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莱姆病:水果饮品怎么会让你患上皮疹?! – 译学馆
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莱姆病:水果饮品怎么会让你患上皮疹?!

Lime Disease: How a Fruity Drink Can Give You a Rash

开场乐
[♪♩INTRO]
想像这样一幅画面:你在海滩上 一边放松 一边啜饮着啤酒
Picture this: you’re on a beach, relaxing, sipping on a beer.
在你享受日光浴并随手向酒中挤一点儿酸橙汁时(身上)被溅到了一些
You squeeze a lime into your drink and get hit by some citrusy mist while you’re sunbathing.
没什么大不了的 对吗?
No big deal, right?
事实上 由于酸橙中的某些化学物质和太阳中紫外线的作用
Well, actually, because of some chemicals in that lime and UV radiation from the sun,
你的皮肤将会被伤到
your skin is about to get attacked.
症状会在日晒后的一两天内显现出来:发痒 伴随水疱的具有灼热感的皮疹
The symptoms come a day or two after exposure: an itchy, burning rash with fluid-filled blisters
有点儿像严重晒伤
— kind of like a bad sunburn.
这被称做莱姆病 是因为”lime”中有个“i”状
It’s been called lime disease — that’s “lime” with an “i”.
你或许也听过 它被称作墨西哥啤酒皮炎玛格丽塔皮炎
You might also hear it called Mexican beer dermatitis, margarita dermatitis, or Club
或地中海俱乐部皮炎 因为通常人们会伴着这种皮疹度假归来
Med dermatitis, after the tourism company because sometimes people come back with post-vacation rashes.
这种症状在医学上被称为植物日光性皮炎
The medical name for this condition is phytophotodermatitis,
从命名上我们可以看出这是一种与植物和日光有关的皮肤损伤
which tells us that it’s skin damage related to plants and light.
更准确的说 是高能紫外线 比如日光中的紫外线
Specifically, high-energy ultraviolet light, like the UV rays in sunlight.
该不良皮肤反应是由呋喃香豆素这种
This bad skin reaction is caused by certain furanocoumarins, a group of compounds that
某些植物用于自卫并抵制饥饿的食草动物的化合物引起的
some plants use to defend themselves and deter hungry herbivores.
它们存在于一些常见的植物中 比如芹菜 欧芹 欧洲萝卜 或者一些柑橘类水果
They’re in some common plants like celery, parsley, parsnip, and some citrus fruits like
例如柠檬和酸橙
lemons and limes.
呋喃香豆素自身并非有毒的破坏细胞的化学物
Furanocoumarins aren’t toxic cell-damaging chemicals on their own.
但会在植物细胞受损并暴露在阳光下时被激活
They’re activated when they’re exposed to sunlight after a plant’s cells are broken open.
在阳光中紫外线辐射作用下 呋喃香豆素就会发生化学反应
With the energy from the UV radiation in sunlight, furanocoumarins can undergo a chemical reaction
并且将少量的某些DNA植入另一种生物细胞内 破坏这些DNA的结构
and bind to certain bits of DNA inside another creature’s cells, messing with the DNA’s structure.
当DNA损伤时 细胞会停止正常工作 而且有时会被杀死
When this DNA damage happens, cells can stop working properly and sometimes get killed off.
这一反应是为了阻止动物或昆虫对其进行捕食
This reaction is designed to stop animals and insects from eating the plant, since a
因为有毒物质会导致口感不太好
toxic substance doesn’t lend itself to a great “mouth feel.”
有些动物懂得避开食用这些有毒植物 然而某些生物已经逐渐进化
Some animals learn to avoid these toxic plants, but certain creatures have evolved ways to
能够获取这些植物中的美味营养
get at their tasty nutrients.
比如一些毛毛虫 它们通过改变自己的行为避开了植物的这种防卫
Some caterpillar species, for instance, get around this defense by changing their behavior.
它们会把选中的叶片卷起来 然后在里面大快朵颐
They roll up their leaf of choice and munch on the inside.
这样一来 它们让富含呋喃香豆素的食物处在暗处 因此紫外线就不能刺激这些有毒成分
That way, they keep their furanocoumarin-riddled food in the dark, so UV light doesn’t activate these toxic compounds.
其他毛毛虫或蝴蝶 自身就能产生特有的蛋白质
Other caterpillar and butterfly species make specialized proteins in their bodies that
