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《胡须Linux教程》#2 配置Linux虚拟机 – 译学馆
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《胡须Linux教程》#2 配置Linux虚拟机

Linux Sysadmin Basics 01 -- Setting up a Linux Virtual Machine

欢迎来到第二集
Welcome to part 2.
这节课是个比较琐碎的内容
This is just going to be some housekeeping stuff.
我之所以这么说是因为
I say that because,
不是所有人都能坚持跟着学下去
not everyone who wants to take a look at this tutorial and follow along,
但如果你想要坚持下去 这节是要学的
and you absolutely have to follow along to really, learn this stuff.
有些人打算直截了当
Some people aren’t going to want to jump in,
取代他们正在用的操作系统
and then like, replace their current operating system,
无论是Windows还是Mac OS
whether it’s Windows or Mac OS, in most cases,
改装上Linux
with Linux.
我能理解
And, I understand.
即便现在来说这种操作已经相当容易了
And even thing that are like, pretty easy now,
比如说用双系统
like dual booting,
安装一个Linux操作系统
so setting up a Linux operating system next to,
与你的Windows或MacOSX系统并存
your Windows or Mac OS X operating system,
机器启动时选择一个系统进入就可以了
and then choosing a boot, which one you want to go into.
但这对一些人来说还是有点可怕
That can still be a little scary for some people, so,
这里我将给大家介绍一种替代的方法 以及具体的操作
I’m just going to talk about that alternative here, and show you how to do it.
不过还有另外一个方法 当然这适用于
There is another alternative, obviously, which is just,
你有一台旧电脑 比如一个旧的笔记本或台式电脑
taking an old computer, like a laptop, or an old desktop,
你可以这它上面安装Linux系统
and installing just Linux on that.
我发现这个方法很棒 那是在我的第一台机器中
But I find that it’s nice to have, under primary machine,
说不定你也会这样做
so that your always, kind of, motivated to be using it.
好 我们将要进行的操作是
Ok, so, the way we’re going to do it is,
在虚拟机中安装Linux系统
we’re going to install Linux as a virtual machine,
虚拟机也叫VM
or a VM.
简单说这就是一个在你电脑里的
What that is, is basically it’s an application,
一个应用程序
on your computer,
这个可以
which will,
嗯…大概
basically,
创建一个允许其他操作系统运行的环境
create an environment for another operating system to run,
就好像是一个应用
just like any other application.
所以在这里面创建Linux操作系统
And so, that operating system, in this case, Linux,
而不是在一个物理意义上的机器中
won’t know that it’s not on a physical machine.
该方法分为两个步骤
There’s two parts to this,
首先我们下载操作系统
first we download the operating system,
然后下载VirtualBox
then we download the, the VirtualBox software.
这个软件允许直接在电脑上安装操作系统
So the software that’s going to let us install that operating system on your machine now,
而不会破坏你正在运行的操作系统
without touching your current operating system.
我会教你怎么安装
And then I’ll show you how to install it.
安装步骤都是一样的
And that install process will just about the same,
无论是在虚拟机中还是真正的电脑上
whether your doing it in a virtual machine, or on a real computer.
好 第一步是去Linux发行版的网站
Ok, so, step 1, is going to the Linux distributions website.
这有很多不同的发行版
Now there’s lots of different distribution,
我将会使用Ubuntu系统
I’m going to use Ubuntu here,
不是因为我觉得这是最好的
not because I think it’s the best one,
而是因为它极其流行
but because it’s extremely popular,
技术支持也非常完善
extremely well supported.
几乎到处都会有它的身影
So, your going to basically see it everywhere.
如果你想使用Linux 就一定遇到它
If you want to work with Linux, you’re going to run into this.
你得准备好 虽然这不是我最喜欢的
And you need to be prepared, it’s not my favourite distribution.
但是你得知道这个
But, you should know it, ok.
Ubuntu的网址是ubuntu.com
So, Ubuntu’s website is ‘ubuntu.com’,
跳过所有的销售界面直接去/download/desktop
and just skip all the marketing and go to ‘/download/desktop’.
我仔细想了想是否要用一个服务器操作系统
I debated on whether or not to use a server operating system,
他们也有一个不带用户图形界面的服务器版本
they, they have a server version without a graphical user interphase, as well.
但是为了方便使用 我们会使用桌面版
But just for, just for ease of use, we’re going to go with the desktop version.
尽管我们会在命令行终端花费大部分时间
We’re going to be spending most of our time in the terminal though,
但我不是教你比如如何在Linux上运行Office
this is not going to be, like, how to use Office on Linux or something.
好 我们继续然后开始下载
Ok, so, go ahead and start the download,
你不必担心额外的支持版本
you don’t care about extended support versions.
只用滑到下面找最新的版本
So just scroll down for the latest one,
这是13.10版本
This might be 13.10.
如果今年之后的话
If it’s later on the year, it, it’ll be,
可能会是14
14, what is it?
14.04? 哇
14.04? Wow, yeah.
它每六个月会有一个新版本发布
Every six month a new version comes out.
但也不完全是 我意思是
But, it’s not really, I’m mean it’s just sort of,
更新的二进制文件 不过这没关系
updated binaries…it doesn’t matter.
选择下载 但是他们会问你要钱
So, choose the download, they’re going to ask you for money, but,
但你不用支付任何钱
you don’t have to pay any money.
然后滑到最下面点’No thanks, Canonical’
So, just scroll to the bottom and say, ‘No thanks, Canonical’.
现在下载就会开始 点下’OK’
The download will start, just click ‘OK’.

