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《圣经》中的文学风格 – 译学馆
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《圣经》中的文学风格

Literary Styles in the Bible

《圣经》是许多书的集合 从头至尾都是个统一的故事
The Bible is a collection of many books, telling one unified story from beginning to end.
但这些书每一本都是由不同的文体写成
But all those books were written in different literary styles.
是的 想象一下走进一家书店 走廊两侧是不同作品
Yeah, think of it like walking into a bookstore where every aisle has a different kind of literature.
历史 诗歌 非小说散文 当你选择一栏 取下一本书
There’s history, or poetry, or nonfiction, and when you choose an aisle and pick up a book
你有各种不同的期待 要寻找不同的东西
you’re gonna have very different expectations, different things that you’re looking for.
是的 他们都是文学 但由不同的方式讲述
Right, they’re all literature but they communicate in really different ways.
是的 《圣经》就是这样
Yes, and so the same thing is true for the Bible.
如果你不在意文体 将错过每本书的精华
If you don’t pay attention to what style it’s written in, you will miss out on the brilliance of each book.
因此 《圣经》里的主要文学类型是什么呢?
So, what are the main types of literature in the Bible?
首先是记叙 《圣经》里有43%都由它组成
Well first and foremost is narrative. It makes up a whopping 43% of the Bible.
然后是诗歌 它在书中占了33%
After that is poetry, which is 33% of the Bible.
再然后是散文对话 占了剩下的24%
And then there’s what you could call prose discourse, which makes up the remaining 24%.
《圣经》里有接近一半都是记叙
Nearly half the Bible is narrative.
是的 并不是巧合
Yes, and this is no accident.
故事是人类交流最常用的方式
Stories are the most universal form of human communication.
我们的大脑固定通过故事来吸收信息
Our brains are actually hardwired to take in information through stories.
故事令人愉快 为什么呢?
And stories are really enjoyable. Why is that?
故事能让我们理解生活中发生的看似偶然的事件
Well stories train us to make sense of the seemingly random events that happen in life
把这些偶然事件按顺序排列组成故事链
by taking those events and then putting them in a sequence,
这样你就能明白这些事件的意义及目的
and then together you can start to see the meaning and purpose of it all.
是什么将这些联系起来呢?
And what links this all together?
一个好的故事里 总是有一个有追求的角色
Well good stories always have a character who wants something and then
通过这个角色 作者可以探索人生的大问题
through these characters an author can explore life’s big questions
比如 我们是谁 生命中真正重要的是什么
like who are we or what’s really important in life.
另外 一个好的故事里总是存在一些冲突
And a good story always involves some kind of conflict;
一些需要克服的挑战 也存在我们自己的生活中
some challenge to overcome just like in our own lives.
这就让我们思考我们自己的挑战
And that forces us to think about our own challenges,
为什么有这么多的痛苦和失望
why there’s so much pain or disappointment in the world
对此我们能做些什么
and then what can we do about it?
故事结尾往往都有解决办法 为我们自身问题的解决给予希望
And stories usually end with some kind of resolution giving us hope for our own stories.
既然是《圣经》故事 里面的人物会启示我们如何生活吗?
Since these are Bible stories, are the characters showing me how I should live?
哦 这不是重点 很多《圣经》人物都有很大的缺点
Yeah, that’s not quite the point. Most Bible characters are deeply flawed.
你不能全学他们 但我们可以借鉴他们的得失
You should not be like them. But, we are supposed to see ourselves in them which
从而帮助我们以新的视角看待生活和失败
helps us then see our lives and failures from a new perspective.
不知不觉中 这些故事开始改变你
And without even realizing it these stories will start to mess with you
看待世界 看待他人 看待自己的观点
and change how you see the world, and other people, and yourself.
这些是《圣经》中各类不同的叙事体
Now there are different types of narrative in the Bible.
有历史叙事体 叙事体预言 简短的传记叙事体
Yeah, there’s historical narrative, but also narrative parables, short biographical narratives like the
比如《四福音书 》 以后的视频我们会看到这些内容
four Gospels. We’ll look at all these in later videos.
好的 接下来是诗歌体裁 说实话这类体裁我读的并不多
Okay. Next up is poetry which honestly I don’t read a lot of.
嗯 你和大多数人一样 不过《圣经》中三分之一的章节都是诗歌体裁
Yeah, you’re like most people. But, one out of every three chapters in the Bible is poetry.
哦 为什么有这么多诗歌呢?
Yeah, why so much poetry?
诗歌总是用凝练创造性的语言
Well poems mainly speak through
将各种画面联系起来 让我们想象出不同的世界