与呋喃香豆素反应从而解毒 因此 呋喃香豆素不会与DNA发生反应 也就不再产生损伤了
react with the compounds and detoxify them, so they can’t react with DNA and cause damage anymore.
作为人类 我们进化成熟并掌握的烹饪技术 这些就已经帮助我们避开了很多植物的自我防卫系统
As humans, our opposable thumbs and culinary arts have helped us get around a lot of plant
但如果我们不小心 呋喃香豆素还是会对我们造成影响的
defense systems, but furanocoumarins can still affect us if we’re not careful.
例如 酸橙汁和果皮中就含有三种呋喃香豆素
Limes, for instance, have a cocktail of three furanocoumarins that are concentrated in the juice and peel,
一旦被啃咬 或是在海边被你挤进最爱的饮料时
ready to be released and activated whenever the fruit is bitten,
就会随时准备被激发
or squeezed into your favorite drink on a beach day.
呋喃香豆素也发现于佛手柑橙中 它们是伯爵茶标志性味道的组成部分
Furanocoumarins are also found in bergamot oranges, which are a part of the iconic Earl
也是香水中很受欢迎的一种成分
Grey tea smell, and were a popular ingredient in perfumes.
在香水调制师搞清 如何用人造香味取代佛手柑油之前
Before perfumiers figured out how to make artificial scents to replace bergamot oil,
那些外喷了佛手柑香水的人们就会发现自己身上有水泡状皮疹
people who wore bergamot perfume outside found themselves with blistery rashes, just like
就像如今那些去地中海度假过的人们一样
modern-day Club Med partiers
这恰恰是因为 只要这些附着在你皮肤上的成分接触到日光
And that’s just because if any of these compounds get on your skin while you’re
紫外线就将在你皮肤上引发DNA损伤的化学反应
sunbathing, the UV light will cause that DNA-damaging chemical reaction in your skin cells.
你好 植物日光性皮炎
Hello, phytophotodermatitis.
这种临床表现看起来像严重的水泡晒伤的原因
The reason this skin condition basically looks like a really bad blistery sunburn is because
是因为 它是一种类似的损伤
it’s a similar kind of damage.
在晒伤的情况下 某些紫外线也会损伤你的DNA 然后你的免疫系统
In a sunburn, certain kinds of UV light also damage your DNA, and your immune system starts
会开始杀死这些不正常的细胞以防它们癌变
killing off malfunctioning cells so they don’t become cancerous.
如果你发现自己有这类皮疹 通常可选用糖皮质激素类药物治疗
If you do find yourself with this rash, it’s usually treated with drugs like corticosteroids
那种模拟激素与免疫系统相作用 从而减缓炎症
that mimic a hormone and interact with your immune system to reduce inflammation.
症状通常会在几周后就有所好转
Symptoms usually get better after a couple of weeks.
避免这一病症要做的 就是立刻用水洗掉酸橙汁
All it should take to prevent it, though, is to wash off the offending lime juice or
或其他物质啦
other substance right away.
如果你真的不巧在海边被弄了一身酸橙汁还不能及时冲澡的话
And if you do find yourself on the beach covered in lime juice and can’t get to a shower
-喂 我不作评判
— hey, I’m not judging.
-或许你应该像带着柑橘香味的吸血鬼一样 远离阳光
— just maybe stay out of the sun like the citrus-scented vampire you are.
但是互联网不是医生 因此当你有些奇怪的皮疹时 请一定及时就医
But the Internet isn’t a doctor, so, y’know, please actually go see one if you have any mysterious rashes.
感谢收看这期的科学秀啦
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow!
如果你还想了解呋喃香豆素引起医疗灾难的另一种方式
If you’d like to learn about another way furanocoumarins can cause medical mishaps,
那就请看 汉克解释的为何不应该用柚子汁服药的那期视频啦
check out our video where Hank explains why you shouldn’t take medicine with grapefruit juice!
结束
[♪♩OUTRO]

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享受日光,水果和饮品的同时,也要保护好自己哦,融入生活的科学生活小知识,欢迎收看喽!

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NuhefGsVS9I

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