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距离登陆火星我们还差多远

Let's Go To Mars

请允许我来为你们读一段
Allow me to read to you what excerpt
1997年《太空时代杂志》夏季刊的头条社论
from the lead editorial from the 1997 summer issue of Space Times Magazine
题目为《让我们去火星吧》 火星在召唤我们
titled Let’s go to mars. Mars is waiting for us
一个引人遐想的星球
a big juicy planet with the possibility ofwater
有水源和生命存在的可能性 看起来很漂亮
and the possibility of life out therelooking beautiful
等待人类的来访
and waiting for the humans to come and visit
我认为奇怪之处在于 殖民火星
I think that it’s a little strange thecolonization of Mars is
明显是下一步 然后就是探索太空
certain obvious next step and theexploration our universe
而我们还未意识到
and we are not recognizing
好吧 这玩意儿是我17岁时写的
yeah I wrote that when I was 17 years old
[背景音乐]
[music]
我以前是 现在仍是探索火星爱好者
I was then and still am a bit of marsexploration junkie
你看我毕竟是一个火星协会的创始成员
you are after all looking at a foundingmember of the Mars Society and
并且我在高中时创建了最早网站之一
one of the first web sites that Icreated when I was in high school
叫《Hanks带你探索火星》
was called Hanks guide to marsexploration
但实话说 自从1972年人类上一次踏上月球
but be honest, e, ever since man last set foot on the moon in 1972
载人去火星
a manned mission to Mars has been
成为“圣杯”空间探索计划 已经40年
the Holy Grail space exploration it’sbeen 40 years
我还有个更坏的消息要告诉你
and I know more bad news for you
因为按最好的情况来说火星载人计划
because at best a manned mission to Mars
至少还需要20多年才能实现 而最坏的情况
is at least 20 more years away and atworst
我是说如果坏到底了 也许在我有生之年都无法实现
and I mean this is the very worst it maynot even happen within my lifetime
去他的 为了更好地理解为什么这种可能非常好的事
Balls to bats! To better understand whyit’s such a potentially awesome thing
不在现阶段规划之中 我们来看看
isn’t even in the planning stages rightnow let us examine
火星载人任务我们面临的最大挑战
the far biggest challenges we face for a manned mission to Mars
1. 如何去到火星
1.how to get there
2. 涉及的风险  
2.the risks involved and
3. 钱
3. the money
4. 理由
4. the why
所以第一 我们要如何去那里
so the number one how do we get there
首先 我们要一艘新飞船
to begin with we need a new spacecraft
和一个新助推器
and we need a new booster vehicle
要强调一下 这是两种不同的东西
now it’s important to note that these are two different things
助推器让你离开地球
the booster gets you out over them
宇宙飞船让你在太空里从一处到另一处
the spacecraft gets youfrom one place to another in space
在2005 NASA的星座计划通过修订
in 2005, NASA’s constellation program was revised
允许建造新的太空飞船
to allow for the creation of a new spacecraft
使用原定的Orion飞船 Altair月球登陆器以及Aries运载火箭
using a planned Orion spacecraft, Altairlunar lander and Aries booster rockets
按照成功发射阿波罗号的土星5号仿制
modeled after the successful Saturn 5rocket that launched apollo.
星座计划旨在于2019年重返月球
Constellation program aimed for 2019return to the Moon
然后在2030年之后的某一天将载人去火星
followed by a man trip to Mars sometimeafter 2030 but then
然而在2010年 奥巴马政府宣布了新的太空飞行计划
and 2010 the Obama administrationannounced the new space flight program
其目标相似 但完全抛弃了月球计划
that had similar goals but totally scrapthe moon thing the new Space Launch
新设计的太空发射系统所要求新的重型运载火箭
System now being designed calls for anew heavy-lift launch vehicle to be
将在未来10年内完成 并且可用来搭载人员或者货物
completed later this decade that can beused for either crew or cargo.
SLS(太空发射系统)也许以后会有个更炫酷的名字
the SLS which will some day have a cooler name than that
它的引擎是为太空航行设计的
actually uses engines designed for the spatial
结合液氢液氧推进系统
combined with a liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propulsion system
对于载人作业 SLS将搭载Orion多功能舰队
for manned missions the SLS willcarry the Orion multi-purpose crew vehicle
可搭载2至4人
which can hold between two and four people and
对于载物作业 提升能力可达130吨
and for cargo missions that will have a lift capacity up to 130 metric tons
在去年的产品发布会上 奥巴马总统说
in announcing the product last yearPresident Obama said that the SLS would
到2025年SLS将能支持发射到小行星带执行任务
allow for missions to asteroids by 2025
到2030年也许会执行火星任务
and Mars sometime in the 2030.
听起来很棒 但这不是个真正的计划
It’s great and everything but it’s not really a plan
事实是没有人确切知道SLS会如何送我们到火星或
