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莱西:斯拉夫传说中的森林之主 – 译学馆
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莱西:斯拉夫传说中的森林之主

Leshy: The Slavic Lord of the Forest

Forests tend to be naturally spooky places.
森林自古便是精怪横行之地
They are dense with trees letting in little light
它浓荫密布 暗淡无光
and offering plenty of spots for predatory animals to hide
提供了众多的藏身之处
while stalking their prey
以便狩猎者的杀戮
–prey that sometimes include humans.
而有时 它们也捕杀人类
But life also thrives there.
但这里依然生机勃勃
For the Slavic people, there’s one spirit that rules it all
对斯拉夫人来说 有一种生灵主宰一切
a lord of the woods—the Leshy.
那就是森林中的王者——莱西
The leshy is a shape-shifting creature
莱西是一种形态变幻莫测的生物
that may appear human
有时会变作人
but also takes on the form of the animals and plants he protects.
有时也以它庇护之下的生灵的形象出现
He was once believed to lead travelers to their deaths
它曾被人们认为是旅人的黄泉引路人
but could also insure a successful hunt.
不过 它也使猎人们满载而归
He kidnapped young women
它拐走少女
but kept cattle from getting lost in the woods.
却让牲畜安然返乡
He was feared, but also revered.
它令人害怕 又受人敬仰
The Leshy isn’t just some high level boss in a video
它并不是某种游戏中的高等boss
but an important, mischievous, powerful spirit
而是一种重要 狡猾又强大的生物
that can trace its history back to
它的存在能够追溯到
ancient religious and cultural beliefs.
古老的宗教和文化信仰中
I’m Dr.Emily Zarka.
我是Emily Zarka博士
And this is Monstrum.
这里是《怪物理论》节目
If you’ve ever been in the woods,
如果你曾身处密林
you know how scary they can be
肯定领教过在其中彷徨恐慌
and how easy it can be to get lost.
困顿迷惘而不知前路何方的滋味
In one 19th century text
根据一份19世纪的文献
the Leshy is directly connected to the dangers of the forest.
莱西在森林中即是危险的代名词
“在那段虬枝盘结林荫蔽天的古老时光里
莱西常常诱骗旅人 使他们迷失于山林之中”
And no forest was safe.
丛林无一例外
While Slavic folklore claimed each forest had its own Leshy
在斯拉夫人的传说中 莱西存在于每一片森林
there could be more than one.
它不是唯一的
Territorial disputes between Leshy were said to be the cause of harsh storms,
莱西之间的领土争端通常会导致风暴来袭
boulders falling, or crashing trees—
巨石陨落或参天大树的倒地
supernatural explanations for real events.
带来这些真实事件中的超自然现象
Most often a Leshy appears in its imposingly tall human guise
莱西大多时候以高大的人形出现
with long claws and shaggy hair,
带着长长的爪子 浓而粗的毛发
sometimes with horns and cloven feet.
有时还长着蹄 顶着角
He can grow higher than the tree-tops
它的身躯既能高大过树尖
or small enough to hide behind a blade of grass.
也矮小得能藏于草丛中
The Leshy’s appearance is often inspired
莱西的模样
by the vegetation of the forest,
以森林中的草丛为原型
with bark-like skin and a green beard or hair
它树皮似的皮肤与浓绿的胡子或毛发
which makes sense given that his name
与它在俄语中
comes from the Russian word meaning forest.
意指森林的原单词不谋而合
Leshy translates to “wood spirit” or “wood demon”.
Leshy直译为“木精”或“密林魑魅”
I had the opportunity to talk to one of my favorite authors, Katherine Arden,
我有幸联系我最喜欢的作家 Katherine Arden
who’s done a ton of research
她为她的《冬夜三部曲》
about Slavic folklore for her Winternight trilogy.
研究了许多斯拉夫的民间传说
它常常以一个俄罗斯农民的形象出现
但有一点小小的不同
它不系皮带
在俄罗斯 左意味着恶魔
所以它的长袖衣服都剪掉左袖而保留了右袖
它还颠倒了鞋的位置以至于穿错了鞋
它没有影子
它没有影子但它会随身携带一根
彰显其在森林中的身份的短棒做武器
A Leshy may take on a human from
莱西有时会变作人形
and even disguise itself as someone its victim knows.
它甚至会伪装成受害者的熟人
But it can inadvertently reveal its true nature
但在变形时出现的小差错
through small mistakes in their transformation
会在不经意间透露它的本性
And since he can take the shape of anything in his domain
既然它能够在它的领土上随意的变换形态
a Leshy may appear as anything
莱西即万物
from bears and wolves to domestic cattle, birds, a tree
从巨熊 野狼到驯良的牲口 野鸟 大树
even a whirlwind of leaves.
甚至一片风中飘零的落叶
A Leshy can also alter its voice.
莱西的声音也是变幻莫测的
He might call out to his victims in a voice they recognize
它会发出受害者熟识的声音
or whistle like the wind blowing through the trees.
或吹出微风拂过树干般的口哨声
Animal sounds, the rustle of leaves, and laughter
或野兽嘶嚎 或风吹叶鸣 或放声大笑