Ok.
第二步是进到’virtualbox.org’
Our second move is going to ‘virtualbox.org’,
这是一个Oracle公司的项目
this is an Oracle project.
这是让我们运行虚拟机的东西
And this is what’s going to allow us to run a virtual machine.
去’virtualbox.org’
So, go to ‘virtualbox.org’,
点击’Downloads’
click on ‘Downloads’.
然后下载其中的一个文件
And just download one of these binaries,
你可能用的是Windows
you’re probably, most likely on a Windows machine,
所以下载这个
so you’ll, download this.
在这下载 然后点’Save File’
So download here, just click ‘Save File’,
就像Ubuntu一样
just like for Ubuntu,
然后等待下载完成
and then, just wait for the downloads to complete.
好 我们已经下载完了
Ok, our downloads have completed.
然后安装VitualBox
So, just go ahead and install VirtualBox,
它会问你好多次
it will ask you a bunch of times if,
如果你想用Oracle授权软件之类的
you want to authorise software by Oracle blah blah blah,
virtual operators之类的
virtual operators blah blah blah,
技术性的东西 只用一直点击’Yes’就好
technical stuff, just keep clicking ‘Yes’.
然后它会做的是 创建一个
What this is going to do is, it’s going to create sort of,
虚拟设备和虚拟适配器
virtual devices and virtual adaptors,
在你的Windows或Mac上
on your Windows or Mac machine,
让你的虚拟机可以通过它们做一些事
that your virtual machines can use to do things,
比如说和网络交互
like interface with your network, like,
然后你就可以在虚拟机里访问互联网了
so you can have internet access on them.
假设你已经安装好了VirtualBox
Good, so presuming you’ve got VirtualBox installed,
点击New创建一个新的机器
click ‘New’ to create a new machine.
我们可以叫这个’linux-learning’
And we’ll just call this ‘linux-learning’,
然后他会正确的识别出来将要使用的Linux
and it correctly guesses that we’re using Linux,
这些都是老版本的内核 这个我以后会说到
this is, these are like old Kernels, we’ll just say,
就是这个 看起来有Ubuntu
oh, there we go, wow, it even has Ubuntu.
点击下一步
We will hit ‘Next’,
它会问你想分配多少空间
and it’ll ask how much memory we want to give it,
我会给这个分配2048 就是2G
I’m going to give this, let’s say 2048, so just about 2 gigs.
点击下一步
Click ‘Next’,
我们将会创建一个新的虚拟硬盘
we’ll create a new virtual hard drive.
好 点击下一步
This is fine, so just hit ‘Next’.
“Dynamically allicated”(动态分配)就像说的那样
‘Dynamically allocated’ just means that,
这现在不会耗费很多空间
it’s not going to take a chunk of hard drive space right now,
它会简单的
it will simply,
随着在你硬盘中的文件增加而增长
slowly grow as a file, or a set of files on you disk,
直到你到达在此处设置的极限
as you approach the limit that you’re going to set here.
我觉得8G就可以
I think 8 gigs is just about fine,
已经足够了
that will be more than enough.
你也可以选择和我不一样的 比如说选4G
You could probably get away for what we’re doing with something like 4 gigs.
双击电源键打开机器
So, double click to power the machine on,
或者也可以点’Start’
or you can just hit ‘Start’.
在这里你会点击然后转到
And here, you’re going to click and navigate to,
刚才你下载的镜像 可以从镜像启动
the image you just downloaded, so you can boot from that.
选择
Select that,

