄想
Suffering will always pursue us.
苦难会一直跟随着我们
Schemes for improving the world
让世界变好的设想
always contain a flaw.
总是有缺陷的
They won’t eliminate suffering,
驱散不了苦难
they will only change the things that cause us pain.
只会改变痛苦的来源
Life can only ever be a process
生命不过是
of changing the focus of pain,
痛苦不断转移的过程
never of removing pain itself.
痛苦本身是摆脱不掉的
There will always be something to agonise us.
总会有某件事出现 折磨我们
Stop people starving, says Dostoyevsky
陀思妥耶夫斯基说 用尽浑身解数
with calculated wickedness –
让人们吃饱饭
and you’ll soon find
然后你很快就会发现
there’s a new range of agonies:
新的折磨出现了
people will start to suffer from boredom, greed or
人们开始变得无聊 贪婪或是很难过
intense melancholy that they haven’t been invited to the right party.
只因为觉得该去的派对没有邀请自己
In this spirit,
本着这样的观念
“Notes from the Underground” launches an attack on
《地下室手记》抨击了
all ideologies of technical or social progress
所有立志于驱散苦难的
which aspire to the elimination of suffering.
科技或社会进步理念
They won’t succeed
这些理念不可能实现
because as soon as they solve one problem,
因为一个问题解决后 下一秒
they’ll direct our nature to become unhappy in new ways.
我们自然就会因为新出现的事情不开心
Dostoyevsky is fascinated by the secret way,
陀思妥耶夫斯基觉得这一点很有意思:
in which we actually don’t want
私下里 我们其实不想拥有
what we theoretically seem to seek.
理论上我们所渴望的东西
He discusses the pleasure a lot of people get
他探讨了优越感
from feelings of superiority,
会给一些人带来快乐
and for whom, consequently,
因此对这些人来说
an egalitarian society would be a nightmare.
平等社会将是一场噩梦
Or the disavowed but real thrill we get
或者我们看到关于暴力犯罪的新闻时
from hearing about violent crimes on the news,
会有种真实的刺激感(自己不会承认的)
in which case we’d actually feel thwarted
这样的话 我们在一个真正和平的世界里
in a truly peaceful world.
其实会觉得很挫败
“Notes from the Underground”
《地下室手记》
is a dark, awkwardly insightful counterpoint
很黑暗 笨拙而深刻
to well-intentioned modern liberalism.
与“好心的”现代自由主义相对立
It doesn’t really show that social improvement is meaningless.
这并不是说社会进步没有任何意义
But it does remind us that we’ll always carry
而是在提醒我们
our very complex and difficult selves with us
复杂难搞的自我会一直跟随着我们
and that progress will never be as clear and clean
而进步跟我们想的不一样
as we might like to imagine.
绝不会是干净澄澈的
In “Crime and Punishment”,
打开《罪与罚》
we meet an impoverished intellectual,
映入眼帘的是一个身无分文的知识分子
Rodion Raskolnikov.
罗迪恩·拉斯柯尼科夫
Though he’s currently a nobody,
尽管他现在是个无名小卒
he’s fascinated by power and ruthlessness.
他被无情权力深深地吸引着
He thinks of himself as a version of Napoleon.
他觉得自己是拿破仑再世
“Leaders of men, such as Napoleon,
他说 “像拿破仑这样的人类领袖
were all without exception criminals,” we hear,
都是罪犯”
“they broke the ancient laws of their people
“他们打破百姓遵循的陈规
to make new ones that suited them better,
创造更符合自己利益的新规
and they never feared bloodshed.”
而且他们动手杀人时眼睛都不眨一下”
Raskolnikov is also desperate for money
拉斯柯尼科夫急需用钱
and so, aristocratic superiority in mind,
觉得自己像是贵族 高人一等的他
he decides to murder an old woman
决定谋杀一个老妇人
who is a small time pawnbroker and money lender
(这位老妇人是个小当铺老板和放债人)
and to steal her cash.
然后偷取她的钱财
He’s tormented by the mad injustice of the fact
他受不了这种没道理的不公平
that this horrible, mean old character
这个可恶刻薄的老人
has drawers full of roubles
柜子里全是钱
while he – who is clever, energetic and profound – is starving.
而年富力强 博闻强识的他 却在挨饿
He doesn’t spend much time thinking about options
他都没想过别的选择
like taking a job as a waiter.