the fact is nobody really knows exactlyhow the SLs would get us to mars or
其它任何地方
anywhere for that matter
我最近和火星协会的创始人Robert Z谈过话
I recently got to talk to Mars Societyfounder Robert Z run
他是我高中时期的偶像之一
who was one of my heroes when I was in high school
他在1996年出版了一本令人惊异的书《The Case For Mars》
and wrote the amazing 1996 book the case for Mars
他指出缺乏明确目标对SLS来说是一个严重的问题
and he pointed out that the lack of adefined goal for the SLs
同时他又说阿波罗计划成功之处
is a serious problem, he added the Apollo program succeeded
在于火星5号运载火箭是特别为登月计划设计的
because the Saturn 5 rockets were developed specifically to go to the moon,
火星协会对于怎样登陆火星提出了非常好的想法
The Mars society thought really good ideas for how to get to Mars,
其中之一被称为火星指导计划
one of them called the mars direct program
称需利用间隔26个月的两个发射窗口
calls for utilizing 2 launch Windowsthat occur twenty six months apart
第一批采用无人驾驶的地球返回舱 即ERV
the first lot would involve the unmanned earth return vehicle, the ERV,
在人类到达那里前登陆火星
which would land on mars way before us not get there
主要是在火星上建立火箭燃料制造设施
and basically set up on mars a rocket fuel making facility
26个月后人类居住设施将随第二批ERV发射
twenty six months later the man habitat would be launched along with the second erv
因为第二批ERV基本上是作为补给
in the reason for that second ERV basically as a backup.
第二批ERV会比载人飞船慢得多
The second ERV would go much slower than the man crew vehicle,
因此人们至少要确认第一个ERV运转正常
so the crew at least make surethat the first ERV was functional
如果运转不正常 他们还能寄希望于会降落在附近的第二批ERV
and if not they could call down the second the ERVwhich would land in their vicinity
毕竟不想刚到火星
really don’t want to arrive on mars
就发现你的返回舱被完全破坏了
and then find out that your ride home was totally busted.
雪佛龙提出了相似的改进策略
And recently, Chevron haspromoted the similar strategy,
但这次使用的载具由私有企业SpaceX生产
but this time using vehicles that are created by the private firm SpaceX
使用最新版SpaceX火箭并命名为重型巨鹰 是经过提速的型号
using a souped-up version of the current SpaceX rocketcalled the Falcon Heavy
多说一句 他们命名火箭的方式比NASA好
as have to say here for a second thatthey’re way better at naming rockets than nasa is
可以看到其使用传统氢氧扩爆器
seen using the conventionalhydrogen oxygen booster
并有一架飞船称为dragon 是为了跟踪儿童而单独设想出来战略
and has a crew vehicle called the dragon and children for this strategy
想象这样三级分离
envisions three separate on just
此时 返回舱稳定在轨道上
so in this scenario the ride home stays in orbit
绕着红色的星球运行 而灰失效一年半
around the red planet while the ash notwork for a year and a half
然后使用一系列载具与飞机在指定地点汇合
and then using a set vehicle torendezvous with that flight how
这个有点复杂 但你会觉得
it’s a little complicated but you would think that
利用一家私人企业会明显加速火星任务的进度
using a private firm would drasticallyspeed up the time line for a mars mission
事实上他认为2016年(可以实现)
in fact he thinks as soon as 2016
这似乎有些乐观
which seems a little optimistic main.
挑战二 人权
Challenge Number Two. The human rights .
也许你觉得我们可以造飞船 让宇航员去火星
so you have… We can getgood ship get astronauts to the red planet
要知道 存在一些人们可以会产生的
there are some you know psychologicaland also some physical risks
心理和生理上的风险
that these people will be taking.
You know, number one number two here are radiation and isolation.
You know, number one number two here are radiation and isolation.
第一和第二分别是辐射和孤独
You know, number one number two here are radiation and isolation.
第一和第二分别是辐射和孤独
You know, number one number two here are radiation and isolation.
第一和第二分别是辐射和孤独
You know, number one number two here are radiation and isolation.
第一和第二分别是辐射和孤独
You know, number one number two here are radiation and isolation.
第一和第二分别是辐射和孤独
You know, number one number two here are radiation and isolation.
头两个困难就是辐射和隔离
You know, number one number two here are radiation and isolation.
去一趟火星大约是6个月
A trip to mars is about six months
and also the trip back is about six months.
返回同样大约6个月
and also the trip back is about six months.
返回同样大约6个月
and also the trip back is about six months.
返回同样大约6个月
and also the trip back is about six months.
返回也是大约6个月