ok.
启动了 它会从下载的镜像引导启动
It starts, so it’s going to boot up from that,
install CD也称作live CD
install CD or live CD.
if your having trouble with this,
如果在这遇到了问题
if your having trouble with this,
just Google around, or search around for, you know,
去Google搜索一下
just Google around, or search around for, you know,
‘VirtualBox’, and then whatever error you’re seeing on the screen.
在’VirtualBox’中无论是显示的任何错误
‘VirtualBox’, and then whatever error you’re seeing on the screen.
因为有一百万人用这个东西
Because there’s a million people who try this,
Cause there’s a million people who try this,
without turning on their virtualisation support, and,
没有打开他们的虚拟化支持
without turning on their virtualisation support, and,
you’d get it fixed quickly.
你会很快解决问题
you’ll get it fixed quickly.
This is just some software licence and crap,
这些是软件协议之类的废话
This is just some software licence and crap,
I wouldn’t install third-party software.
我不安装第三方软件
I wouldn’t install third-party software.
如果你真的要把这个作为工作的机器
And if you’re really going to be using this as a work machine,
and not just a learning machine.
而不是练习的机器
and not just a learning machine.
You can go ahead and download updates, but I don’t care about that.
你可以继续并且下载更新 但我不在意这些
You can go ahead and download updates, but I don’t care about that.
We’re going to erase the disk and install Ubuntu.
我们选择抹除磁盘安装Ubuntu
We’re going to erase the disk and install Ubuntu.
If you’re going to this on a machine for actually working on,
如果你确实准备用这个机器来进行主要工作
If you’re going to this on a machine for actually working on,
if you really want to make Linux your main operating system,
如果想让Linux成为主要的操作系统
if you really want to make Linux your main operating system,
which, by the way, is a great idea if you really want to learn it.
对了 如果你真的要学Linux这是个很棒的想法
which, by the way, is a great idea if you really want to learn it.
I would recommend checking both of these boxes.
我建议检查一下这些选项
I would recommend checking both of these boxes.
So using LVM on the disc, that’s the, the Logical Volume Manage,
在磁盘上使用LVM 这个是逻辑卷管理
So using LVM on the disc, that’s the, the Logical Volume Manage…
manager for Linux.
Linux上的管理器
Manager for Linux.
So what that does is it basically just,
这个是用来
What that does is it basically just,
abstracts storage from being physical things, like partitions,
从物理设备上抽象出存储空间 比如说分区
abstracts storage from being like, physical things, like partitions,
which are kind of, annoying to resize once you have them,
因为调整空间大小是个很棘手的事
which are kind of, annoying to resize once you have them,
and they’re like
它们对应在磁盘上的物理位置
and then they’re like correspond to like, physical locations on the disk.
这个就可以将它们抽象出来
And this abstracts that.
你可以创建这些抽象卷
So you create these abstract volumes,
这些抽象卷就在分区中
that are on the partitions,
然后
and,
如果你想缩小或扩大分区也很容易
these are very easy to like, if you want to shrink or, or enlarge them.
我本来想说embigging的 这是我最喜欢的词
I was going to say ’embigging’, which is one of my favourite words,
但是不过这个词并不存在
but unfortunately it doesn’t exist.
如果你想缩小或扩大这些逻辑分区
