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青苔:两种生命一体 – 译学馆
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青苔:两种生命一体

Lichen: Two Living Things In One

你听过青苔吗?
Have you ever heard of lichen?
它并不会像那些很大点的让人兴奋的生物那样得到关注,例如大象,
It doesn’t get the same attention that bigger, more exciting living things get — like elephants,
或者是鲨鱼,巨大的红木树。
or sharks, or giant redwood trees.
但是它却是最酷的生物,你可能会发现它们,在你路过
But it’s one of the coolest things that you’re likely to find on your next walk
的树林,甚至你的后院!
in the woods — or even in your own back yard!
青苔是极小的生物,或者是有机体,生长在户外,通常将自己附在
Lichen is a tiny living thing, or organism, that grows outdoors, attaching itself, most
岩石,树或者土壤上。
of the time, to rocks, trees and soil.
这些微小但是多彩的生物体非常喜欢潮湿的地方,所以你会发现它们在
This small but colorful organism really likes moist areas, which is why you can find it
沁水的岩石上,在潮湿的树皮上,或者是潮湿的地面。
where water runs down rocks, on the bark of damp trees, and on the wet ground.
但是,令人惊奇的是,青苔是两种生活在一起的不同生物体,
But here’s a surprise—lichen is actually two different organisms that live together
它们互惠互利。
to help each other out.
它其实是真菌和藻类的合体。
It’s actually both a fungus and an algae.
你可能会看到压在包底的旧面包上的真菌。
You may have seen fungus on the bottom of your old bread at the bottom of the bag.
很恶心,我知道,但是绿色的茸茸的菌类是真菌的一种,蘑菇也是
Gross, I know, sorry. But that fuzzy green mold is a kind of fungus, and mushrooms are
真菌的一部分。
part of a fungus, too.
谈到藻类,你可能会看到它,在你的鱼塘,或者任何
As for algae, you might’ve seen that on the inside of your fish tank, or wherever
有水的地方,例如池塘。
there’s still water, like a pond.
在青苔里面,真菌和藻类共同生活的关系,被称为共生关系。共生关系
In lichen, fungus and algae work together in a relationship called symbiosis. A symbiotic
是两种生物体互存互助,并且得到自己各自
relationship is where two organisms help each other survive, with each of them getting something
所需。
out of the relationship.
真菌和藻类在聚会中都带有特殊的技能。真菌比藻类大
Both the fungus and the algae bring special skills to this party. The fungus is bigger
有一个更强壮的身躯,所以它造就了青苔的外形。
and has a stronger body than algae, so it gives the lichen its shape.
但是藻类有其他的作用,藻类带来家中美味的培根……通过,我的意思是
But the algae has another role. The algae brings home the bacon…by which, I mean,
它制造食物。
it makes food.
不是培根。
Not bacon.
像其他植物一样,藻类可以通过阳光制造食物。它通过光合作用,
Like many other plants, algae can make food from sunlight. It uses a process called photosynthesis
通过太阳捕捉能量来制造糖类以供消耗。
to capture energy from the sun to make sugars that it uses for energy.
因为真菌不能自己完成,它和藻类搭伙去获得稳定的
Since the fungus can’t do this on its own, it pairs up with the algae to help get a steady
食物供给。
supply of food.
虽然藻类可以自己生存下去,在任何有水和阳光的地方,和真菌合伙
And while algae can survive on its own, wherever there’s water and light, pairing up with
可以使它生长在各种不同的地貌上,例如潮湿的地方,沙
the fungus allows it to grow in all kinds of different landscapes, like moist, sandy
地,树木繁茂的森林和岩石!
places, wooded forests and rocks!
一旦你了解如何去关注它,就很容易在各种地方发现它了。
Once you learn how to spot it, it can be pretty easy to find in all sorts of places.
它可能是蓝色的,绿色的或者是红色的,甚至是黄色和橘色的!青苔的颜色取决于
It can be blue, green or red. Or yellow! Or even orange! The color of lichen depends on
一起活动的真菌和藻类的种类。
what type of fungus and algae are working together.
但是它们主要有三种形式来探索。第一种像多叶的生菜但是
But there are three main types to look for. The first kind is leafy like lettuce. But
不能吃。
don’t eat it!
第二种长的像小茶杯,或者像老人纤细
The second kind can grow to look like little teacups, or the wispy strands of an old man’s
的胡子。你可能会在随风摇曳的树枝上看到。
beard. You may have seen this type swaying in the wind on tree branches.
最后一种叫做“地衣”,它色彩很多,很平坦,你可以
And the last type is called “crust lichen.” It’s colorful and flat – you can find them
在岩石上找到他们。它们使岩石看起来有很多斑点。
on rocks. And it makes the rocks look like they have spots!
不管是什么颜色和形状,青苔是多样的并且非常脆弱。它生长
Whatever the shape and color, lichen is very diverse and it’s also very delicate. It grows
极度缓慢,当你远足的时候如果碰巧看到了一些,尽量
extremely slowly, so if you happen to see some while you’re on a hike, try not to
不要去践踏。
step on it!
尽管它很小,青苔在自然界扮演了很重要的角色,因为它为
While it may be small, lichen is an important part of nature, because it provides a home
小生物例如蜘蛛和小的昆虫提供了家园。
for little critters like spiders and small insects.
这是个有趣的事实!青苔通常长在空气新鲜,干净的地方,
And here’s a fun fact! – Lichen usually grows where the air is fresh and clean, which
所以你才会在自然区域,例如,森林,湖的周围发现它们,而不是
is why you can find them out in natural areas, like in forests and around lakes, but not
在靠近高速路或者城镇的地方。
necessarily near highways or in the city.
如果你和朋友或者家人外出散步,当你看到一小根青苔长在
So if you’re out on a walk with your friends or family, and you see a little sprig of lichen
树上或者岩石上,就深深吸一口新鲜空气!啊。
on a tree or a rock, take a deep breath of fresh air! Ahhh.
谢谢收看sci show kids,下次再会。
Thanks for watching Sci Show Kids. See you next time.

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