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萨尔可汗:让我们为真正的能力来教学,而不是分数

Let's teach for mastery -- not test scores | Sal Khan

今天 我要分享两个观点
I’m here today to talk about the two ideas that,
至少基于我对可汗学院的观察得出的
at least based on my observations at Khan Academy,
有关于学习的核心 或者说是根基
are kind of the core, or the key leverage points for learning.
一个是掌握的技巧
And it’s the idea of mastery
另一个是思维方式
and the idea of mindset.
早些年当我辅导 小表亲们的时候就发现
I saw this in the early days working with my cousins.
他们之中很多人刚开始对数学很头疼
A lot of them were having trouble with math at first,
因为他们在学习中 不断积累着知识漏洞
because they had all of these gaps accumulated in their learning.
所以当他们开始上代数课时
And because of that, at some point they got to an algebra class
由于在代数的预备課程中 可能就不太跟得上
and they might have been a little bit shaky on some of the pre-algebra,
就导致了他们认为自己 没有数学天赋
and because of that, they thought they didn’t have the math gene.
或者他们之后上微积分课时
Or they’d get to a calculus class,
才发现自己的代数基础也不太好
and they’d be a little bit shaky on the algebra.
我发现这个问题是在前些年
I saw it in the early days
当我在YouTube上上传这些视频的时候
when I was uploading some of those videos on YouTube,
我意识到很多素不相识的人 也在看这些视频
and I realized that people who were not my cousins were watching.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
一开始 有些留言只是些简单的谢谢
And at first, those comments were just simple thank-yous.
我认为这很值得重视
I thought that was a pretty big deal.
我不知道你们都花 多少时间在YouTube上
I don’t know how much time you all spend on YouTube.
通常大多数评论都不是“谢谢”
Most of the comments are not “Thank you.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
通常措辞都更尖锐一些
They’re a little edgier than that.
但之后的留言内容越来越丰富多样
But then the comments got a little more intense,
越来越多的学生反映 他们长大后 变得更加不喜欢数学
student after student saying that they had grown up not liking math.
进入高等数学阶段后就更加困难
It was getting difficult as they got into more advanced math topics.
当他们开始上代数的时候
By the time they got to algebra,
知识中存在的大量漏洞 导致他们完全更不上进度
they had so many gaps in their knowledge they couldn’t engage with it.
他们会自以为没有数学头脑 但当他们长大
They thought they didn’t have the math gene.
一点的时候 他们有了一点儿动力
But when they were a bit older,
并决定下功夫去学
they took a little agency and decided to engage.
他们找到了像可汗学院 这样的资源
They found resources like Khan Academy
帮助他们填充知识漏洞和掌握概念
and they were able to fill in those gaps and master those concepts,
改善了他们的思维方式;
and that reinforced their mindset that it wasn’t fixed;
他们才知道自己 其实有能力学好数学
that they actually were capable of learning mathematics.
在很多方面 这也是掌握新技能的一种途径
And in a lot of ways, this is how you would master a lot of things in life.
好比学习武术
It’s the way you would learn a martial art.
在武术当中 你往往必须一直练习
In a martial art, you would practice the white belt skills
白带(最低等级)的技巧
as long as necessary,
只有当你掌握了它们
and only when you’ve mastered it
你才能进阶到黄带
you would move on to become a yellow belt.
这也是你们学习乐器的方式:
It’s the way you learn a musical instrument:
一遍遍练习最基本的曲目
you practice the basic piece over and over again,
只有掌握了它们
and only when you’ve mastered it,
才能去挑战更难的那些
you go on to the more advanced one.
但我们要清楚:
But what we point out —
这并非传统学习模式的构成方法
this is not the way a traditional academic model is structured,
并不是我们成长过程中所经历的那种
the type of academic model that most of us grew up in.
在一个传统学习模式当中
In a traditional academic model,
我们一般会按年龄将学生分组
we group students together, usually by age,
在中学时期
and around middle school,
则是通过年龄 和外显的学习能力分组
by age and perceived ability,
然后我们以相同的节奏引领他们
and we shepherd them all together at the same pace.
最常见的情况是
And what typically happens,
假设我们身处某中学的 代数预备课堂
let’s say we’re in a middle school pre-algebra class,
现在的专题是指数函数
and the current unit is on exponents,
老师就此内容来上课
the teacher will give a lecture on exponents,
然后我们回家 做一些相关习题
then we’ll go home, do some homework.
第二天早上 我们会检查这些作业
The next morning, we’ll review the homework,
之后又是上课 做作业 上课 做作业
then another lecture, homework, lecture, homework.