are also part of his verbal repertoire
都只不过是冰山一角罢了
which he would then use to confuse and tempt victims.
这只是它用来捉弄路人的伎俩
He was feared because he possessed the ability
它让人生畏 因为它的把戏
to lead people and animals astray
会使行人走兽误入歧途
forcing them to die from exhaustion trying to find their way home
迫使它们在归途中因筋疲力尽而亡
or misleading them to fall into a ravine or swamp.
或在返乡异路中跌入山涧 陷入泥沼
Leshy were said to be great gamblers,
传言莱西善赌
playing cards against one another and other spirit demons
常常聚众打牌赌博
frequently betting the resources of their particular woods.
以奇木为赌资
When huge populations of squirrels suddenly migrated
19世纪 当大批松鼠
across the Ural Mountains in the 19 century
举家迁徙至乌拉尔山脉时
some people attributed it to a Siberian leshy
一些人认为西伯利亚的莱西是松鼠们
driving its losses to their“European kin”
改换国籍的元凶
The leshy received sacrifices and offerings from the people
人们奉上祭品斋果
in order to secure his favor and aid in their survival.
盼望莱西能够祛蠹除奸 佑其福禄长久
As the master and guardian of the forest,
猎人的捕获 樵夫的收成
a huntsman’s success or a woodcutter’s bounty
都取决于莱西
was believed to be dependent on the will of the leshy.
这个森林的主人与守护者
Even herdsmen relied on this creature.
牧民也指望着它过活
Because of this relationship the herdsmen were seen as intermediaries
但牧人却因此而成为人类世界
between the human world and the world of the leshy—the spirit world.
与莱西世界 那个魔幻世界的媒介
You could avoid offending the leshy by respecting the forest,
若你不想触怒莱西 你就得尊重森林
not only in terms of taking resources,
不仅体现在汲取资源
but in general modes of deference like not whistling or swearing,
而且要轻柔的顺从它 在森林里不可吹口哨或爆粗
and not intentionally harming plants.
不可蓄意破坏植被
Hunting on certain festival days was also
在某些节日里捕猎
forbidden to avoid the leshy’s wrath.
也会触怒莱西
Laying out the traditional meal for greeting important guests,
将传统美食 即面包与盐
bread with salt,
在树桩上一字排开
on a tree stump might keep you safe from the leshy.
以此招待宾客能够保你性命
This seems pretty minor but it was,
看似小众 实则不然
and in some Slavic countries still is,
在一些斯拉夫人的村庄中
a very important gesture.
它依旧是十分重大的仪式
Bread was synonymous with food.
面包代表食物
If a household didn’t have it,
如果有一户人家没有献上面包
they didn’t have the resources to eat.
那他们将被活活饿死
And salt was a rare commodity
而分享珍贵的盐
so sharing it expressed hospitality.
则代表着好客
其他防范莱西的方法诸如
出示十字架式的标志
念颂祷词
将衣服前后或里外反着穿
在森林中沿着来时的足迹回去
把莱西逗笑
So although Slavic folklore describes them as
但即使斯拉夫的民间传说
antagonistic towards humans by nature,
将莱西描述为代表大自然反抗人类的精灵
you can win one over with a little respect.
你依旧能用一点尊重赢得它的理解
They can actually seem pretty reasonable in a lot of ways.
它们在许多方面都表现得通情达理
Unfortunately, we can’t know the exact origins of the legend
不幸的是 自斯拉夫的传说时代后
since there is no record of any Slavic mythology,
便已不再有任何关于莱西的史料
which was honestly a shock to me
这着实吓了我一跳
Many scholars agree that nothing about
许多学者相信
the original Slavic gods, creation myths,
在后世已无任何
or stories of their afterlife has survived history.
有关斯拉夫精怪的神话故事遗存
The earliest records of the Slavs dates
最早的史实
back to only the 6th century.
记载于公元六世纪
Around that time,
那时
the Slavs migrated into other territories
斯拉夫人迁移他处
and developed into different cultures.
并发展起不同的文化
But one of the things they kept in common is their folklore
但神话依旧在流传
-including stories of the leshy.
其中也包括莱西的故事
It’s likely oral tradition played
口口相传的习俗
a huge role in this story’s early creation.
在早期神话的构筑过程中功不可没
In fact, “Slavs” comes from the proto-Slavic slovo ,
事实上 “斯拉夫”便出自古斯拉夫语
meaning that the people called themselves
意指他们自称为
“说话的人”
However, it’s speculated
然而 却有人提出
that the Leshy was later heavily influenced by Christianity.
莱西曾受到基督教重大影响的猜想
基督教在传播过程中与民俗传说中
的异端邪说相揉杂
带点“基督教味儿”的版本是
莱西与其他的魑魅魍魉曾是天使
它们在诸神之战后被流放
落入凡间成为魑魅魍魉
其它版本则说
莱西等妖精是亚当与夏娃的后代
在他们被赶出伊甸园之后出生
因感到羞耻而选择离开他们