dense creative language, linking together images to help us envision the world differently.
诗歌使用大量的比喻 激发你的感情和想象力
Poems use lots of metaphor to evoke your emotion and your imagination.
大量充满想象的语言 但直接告诉我
Lots of fancy language. But wouldn’t it be easier just to tell me
我需要知道什么 不是更简单吗?
what I need to know?
你想想 生活中我们总是用固有思维
Well think about it. In life we tend to form mental ruts
按照熟悉的思路思考 很难跳出逻辑推理的范畴
and we think in these familiar well-worn paths that are very hard to get out of
然而好的诗篇会迫使你跳出旧思维
through logic or reasoning. And what good poetry does is force you off the familiar path
潜移默化的引领你进入新思路
into new territory. Sneaky. And there’s different types of poetry in
这些是《圣经》中各种各样的诗篇和诗歌
the Bible; there’s lots of types of songs or psalms.
其中有智慧书里的沉思诗
There’s the reflective poetry of the wisdom books and then
也有先知书里充满激情的劝诫诗
the passionate resistance poetry of the prophets.
好的 最后一个较大的文体是散文论述类
Okay, the last big literary type is called prose discourse,
这类文体占《圣经》中四分之一的篇幅
and it makes up a quarter of the Bible.
这类文体包括演讲 书信 随笔 重点是要将一连串的思考联系起来进行论证
Yeah, these are speeches, letters, or essays. And the focus here is building a sequence of ideas or thoughts
这就需要书中有逻辑性的问答 类似于
into one linear argument that requires a logical response like,
嘿 你想过这件事吗? 你应该想到它还和另一件事有联系
“Hey! have you thought about this thing? You should also consider how it connects to this other thing.
如果你做这件事就会导致另一件事发生
And if you do then you will see that this is the result and
因此 你应该停止做这样的事
in light of that conclusion, therefore, you should probably stop doing that one thing
否则 就会产生另一件事的后果
so that this other thing will be the outcome.”
所以 你是在用推论来说服我
So, you’re persuading me with reason.
论述体裁迫使你进行逻辑性连续性的思考推论
Yeah, discourse forces you to think logically and consistently and
然后根据推论结果去做事
then do something about it.
《圣经》中的论述体裁体现于律法书
Biblical discourse is found in law collections,
智慧书 以及使徒书信中
in wisdom literature, and the letters written by the apostles.
好的 《圣经》中的每一卷书都对应着一种文体吗
Okay, so each book of the Bible has one literary style.
不是的 事实上大多数书卷都有一个主要的文体 比如叙事体
No, actually most books have a primary literary style, like narrative for example.
但在这个主要的文体里还穿插着诗歌 预言 律法
But then embedded in the narrative you’ll come across poems or parables or a collection of laws.
每一本《圣经》书卷都是各类文学体裁独特的组合
Every biblical book is a unique combination of literary styles.
所以要想把《圣经》读好 就要熟悉每一种文体
And to read that book well I need to be familiar with each literary type
以及各类文体是如何应用的
and how it works.
这样你就知道重点关注哪里及问什么问题
Yeah, so you know what to pay attention to and what questions you should ask.
在这之前 先提一下《圣经》书卷还有另外一个统一的特征
But before we look at each type there’s one more unifying feature of biblical literature,
这个特征很重要也很酷 我们下期将会详述
that’s really important and really cool, and that’s what we’ll explore next.
嗨 大家好 感谢观看《圣经》项目视频
Hey everybody. Thanks for watching this Bible Project video.
这是如何读《圣经》大型系列剧的一部分
It’s one part of a much larger series on how to read the Bible.
你可以在thebibleproject.com网站 找到更多相关的免费视频
You can find more of those videos and all of our videos for free at thebibleproject.com.
我们是一个非盈利的众筹动画工作室
We’re a non-profit crowdfunded animation studio,
意味着你也可以加入我们 帮助我们做更多视频
which means you can actually join us and help us make more videos. Again, go
再次重申 请登录thebibleproject.com网站 该视频谨献给我敬爱的老师雷·吕贝克
to thebibleproject.com. And one more thing, this video is lovingly dedicated
是他最先向我介绍视频中探讨的各种想法
to my former teacher Ray Lubeck. He first introduced me to all the ideas that we
如果你想了解更多这类想法
explored in this video. If you want to learn more about these ideas check out
请看雷吕贝克教授的书 《为改变而读经》爱你 雷
his book called Read the Bible for a Change by Professor Ray Lubeck. Love you Ray.
非常感谢你
Thanks so much.

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《圣经》中的文体

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oUXJ8Owes8E

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