Leopards are the world’s most versatile and stealthiest hunters.
They have the largest range of all the big cats.
And yet, despite this, they’re disappearing from the planet faster every year.
Animalogic——hosted and illustrated by Danielle Dufault.
大家好 我是丹妮尔•迪福 你现在收看的是Animalogic
Hi, I’m Danielle Dufault, and you’re watching Animalogic.
First things first, panthers are not a specific species,
but rather an umbrella term for several big cats in the panthera genus,
including leopards and jaguars,
a black panther, when not the king of Wakanda, is also an umbrella term that refers to melanistic big cats.
By the way, since Wakanda is in Africa, and not South America,
black panther, the character, would be a black leopard.
Leopards, or panthera pardus, belong to the panthera genus,
and are distantly related to clouded leopards,
但与雪豹 老虎 美洲虎和狮子有着更密切的关系
but have closer ties with snow leopards, tigers, jaguars, and lions,
lions being their closest relatives.
Leopards are the smallest of the big cats, though that term is a bit tricky.
Big cat refers to the 4 members of the panthera genus that can roar.
老虎 狮子 美洲虎和猎豹 而雪豹被排除在外
Tigers, lions, jaguars, and leopards, excluded are snow leopards,
which are larger than the Arabian leopard subspecies, but don’t roar.
Clouded leopards, which earned in the panthera genus, cheetahs, pumas and several others.
The ability to roar comes from a specialized voice box with a stretchable ligament,
instead of a solid epihyal bone.
This flexible structure allows for the low, deep, uneven rumble that makes up a roar.
In small cats, that voice box is a fixed structure that vibrates when breathing,
allowing for small cats to purr, something that big cats can’t do.
Leopards can be tough to tell apart from jaguars, which live in South America.
But the easiest way is by their spots, or lack thereof.
Both leopards and jaguars have spots on their coats, called rosettes.
But leopards don’t have dots inside the rosette, while jaguars do.
Jaguars are also bulkier than their slider cousins from across the pond.
Depending on the species of leopard, their coats vary in color.
Those that live in grasslands have lighter coats.
And those that live in rainforests have darker coats.
Leopard’s with melanism, so a black coat are primarily found in the dark rainforests of Southeast Asia,
where the darkness gives them advantage over their lighter brethren.
Black leopards are not completely black, however.
如果你近看 你可以看到它们和所有猎豹一样 都有玫瑰斑点
And if you look closely, you’ll see that they feature the same rosettes as all leopards.
There are 9 extant subspecies of leopard.
And they can be found across Africa and Asia, each named for the region they inhabit.
Due to this massive range of differing landscapes and terrains,
leopards have become masters of adaptability.
它们是捕猎之王 在中国西北的丛林里 泰国丛林和
They are champion hunters, adept at stalking prey in the mountains of Northwestern China,
the jungles of Thailand, the savanna grasslands of Southern Africa, and everything in between.
Since their range is so much more extensive than all the other big cats,
and since they’re the smallest of the big cats,
leopards can often find themselves knocked off the top of the food chain,
if there’s a lion, a tiger, or a pack of hyenas present.
然而 猎豹在体型上不占优势 常以偷袭来补其拙
However, while leopards lack in size, they make up for in stealth.
They’re the most arboreal of the big cats, an often hunt by silently dropping out of trees onto unsuspecting prey.
Leopards come equipped with elongated muscular hind legs
that provide the power they need to launch themselves into the trees.
In order to get away from competing predators and scavengers,
leopard will use their muscular legs to drag their prey back up into the tree,
which can be anything from gazelle, to baboons, to the occasional giraffe.
Leopards are pretty speedy, topping out at 58 kilometers an hour.
But they aren’t chasers, they’re ambush predators.
They’ll wait for prey to enter their trap, and then pounce or drop.
They can leap forward 6 metres in a single bound, and 3 metres directly up.
They have huge thick pads on their feet that dampen the sound of their movement,
and are very conscious of their surroundings when stalking prey.
所以 如果你在猎豹的领地上 最好抬起头来 提防跳下来的豹子
So, if you’re ever in leopard territory, better look up. Drop cats.
Third only to the jaguar and tiger,
leopards are very strong swimmers, and have no problem diving underwater for a meal.
There’s no specific mating season, and males will track females down through scent,
and followed them around, until she decides she’s ready to breed.
Litters are small, usually two or three cubs. And they live with mom in a small dinner burrow.
3月大时 母亲会带它们出去 教它们些猎豹的生存技能
At 3 months, mum will start taking them out, and teaching them to do leopard things.
You know, stalking, pouncing, killing… All that fun stuff.
母亲将和幼崽们一起生活 约2年 直到它们准备好自己出发去捕猎
Mother will stay with the cubs for about 2 years, before they’re ready to set out on their own.
Leopards are primarily killed by big-game hunters and poachers,
who sell their coats and whiskers, the latter of which are used in some West African potions.
While poaching and big-game hunting is easy to demonize,
the other source of their endangerment isn’t.
Leopards often hunt livestock in very poor countries,
so to keep their herds safe, farmers will often poison or shoot the big cats.
An issue that is a bit easier to empathize with than, say making potions out of their whiskers,
coats out of their coats, and killing leopards for Instagram likes.
Fortunately, there are programs in place that are making progress, incentivizing local farmers not to kill leopards.
Instead, they’re encouraged to capture the leopard, which are examined by veterinarians,
and then released back into its original territory.
Studies have found that the trauma of the capture was enough to keep the leopards from returning to hunt at those farms.
Leopards have gone extinct in 6 countries, and there’s 6 more on the way.
They have vanished from 49 percent of their historic range in Africa,
and 84 percent of their historic range in Eurasia.
The amur leopard is especially threatened, with only 57 remaining in their natural habitat in Russia.
That being sad. There’s good news.
As a result of the Russian government establishing a massive 262 thousand hectare national park in 2012,
amur leopards have almost doubled in population in the region since 2007 from 30 to 57.
Sorry, it’s been so long since our last upload, but we have a whole bunch of new episodes coming out this year.
好了 下回我们探讨什么动物呢？ 在评论区下告诉我们吧
So, what animal should we check out next? Please let me know in the comments.
And be sure to subscribe for new episodes of Animalogic every other week.
Thanks for watching.