成为森林中的鬼怪
What was once simply a guardian of the forest
曾经的森林守护者逐渐
became a more devilish figure.
演变为邪恶的象征
This explains some leshy traits like the cloven hooves,
这也解释了为何在基督教的神话里
which are often associated with evil
某些莱西长着代表
deities in Christian stories.
邪神的偶状蹄
And even in some variations of the monster,
甚至于莱西作为怪物的其他形象
a leshy is created from the marriage of the
也被塑造成女巫与恶魔的
Devil and a witch or they can be descendants of Satan’s army.
孽缘之本或是撒旦麾下的战士
A hunter or herdsmen could secure safety and success
牧人与猎人皆可通过与它签订契约
by creating a pact with the creature,
求得功名利禄 喜乐安宁
an act that required renouncing Christianity.
代价则是放弃基督教的信仰
In some stories, leshiis were said to appear in military uniform,
在其他传言里 莱西却穿着军装
which may have been inspired by real fugitive soldiers
不过 这也许只是某个
hiding in the woods.
隐藏在森林里的逃兵罢了
In other cases the leshy is said to approach
还有传言说莱西曾接触过人类
humans around a campfire, asking for food.
在篝火旁向人类乞求食物
The forest did historically serve as
森林历来便是
a place of shelter for outliers of society.
流浪汉们的避难所
Perhaps the leshy asking for food is an exaggeration
所谓的莱西乞食也可能只是对
of such individuals looking for assistance.
一个乞丐的扭曲夸大之词罢了
Most of what we can study about Slavic spirits now
现今 我们所能考察到的大部分
comes from materials recorded in the nineteenth century
对斯拉夫精怪的史料都来自19世纪
when urbanization and advances in science and education
当城市小有规模 教育逐渐普及 科学迅猛发展时
made belief in the supernatural tenuous.
神话信仰渐趋没落
Nevertheless, an 1850’s Russian study
然而 一份来自1850年的俄国文献
found that many peasants claimed to have encountered a leshy personally.
却载有多人声称曾亲眼目睹过莱西的经历
The power of Slavic folklore lasted a long time,
斯拉夫的民间传说给后世以深远的影响
and it can tell us a lot about how the Slavs saw the world around them.
它描绘了一幅斯拉夫人睁眼看世界的神奇画卷
The leshy has become less popular over time,
莱西逐渐淡出人们的视野
perhaps because the lessons he teaches are no longer as relevant,
也许是因为它的谆谆教诲已不再警醒
as the forests have been cleared and
旧日风光已不再
rural Slavic life became less common.
流水人家亦消散
While the rituals associated with this
当这位森林守护者或密林魑魅
guardian and demon of the forest dwindle,
脱离宗教而存在时
the idea of him does appear in popular culture now and again
他的存在又于流行文化中重新焕发出生机
Despite what they may tell you,
不管坊间流言如何
the leshy is both a guardian and an avenger.
莱西都拥有守护者与复仇者的双重身份
Since I know you’ve spent some time over in Russia
自从我知道你在俄罗斯
and you’ve done a lot of work with some of these
待了这么久还苦心钻研了
native language texts
这些当地史实
Do you still think,
你是否
or have you encountered people who still believe in the leshy
或者遇到过一些人相信莱西存在
近二三十年来 越来越多的人相信莱西存在着
通过接触其自身的国家 史料 名胜从而了解莱西
俄罗斯无疑留存着许多迷信的思想
在我所游历的国家中 它大概是最为封建迷信的了
诸如未婚女性不该坐在桌角
而猫或在梯子下走路代表凶相
面包应该上交给一家之主
至于莱西 虽然现在我还没遇到过这种人
但我相信总会有人信仰大自然的力量的
所以我认为
相信举头三尺有神明的人
目前的俄罗斯肯定有
Neither good nor evil,
它不善亦不恶
this forest-dwelling shapeshifter was scary
以林地为府邸 这个“变形怪”着实吓人
because it could be lurking around every corner.
因为它能潜伏在每个角落
The leshy represents a deep respect for the forest
莱西代表人们对森林怀有的深深敬意
and acknowledges the danger humans encountered there,
但人类与其相遇所受到的危险也不可否认
especially when it was largely untamed.
尤其在它大体情绪不受控时
It was something that could only be avoided with caution, awareness,
关于这事 你可得再谨慎点 反应也得再快点
and a sincere appreciation of your surroundings.
若能发自肺腑的热爱环境 自然相安无事
The moral of the story?
至于故事的道理?
Be nice to nature.
爱护环境
You never know when a giant forest spirit will come for you.
你可不知道何时会有一只森林巨魔冲向你

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视频概述

既能高过树尖,也矮得能藏匿在一片草地中,兼具恶魔与神袛,守护者与敌对者的身份,莱西已深深根植于斯拉夫人民的文化与宗教历史中。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

白象君

审核员

审核员QC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v6s-jnfBxD0

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