So if you want to shrink or ’embiggen’ these, these logical partitions,
或之后的逻辑卷
these logical volumes later,
你会很容易的实现
You can do that very easily,
它底层做的事是创建另外一个物理分区器
and what it does is underneath it, it’ll just create another physical partitioner,
或者增加一个的空间
or add to the size of one.
但这个会让你从那些麻烦中得救
But, it…it sort of frees you from having to deal with that gunk yourself,
这也会更快
it’s also much faster.
我会给这个加密
And I would also encrypt it,
因为默认就是加密
just because you should just be encrypting stuff by default.
就好像说’嗨我得需要点隐私’
It’s just like, ‘Hello, I would like some privacy’.
这的确可以确保隐私
And that will ensure that,
无论你把什么东西放在逻辑卷里面
whatever you put inside that logical volume, so,
基本上你的所有操作系统
your entire operating system, most of it,
都会被加密 就好像
will be encrypted, and so someone, just like,
如果砸烂你的电脑然后偷走硬盘
bashes your computer open and steals your hard drive,
他们也不会得到你的任何数据
they won’t be able to get any of your personal data from it.
这不会有任何问题
You know, you just won’t have any problems.
你可以…这些不需要依赖其他东西的
You can, these aren’t, like, the one doesn’t depend on the other,
所以你可以给他加密而不必使用LVM
so you can just encrypt it and not use LVM,
或者你可以使用LVM不用加密 这都没关系
or you could just use LVM and not encrypt it, it doesn’t matter.
好 接下来我们会擦除这个盘然后安装Ubuntu
Ok, but we’re just going to erase this disk and install Ubuntu.
因为我们很懒 这个只是用来学习的
Cause we’re lazy, and this is just for learning.
我现在在奥地利 信不信由你
I am in Austria right now, believe it or not.
如果你听懂我的口音的话
If you get that by my accent!
还有我对操作系统疯狂的爱
And my love for violent, violent operating systems.
好 美式键盘布局
Alright, American layout.
我们会确定一个名字
And we’ll just choose, a name.
然后决定你的用户名和密码
So just choose your username and password, and,
如果你已经对整个磁盘加密的话
if you’re already using full disk encryption,
你就不需要这个
you don’t need to do this,
但是没有这个 你之前没有选择加密磁盘的话
but if you’re not, you didn’t choose ‘Encrypt the Disk’ before,
所以你如果没有用LUKS的话
so if you’re not leasing LUKS, in this case, just,
点击你的主目录
click on your home folder, cause that again,
用来防止 那些烦人的事
prevents that, that nasty,
比如‘有人偷了我的电脑并且他们有权限得到我的所有数据’
‘someone stole my computer, and they have access to all my data now.’,
的问题
problem.
但是我们不需要
But we don’t need that,
因为这只是个学习的机器
because it’s just a learning machine.
听到这里烦了吗
Getting tired of hearing that?
我的意思是
Ah, for God sake, I mean,
不 这都是附加的废物
just, just no, this is all this add-on crap,
准备试着卖给你
that would tries to sell you.
在这
Oh, hello there.
啊 我非常抱歉
I’m so sorry,
被你发现了我最喜欢的一个游戏
you caught me looking one of my favourite games.
这不是个推荐
Ok, that’s not for a recommendation.
一旦完成了安装
Once you’re done installing,
然后重启一下旧机器
just restart the old machine.
好 现在已经有了一个运行在虚拟机上的Linux机器
Ok, so you’ve now got a working Linux machine, running in a virtual machine.
好了 希望你喜欢
Good, I hope you enjoyed.

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视频概述

胡须Linux教程第二集下载安装虚拟机安装Ubuntu系统

听录译者

positiveme

翻译译者

[B]Air

审核员

知易行难

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OLK49ZTbmWM

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