比如找份工作 做个服务员这类似的
So Raskolnikov breaks into her apartment
于是拉斯柯尼科夫闯入她的公寓
and bludgeons her to death;
用棒槌把她敲死了
and surprised in the act by the woman’s pregnant half-sister,
这正巧被老妇人的异母妹妹撞见
kills her too.
他在惊慌失措之下把她也杀了
But it turns out he’s nothing like
但最后发现 他跟自己想象中
the cold-blooded, rational hero
冷血无情的英雄
of his own imagination.
一点也不像
He is tormented by guilt and horror at what he has done.
他对自己所做的事很愧疚 也很后怕
Eventually, he turns himself over to the police
最后 他到警局自首
in order to face the proper punishment for his crime.
打算直面犯过的罪 受该受的罚
We’re probably never going to do what Raskolnikov did.
我们大概不会做拉斯柯尼科夫做的这种事
But we often share a troubling tendency with him.
但他的一些想法也困扰着我们
We think we know ourselves better than we actually do.
即我们自以为很了解自己 但其实不是
Raskolnikov thinks he’s ruthless;
拉斯柯尼科夫认为自己是无情的
actually, he’s rather tender-hearted.
但实际上他的心还是很柔软的
He thinks he won’t feel guilt;
他认为自己不会觉得愧疚
but he’s overwhelmed by remorse.
但他被悔恨压得喘不过气来
Part of our life’s journey
将现实中的自己
is to engage in the tricky task of
和脑海中的自己区分开来
disentangling ourselves
是很不容易的
from what we think we’re like,
但在生活中 这是必须要做的事
in order to discover our true nature.
因为只有这样 我们才能找到真实的自我
Raskolnikov is especially fascinating
拉斯柯尼科夫这个角色很吸引人
because of the direction this self-discovery takes.
因为他发现了更好的自己
His striking realisation
他突然意识到
is that he’s actually a much nicer person
自己其实比想象中
than he takes himself to be.
更善良
Whereas so many novelists delight in showing the sickly reality
而很多小说家都喜欢向我们展现
beneath a glamorous or enticing facade,
光鲜亮丽表象下的病态现实
Dostoevsky has embarked on a more curious but rewarding mission.
陀思妥耶夫斯基所写的内容更让人好奇 也更有价值
He wants to reveal
他想要告诉大家
that beneath the so-called monster,
在“怪兽”的面具之下
there can very often be a far more interesting
常常潜藏着
tender-hearted character lurking:
一个更有趣更柔软的人
a nice but deluded,
一个善良但被迷惑的
intelligent but frightened and panicked person.
十分聪慧但被吓坏了 慌不择路的人
Sticking for the moment with “Crime and Punishment”,
继续说说《罪与罚》
it’s very significant the way Dostoevsky
陀思妥耶夫斯基以一种巧妙的方式
gets us to like his murderous hero.
创造了一个讨人喜欢的谋杀犯主角
Raskolnikov is clearly an attractive person.
拉斯柯尼科夫显然是一个很有魅力的人
At the very start of the book, we’re told:
小说开篇如此写道:
顺便说一句 拉斯柯尼科夫长相英俊
比一般人稍高
身体清瘦匀称
迷人的黑色瞳孔 头发棕黑
Dostoevsky throughout lessens
陀思妥耶夫斯基缩短了
the imaginative distance between ‘us’
下面两类人在想象中的距离:
who live mainly law-abiding
一般不犯法
and more or less manageable lives,
算是活在应有轨迹里的“我们”
and ‘them’ – the ones who do terrible things
以及做了坏事
and wreak havoc with their lives and those of others.
给自己和别人的生活带来不幸的“他们”
That person, he is saying,
他想说 就那个人而言
is more like you
你最初会觉得你跟他不一样
than you might initially want to think,
但其实你们很像
and therefore more accessible to sympathy.
因此你更能对他报以同情
The idea that you can be a good person,
一个好人
do something very bad
就算做了件特别不好的事
and still deserve some compassion
也是值得同情的
sounds maybe slight and obvious,
这个观点似乎很浅显 也无足轻重
until one has need of this kind of forgiveness
但当你自己需要得到原谅时
in one’s own life.