这大概会持续两到三周
That will continue for about two or three weeks,
就该测验了
and then we get a test.
在考试中 我也许只会75%的题目
On that test, maybe I get a 75 percent,
你也许会90%
maybe you get a 90 percent,
他可能会95%
maybe you get a 95 percent.
即使考试能帮助我们查缺补漏
And even though the test identified gaps in our knowledge,
还是会有25%的内容我没有掌握
I didn’t know 25 percent of the material.
就算那些得A的学生 依旧有5%的内容没搞懂
Even the A student, what was the five percent they didn’t know?
即使我们认识到那些漏洞
Even though we’ve identified the gaps,
课堂还是会继续 进入下一个专题
the whole class will then move on to the next subject,
可能是更加复杂的内容 但却会建立在我们的知识漏洞之上
probably a more advanced subject that’s going to build on those gaps.
可能会是对数函数 或者是负指数函数
It might be logarithms or negative exponents.
随着课程不断推进 你会突然间发现
And that process continues, and you immediately start to realize
这种感觉不太对劲
how strange this is.
我明明还有25%的基础知识不懂
I didn’t know 25 percent of the more foundational thing,
现在却被逼去学更加深奥的东西
and now I’m being pushed to the more advanced thing.
这会持续数月或数年 直到某一个时间点
And this will continue for months, years, all the way until at some point,
我可能会在代数或是三角函数课堂上
I might be in an algebra class or trigonometry class
完全不知所云了
and I hit a wall.
这并非因为代数学本身很难学
And it’s not because algebra is fundamentally difficult
或者是因为学生不够聪明
or because the student isn’t bright.
而是因为当我看见指数的等式时
It’s because I’m seeing an equation and they’re dealing with exponents
其中有30%是我不懂的知识
and that 30 percent that I didn’t know is showing up.
然后我就不想做了
And then I start to disengage.
为了让大家体会这是多么夸张
To appreciate how absurd that is,
可以想象一下 当我们在人生中 以这种方式干其它的事情时
imagine if we did other things in our life that way.
比如
Say, home-building.
造房子
(Laughter)
(笑声)我们找承包商来 然后和他说:
So we bring in the contractor and say,
“我们被告知只有两周时间去打地基
“We were told we have two weeks to build a foundation.
所以能建多少就建多少吧 ”
Do what you can.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
然后他们就尽力去做了
So they do what they can.
中间也许下雨了
Maybe it rains.
也许有些物资没到位
Maybe some of the supplies don’t show up.
两周之后 房屋检查员来了 看了一下
And two weeks later, the inspector comes, looks around,
说:“看起来这儿的水泥还没干
says, “OK, the concrete is still wet right over there,
那块儿也还不大行……
that part’s not quite up to code …
我就给个80分吧 ”
I’ll give it an 80 percent.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
然后你们说:“太好了 至少还是个C 我们开始建第一层吧!”
You say, “Great! That’s a C. Let’s build the first floor.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
同样的事情接连发生
Same thing.
我们又努力了两周 然后房屋检查员来了 给了个75分
We have two weeks, do what you can, inspector shows up, it’s a 75 percent.
太好了 居然还有D+!
Great, that’s a D-plus.
继续建二楼 三楼
Second floor, third floor,
直到建第三层的时候 整栋建筑突然倒塌了
and all of a sudden, while you’re building the third floor,
如果你的
the whole structure collapses.
回应与上学时的回应一样 或者是很多人会有
And if your reaction is the reaction you typically have in education,
的那种反应
or that a lot of folks have,
你也许会说 估计是承包商不够格
you might say, maybe we had a bad contractor,
也可能是检查力度和次数不够多
or maybe we needed better inspection or more frequent inspection.
但真正的问题 其实是过程的本身
But what was really broken was the process.
我们用人为的方式 去限制完成某事的时间
We were artificially constraining how long we had to something,
几乎可以确定 一定会有出入
pretty much ensuring a variable outcome,
然后我们检查也发现了问题
and we took the trouble of inspecting and identifying those gaps,
但却又将错就错
but then we built right on top of it.
然而掌握式教育的观念 就是反其道而行之
So the idea of mastery learning is to do the exact opposite.
将人为的限制、僵化、
Instead of artificially constraining, fixing
何时学习和学多久、
when and how long you work on something,
把结果按A、B、C、D、F
pretty much ensuring that variable outcome,
分级的行为
the A, B, C, D, F —
转换成另一种方式
do it the other way around.
学生之间的差异 应该是何时以及多久
What’s variable is when and how long
可以掌握好一门知识
a student actually has to work on something,
要坚持一致的是 学生真的掌握了这门知识
and what’s fixed is that they actually master the material.