and also the trip back is about six months.
在这6个月内
And during those six months,
宇航员暴露在大量有害辐射中
astronauts will be exposed to unhealthy amounts radiation
当他们重返地球时
and when they get back
我们想要他们去游行 并成为我们国家的英雄
we want them to go with to parades and benational heroes
而不是希望他们死于癌症
we do not want them to die of cancer,
考虑到一些阿波罗宇航员
considering that some Apollo astronauts suffered cataracts
由于十二天的任务期内的曝晒患了白内障 而这种程度已经是非常低了
because of their very limited exposure during their 12-day missions.
在比原来长五十倍的任务中保护他们
Protecting them on a mission that’sfifty times longer than that turns out
这是相当巨大的挑战
to be pretty tremendous challenge.There are ways
当然有办法阻止辐射 包括使用厚片的塑料甚至是水
of course to block radiation includingthick pieces of plastic and even water
但那些东西是重物 重物是不利于
but those things are heavy and heavy isbad
在太空中飞行的 因为这意味着需要更多的燃料更多的费用
when it comes to space flight becausethat means more fuel more expense
减少成功的几率 太阳
and less chance that it’s actually goingto happen and Sun
有时候是一个狡猾的野兽 你会知道它相当容易控制
is a tricky beast sometimes…it’ll beyou know pretty manageable background
辐射光线作为背景 偶尔它可能
levels of radiation occasionally itshould take these giant
喷发大量太阳能和太阳耀斑 大型太阳耀斑
bursts of solar energy and from solarflares. A large solar flare
至少可以在几分钟之内杀死一个船员
could kill a crew in a matter of minutesat the very least
每个人都知道那至少需要一些小面积
everybody knows that is going to have tobe at least some small area
我爱的船员小屋真的很厚会导致屏蔽和
I love the crew cabin that will havereally thick lead shielding and the
事件的耀斑
event to the solar flare
但再次导致沉重的另一个问题有关一个船员将如何处理
but again lead heavy another questionsabout how a crew would deal with being
在密闭环境内的使命
in a confined environment for missionthat
是和所有的概率超过两年,并
is and all probability longer than twoyears and also
很少有相同的人认为我甚至不能有一个室友
with the same few people for that long icant even have a roommate
残酷的6个男人保持他们的理智
can cruel six men maintain their sanity
和他们的物理福祉上真的很长
and their physical well-being on reallylong
孤立的使命的初始回答到该问题似乎是是在事实上
isolated mission the initial answer tothat question appears to be yes in fact
国际船员在俄罗斯刚刚完成一个520天的使命在此
an international crew in russia justfinished a 520 day mission during this
五千万美元。
fifty million dollar
使命的船员我六人
mission the crew I’ll six-man
经验条件类似什么这将是喜欢去火星他们甚至
experience condition similar to what itwould be like to go to mars they even
到达火星
got
他们将会探索
to mars and they were able to exploremars which was
到一个像球场那么大的火星然后回来
about the size of a tennis court andthen they got back in
他们不得不依赖于他们所带的物品
and had to be confide in their thing foranother huge amount of time making for
但实际上,一个超酷的有用的
this but actually a really cool anduseful
实验以及大量的数据被收集了,而且将继续被收集
experiment and huge amounts of data werecollected and are still being collected
欧洲太空政府机构,俄罗斯和中国政府
the European Space Agency and theRussian and Chinese governments are
正在分析那些数据数据涵盖了
analyzing those data now which include
无数的人类心理和物理信息
tons of information on the psychologicaland physical well-being
有六人太空团队在太空中出现过的
have the people involved the six-mancrew emerged
因缺乏阳光而苍白失色但是
from their mission pale from the lack ofsunlight but otherwise in good spirits
接着
after going
任何地方 长时间我们社会的老朋友
absolutely nowhere for a really longtime are old friends from our society
多年来也进行了一系列相似的实验现在他们
have also been running a similar seriesof experiments for years now they’ve
刚开启了新的火星沙漠研究站,
just started the new mars desertresearch station which is a no ball
球形的
places thanks bill Utah
目标是处理隔离 算出
the goal here is not so much how to dealwith isolation as it is to figure out
怎样制造大多数
how to make the most
任务 严厉的环境
a mission and a harsh environment I lovethe Mr De Aza not
因为你知道当我们到达火星
just because it thanks to you too alsobecause you know when we get to mars
有一天我们
someday we
诅咒知道怎样做最多 去年
damn well better know how to make themost last year long they were
来自各个大学和太空学院的全体船员有八个不同的任务
eight different mission crews fromvarious universities and space academy’s
研究站翻滚 这些人测试栖息地设计