就不会这么觉得了
This is where Dostoevsky wants to
陀思妥耶夫斯基想从这个角度
enter our inner conversation with ourselves,
切入我们与自己的内心交流
and tell us all about his character Raskolnikov,
跟我们讲他的角色拉斯柯尼科夫
a serious, thoughtful, good-looking man
严肃 体贴 英俊
who did worse than we have
做了件一般人不会做的坏事
and still can be compassionately understood,
还是能够得到同情与理解
as we can and must all be.
我们也一定可以
This is Dostoevsky’s Christianity at work:
这源自陀思妥耶夫斯基的基督教信仰
no one is outside the circle of God’s love and understanding.
上帝给予所有人爱与理解
Dostoyevsky’s next great book, “The Idiot”,
陀思妥耶夫斯基的下一部杰作《白痴》
takes off from his near-death experience before the firing squad.
从他在行刑队跟前的濒死经历开始说起
In the novel, he recounts what that was like.
在小说里 他回忆了当时的情景
Three minutes before his expected death
行刑前那三分钟里
he is able to see life clearly for the first time.
他第一次看清生活的模样
He notices the gilded spire of a nearby church,
他注意到旁边一座教堂的尖顶镀了金
and how it glitters in the sun.
在阳光下闪烁
He’d never before realised how entrancing
他以前从未意识到
a glint of sunlight could be.
闪烁的阳光如此迷人
He is filled with an immense, deep love of the world.
他心里充满了对世界无边无际 深沉的爱
You might see a beggar
可能在看到一个乞丐时
and think how you would love to change places with them
你会很想和他换一换
so as to be able to continue to breathe the air and feel the wind,
想继续呼吸空气 感受微风
merely to exist,
只是存在本身
seems, at that moment of final revelation,
对于在最后一刻获得启示的他来说
infinitely precious.
都显得弥足珍贵
And then the revised order comes
然后赦免令来了
and it’s not over at all.
一切并未结束
What would it be like to go through one’s whole life
那一辈子都抱有这样的
in such a state of gratitude and generosity?
感激之情和宽阔胸怀 会发生什么呢?
You wouldn’t share any of the normal attitudes.
你跟一般人的人生态度会不太一样
You’d love everyone equally,
你给予所有人平等的爱
you’d be enchanted by the simplest things,
你觉得平常小事也很吸引人
you’d never feel angry or frightened.
你不会生气或是害怕
You would seem to other people
在别人眼里
to be a kind of idiot.
你像个白痴
Hence the title of Dostoyevsky’s book.
这就是陀思妥耶夫斯基这本书的书名
It’s an extreme version of a very interesting step.
将一个很有趣的人生状态拓展到了极致
We’re continually surrounded by
我们身边一直有
things which could delight us,
能让我们感到开心的事物
if only we saw them in the right way,
需要我们用心去观察
if only we could learn to appreciate them.
需要我们学会欣赏
Dostoevsky was desperate to
陀思妥耶夫斯基很想
communicate the value of existence
在死神带走他 带走我们之前
before death would overtake him – and us.
传达出存在的价值
In Dostoyevsky’s final great work –
陀思妥耶夫斯基的最后一部杰作
“Brothers Karamazov”,
《卡拉马佐夫兄弟》出版时
which came out when he was nearly 60,
他已年近60
one of the central characters tells a long
小说里一位主角讲述了
story-within-a-story.
一段很长的戏中戏
It’s called The Grand Inquisitor,
叫《宗教大法官》
and imagines that the greatest event
这个故事假想了基督教神学中
looked forward to by Christian theology,
最期待最重要的一件事
the second coming of Christ,
也就是基督的第二次降临
has in fact already happened.
确实发生过
Jesus did come back,
耶稣确实回来了
several hundred years ago.
就在几百年前
He turned up in Spain,
他出现在西班牙
during the highest period of power in the Catholic Church:
那时候基督教会的权力达到了巅峰
the organisation established,
建立起了一些
in theory at least, entirely in devotion to him.
至少在理论上专门供奉耶稣的机构
Christ is back to fulfill his teachings
基督回到人间
of forgiveness and universal love.
教导信徒学会宽恕和博爱
But something rather odd happens.
但一件奇怪的事情发生了
The most powerful religious leader,
那位最有权势的宗教领袖
the Grand Inquisitor,
宗教大法官
has Jesus arrested and imprisoned.