我们必须意识到它的重要性
And it’s important to realize
这样不仅可以让学生 更好地掌握指数函数
that not only will this make the student learn their exponents better,
同时也可以培养一种 正确的思维方式
but it’ll reinforce the right mindset muscles.
这可以让他们认识到 如果他们答错了20%
It makes them realize that if you got 20 percent wrong on something,
不代表他们天生就只有C的水平
it doesn’t mean that you have a C branded in your DNA somehow.
而是说明他们还需要 在这个内容上继续努力、
It means that you should just keep working on it.
坚持不懈、迎难而上
You should have grit; you should have perseverance;
拿出热情克服学习中的障碍
you should take agency over your learning.
现在 很多怀疑者 可能会说 这听起来不错
Now, a lot of skeptics might say, well, hey, this is all great,
理论上来说 这套以掌握为目的教学方式
philosophically, this whole idea of mastery-based learning
以及与思维方式的连结
and its connection to mindset,
可以让学生积极克服学习中的障碍
students taking agency over their learning.
这听起来很有道理 但不太实际
It makes a lot of sense, but it seems impractical.
要实现一点 每个学生都必须遵循自己的学习进度
To actually do it, every student would be on their own track.
必须有个性化的教学方式
It would have to be personalized,
一对一辅导和有针对性的练习题
you’d have to have private tutors and worksheets for every student.
但这并不是什么新观念
And these aren’t new ideas —
在100年前的伊利诺伊州 温内特卡市就有这样的实践:
there were experiments in Winnetka, Illinois, 100 years ago,
他们尝试了这种 以掌握为目的的教学 成果很显著
where they did mastery-based learning and saw great results,
但是他们表示很难大面积推广 毕竟可行性太低了
but they said it wouldn’t scale because it was logistically difficult.
老师要给每个学生不同的试题
The teacher had to give different worksheets to every student,
视情况打分
give on-demand assessments.
但如今 这已经不再是空想了
But now today, it’s no longer impractical.
我们有了辅助工具
We have the tools to do it.
学生可以通过看分类视频
Students see an explanation at their own time and pace?
按照自己的进度去寻找解答
There’s on-demand video for that.
他们需要练习吗?需要反馈吗?
They need practice? They need feedback?
学生很容易就能进行适应性练习
There’s adaptive exercises readily available for students.
当万事俱备的时候 就会出现良性循环
And when that happens, all sorts of neat things happen.
首先 学生能够真正掌握知识
One, the students can actually master the concepts,
此外还能培养他们积极的心理
but they’re also building their growth mindset,
建立勇气和不屈不挠的精神
they’re building grit, perseverance,
他们会对学习产生热情
they’re taking agency over their learning.
在实际的课堂中
And all sorts of beautiful things can start to happen
一切也慢慢开始走上正轨
in the actual classroom.
学生们之间可以进行更多学习上的互动
Instead of it being focused on the lecture,
而不必拘泥于专心听讲
students can interact with each other.
他们能够更加深入地去掌握知识
They can get deeper mastery over the material.
他们能够模拟苏格拉底式对话
They can go into simulations, Socratic dialogue.
为了强化这一点
To appreciate what we’re talking about
让大家体会无法激发潜能的遗憾
and the tragedy of lost potential here,
我想带大家进行一个思维小实验
I’d like to give a little bit of a thought experiment.
假设我们回到400年前的西欧
If we were to go 400 years into the past to Western Europe,
在当时就已经是地球上 文明最发达的地区之一
which even then, was one of the more literate parts of the planet,
你会发现大概有15%的人口识字
you would see that about 15 percent of the population knew how to read.
估计当你去询问一个识字的人
And I suspect that if you asked someone who did know how to read,
比如一个神职人员
say a member of the clergy,
“你认为大概有多少人有识字的能力呢?”
“What percentage of the population do you think is even capable of reading?”
他们也许会说: “嗯 基于这强大的教育体系
They might say, “Well, with a great education system,
大概有个20%或30%吧
maybe 20 or 30 percent.”
” 但如果你快进到当下
But if you fast forward to today,
我们会发现 那样的预测实在太悲观了
we know that that prediction would have been wildly pessimistic,
现在几乎是人人都识字
that pretty close to 100 percent of the population is capable of reading.
但是当我问你们一个类似的问题:
But if I were to ask you a similar question:
“你们认为总人口中有多少
“What percentage of the population do you think is capable
是真正掌握微积分的
of truly mastering calculus,
或是真正懂有机化学的
or understanding organic chemistry,
或是有能力 为癌症研究作出贡献的呢?”
or being able to contribute to cancer research?”