that rolled through the research stationthese guys are testing habitat designed
探险策略 携带工具外出宇航员需要
exploration strategies for going outwith tools astronauts are going to need
红色行星
on the red planet number three
全球经济 气候开始
the money given the worldwide economicclimate coming up with the billions of
把人送到火星需要大量的现金最后成为挑战
dollars necessary to send people to marsturns out to be a bit of a challenge and
之前我们
that’s before we even
进到太空 没有正式任务
get up in space and given that noofficial mission
然而我也不清楚二三十年以后我们是否能到达那
exists yeah I’m not counting will getthere in the twenty thirty is
因为准确的来说人类前往火星的花费估算滑稽的
as plan cost estimates for gettinghumans to Mars are hilariously all over
达到2000万到4000万美元
the spectrum twenty million dollars tofour hundred billion dollars it’s cute
我想说
I’ll to
除了现在我们可以看看其它
say anything other than it’s going to beextremely except for now we can look at
潜在的方式来降低花费
ways to potentially bring the cost downlike
像国际与太空探索私人公司进行合作
international partnerships and dealingwith private firms like SpaceX
例如罗德告知我大致预算是180亿
for example zuber noted to me thatmasses budgeting about eighteen billion
美元
dollars
对于他们的太空发射系统来说但是他认为
for their space launch system but hethinks it can be done
50亿美元这个系统就可以建成而且我
for less than five dollars by thedollar’s and I
需要得到别人的资助以及说出四个
probably got that liner on someone andnumber four
当我年轻时加入火星协会的理由是因为
the Y when the reasons why I joined theMars Society as a young man was because
我受到鼓舞
I was inspired by that
乐观的人往往能够合作真正地做一些
optimism the idea that people can gettogether and do something
在世界你不能够使任何人信服的到达
really really you do not pass toconvince everyone in the world the going
火星的东西是
to mars is
科技和经济水平根本不可能
technically in physically and evenfinancially possible
让任何人相信以至于我们应该做出一些
can’t convince everybody that it’ssomething that we should do one of the
最好的解释了
best explanations
对于我们应该解释的原因是源于社会的基础宣言
for why we should do this is from fromour society’s founding declaration I’m
现在读给你们听
going to read that to you nowcivilizations
人类的文明遭受到了巨大的挑战和衰退没有了这个
like people thrive on challenge anddecay without it
时间已经迫使人类社会来把战争
the time has passed for human society touse war
作为保护医学发展的一种驱动力随着世界向着团结发展
as a driving stress protecting medicalprogress as the world moves toward unity
我们也必须一同加入
we must join together
不是消极被动的加入而是共同进取面向未来
not mutual passivity but in a commonenterprise facing outward
提出一项比我们先前讨论的更加伟大华丽的挑战
to embrace a greater and noblerchallenge than that which we previously
主张将来让每个人17岁时一同
posed to each other. amount gonna let17-year-old hank
把我们自己带出老旧的
take us out with some lines from thatold
社论火星正在召唤我们的世界并不明显的
editorial isn’t it obvious that Mars iscalling to our world
有点巧合的是 好像那里有个人
it’s a little bit too coincidental fromalmost like there is someone or
或者某些东西指引我们去火星 我们需要聆听
something out there getting assigned togo to mars and we need to listen
我们有技术有人员也有载人去火星的愿望
we have the technology we have thepeople we have the mood for manned
所以为什么我们不能这么做呢
mission to Mars so why can’t we just doit
它的最后一句是全文大写的
as its over the last sentence was in theeditorial written in all caps
我可以说当我17岁时我对自己的写作技巧仍然自豪但是我也可以说
I can say that I remain proud my writingskills as a 17-year-old but I can say
我仍然自豪于
that I remain proud
我的乐观和快乐并且
are the kinda optimism and excitementthat I had and I still have
因为有这样的进取心所以我猜测现在
for this kinda enterprise so I guess now
我们需要的是一个计划感谢您的收看
are all we need is a plan Thank you for watching this episode as I sure hope
我相信我们会在推特和脸书上有个愉快的谈话
that it was exciting for you as it wasfor me will be on Twitter and Facebook
如果想问问题或是提建议
answering your questions and takingsuggestions and also of course in the
请在下方评论
you to comment below
再见
goodbye
[背景音乐]
background music

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视频概述

前往火星面临着各方面的挑战包括科技,经济等

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

琳の

审核员

审核团C

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NiCDQ_91Pks

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