逮捕了耶稣并将他囚禁起来
In the middle of the night,
在夜里
the Grand Inquisitor visits Christ in his cell
宗教大法官来到耶稣的牢房
and explains that he cannot allow him
解释了为什么他不能让耶稣
to do his work on Earth,
在世间传道
because he is a threat to the stability of society.
因为他威胁到了社会稳定
Christ, he says, is just too ambitious –
他说基督太有野心
too pure, too perfect.
太纯粹 太完美了
Humanity can’t live up to the impossible goals
人类不可能达到
he sets before us.
他为我们设立的目标
The fact is, people haven’t been able to live
事实上 人们一直没能做到
according to his teachings
在生活中遵循他的教导
and Jesus should admit he failed
耶稣必须承认他失败了
and that his ideas of redemption
他对于救赎的看法
were essentially misguided.
方向完全错了
The Grand Inquisitor is not really a monster.
宗教大法官其实不是一个恶魔
In fact, Dostoevsky portrays him as
事实上 陀思妥耶夫斯基在故事中
quite an admirable figure in the story.
将他描绘为一个值得尊敬的角色
He is a guide to a crucial idea,
他向我们指出了一个很关键的思想
that human beings cannot live in purity,
即人类生活不可能是纯粹的
cannot ever be just truly good,
不可能只有好的一面
cannot live up to Christ’s message,
不可能达到基督的要求
and this is something we should reconcile ourselves to
我们要从容地面对这一事实
with grace rather than fury or self-hatred.
不要因此变得很生气或是厌恶自己
We have to accept a great deal of unreasonableness,
我们要接受很多没道理的
folly, greed, selfishness and shortsightedness
愚蠢 贪婪 自私 短浅的人和事
as ineradicable parts of the human condition
因为这在人类的生活中是根深蒂固的
and plan accordingly.
你在做事时要明白这一点
And it’s not just a pessimistic thesis
这不是有关我们身边的
about politics or religion
政治或宗教的
that we’re being introduced to.
消极论断
The primary relevance of this thesis
这一论断最重要的现实意义在于
is as a commentary on our own lives:
这是对人生的注解:
we won’t sort them out,
这些事理不出头绪
we won’t stop being a bit mad and wayward.
我们杜绝不了疯狂和差错
And we shouldn’t torment ourselves with the dream that we could,
我们不应该用理想折磨自己
if only we tried hard enough,
想着如果足够努力
become the perfect beings
我们就能成为完美的人
that idealistic philosophies like Christianity
基督教这种理想主义哲学
like to sketch all too readily.
就总喜欢阐述这些
Dostoevsky died in 1881.
陀思妥耶夫斯基于1881年去世
He had a very hard life,
他的一生过得很艰难
but he succeeded in conveying an idea
但他成功地向我们传达了
which perhaps he understood more clearly than anyone:
或许没有人比他更清楚的理念:
in a world that’s very keen on upbeat stories,
在一个热衷于讲述励志故事的世界里
we will always run up against our limitations
我们其实总是受到限制的
as deeply flawed and profoundly muddled creatures.
因为我们是一种很不完美很糊涂的生物
Dostoyevsky’s attitude,
陀思妥耶夫斯基的态度
bleak but compassionate,
萧索无望但充满怜悯
tragic but kind,
悲惨却善良
is needed more than ever
我们这个幼稚敏感的时代
in our naive and sentimental age
很需要这样的观念
that so fervently clings to the idea
因为我们狂热地坚信着
which this great Russian novelist loathed
这位伟大的俄国小说家唾弃的理念
that science can save us all
那就是科学能拯救所有人
and that we may yet be made perfect through technology.
我们可以利用科技变得完美
Dostoyevsky guides us to
而陀思妥耶夫斯基却向我们指出了
a more humane darker truth:
一个更人道却也更黑暗的真相:
that – as the great sages have always known –
这一点伟大的哲人们一直都心知肚明
life is and ever will be suffering,
那就是 生活总是充满苦难的
and yet that there is great redemption available
但通过这些精彩动人
in articulating this message
复杂巧妙的艺术作品中
in brilliant and moving,
掷地有声的叙述
complex and subtle works of art.
我们或许也能获得伟大的救赎

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视频概述

介绍了陀思妥耶夫斯基的几部代表作。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

oxw

审核员

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MMmSdxZpseY

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