你们中的很多就会回答: “嗯 基于这强大的教育体系
A lot of you might say, “Well, with a great education system,
大概有个20%或30%吧 ”
maybe 20, 30 percent.”
但假如那些判断仅仅
But what if that estimate
是基于你们“非掌握体系”的个人经验
is just based on your own experience in a non-mastery framework,
是基于你们的自身经历 或仅是对周围人的观察而已呢?
your own experience with yourself or observing your peers,
或是基于被迫跟从课堂进度
where you’re being pushed at this set pace through classes,
不断积累漏洞情况的呢?
accumulating all these gaps?
即使你掌握了95%的知识
Even when you got that 95 percent,
那剩下的5%呢?
what was that five percent you missed?
漏洞持续积累 直到进入高等课堂
And it keeps accumulating — you get to an advanced class,
突然碰壁 然后你们说: “我生来就不是
all of a sudden you hit a wall and say,
个癌症研究人员 我不是做物理学家的料
“I’m not meant to be a cancer researcher;
我当不了数学家 ”
not meant to be a physicist; not meant to be a mathematician.”
我认为这就是现实情况
I suspect that that actually is the case,
但当我们能够从 掌握知识的视角去审视
but if you were allowed to be operating in a mastery framework,
如果我们能够 从培养学习动力的角度来看
if you were allowed to really take agency over your learning,
当我们做错题目的时候
and when you get something wrong,
我们把这种失败 当作学习的一部分坦然接受
embrace it — view that failure as a moment of learning —
那真正掌握微积分或者有机化学的
that number, the percent that could really master calculus
人数比例
or understand organic chemistry,
就会接近100%了
is actually a lot closer to 100 percent.
而其意义并不仅仅在于锦上添花
And this isn’t even just a “nice to have.”
我认为这是社会进化的必然过程
I think it’s a social imperative.
用你们的话来说 我们正处于一个工业时代
We’re exiting what you could call the industrial age
而我们正在进入信息革命的时代
and we’re going into this information revolution.
很明确的是 一些变化正在发生
And it’s clear that some things are happening.
在工业时代 社会是一个金字塔
In the industrial age, society was a pyramid.
在金字塔底端 我们需要的是人力
At the base of the pyramid, you needed human labor.
在金字塔中间 我们需要处理信息
In the middle of the pyramid, you had an information processing,
所以有官僚特权阶层
a bureaucracy class,
等到了顶端 就会是那些资本家
and at the top of the pyramid, you had your owners of capital
企业家
and your entrepreneurs
还有创新人群
and your creative class.
但当我们进入信息革命的那一刻
But we know what’s happening already,
我们就知道将要发生什么事了
as we go into this information revolution.
在金字塔底端 自动化将取代人力
The bottom of that pyramid, automation, is going to take over.
甚至中间层信息处理的这一段
Even that middle tier, information processing,
计算机做的都比他们好
that’s what computers are good at.
所以对一个社会而言 我们有一个问题:
So as a society, we have a question:
科技带来的这些新生产力
All this new productivity is happening because of this technology,
是谁参与其中呢?
but who participates in it?
是不是只有处于金字塔顶端的人
Is it just going to be that very top of the pyramid, in which case,
而其他人都置身事外?
what does everyone else do?
他们会如何操作?
How do they operate?
或者我们是否要从事 更加远大的事业呢?
Or do we do something that’s more aspirational?
我们是否真的愿意尝试去倒转金字塔
Do we actually attempt to invert the pyramid,
让创新人群起主导作用呢
where you have a large creative class,
让每个人都可以成为企业家、
where almost everyone can participate as an entrepreneur,
艺术家 或是研究人员呢?
an artist, as a researcher?
我并不认为这仅仅是空想
And I don’t think that this is utopian.
我认为这一切都建立在一个理念之上
I really think that this is all based on the idea
就是如果我们能够借由掌握概念
that if we let people tap into their potential
挖掘学生的学习热情
by mastering concepts,
激发他们的学习潜力
by being able to exercise agency over their learning,
他们就能够达成目标
that they can get there.
当你想到自己置身于这种理想环境
And when you think of it as just a citizen of the world,
其实是很让人激动的一件事
it’s pretty exciting.
想象一下我们所能拥有的那种平等
I mean, think about the type of equity we can we have,
想象文明所能达到的那种境界对此
and the rate at which civilization could even progress.
我充满信心
And so, I’m pretty optimistic about it.
我认为这个时刻将令人无比激动人心
I think it’s going to be a pretty exciting time to be alive.
谢谢!
Thank you.
(鼓掌)
(Applause)

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