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美洲豹――秘密行动大师 – 译学馆
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美洲豹――秘密行动大师

Leopards are Masters of Stealth

猎豹是世界上最狡猾和最善于隐蔽的猎食者
Leopards are the world’s most versatile and stealthiest hunters.
在所有大型猫科动物中 它们的种类最多
They have the largest range of all the big cats.
尽管如此 它们还是每年以更快的速度从这个星球上消失
And yet, despite this, they’re disappearing from the planet faster every year.
Animalogic——由丹妮尔•迪福主持并讲解
Animalogic——hosted and illustrated by Danielle Dufault.
大家好 我是丹妮尔•迪福 你现在收看的是Animalogic
Hi, I’m Danielle Dufault, and you’re watching Animalogic.
先说下重点 美洲豹并不是特指某个物种
First things first, panthers are not a specific species,
而是泛指几种具有猎豹基因的大型猫科动物
but rather an umbrella term for several big cats in the panthera genus,
包括猎豹和美洲虎
including leopards and jaguars,
在黑豹还不是瓦坎达之王时 黑豹一词也是泛指黑色的大型猫科动物
a black panther, when not the king of Wakanda, is also an umbrella term that refers to melanistic big cats.
顺便一提 因为瓦坎达位处非洲而不在南美洲
By the way, since Wakanda is in Africa, and not South America,
电影里中黑豹指的是黑色的豹子
black panther, the character, would be a black leopard.
猎豹或金钱豹都具备豹的基因
Leopards, or panthera pardus, belong to the panthera genus,
它们和云豹是远亲
and are distantly related to clouded leopards,
但与雪豹 老虎 美洲虎和狮子有着更密切的关系
but have closer ties with snow leopards, tigers, jaguars, and lions,
其中 与狮子尤为亲近
lions being their closest relatives.
猎豹是大型猫科动物中身形最小的 虽然这有点难解释
Leopards are the smallest of the big cats, though that term is a bit tricky.
大型猫科动物指的是4种会咆哮的豹属动物
Big cat refers to the 4 members of the panthera genus that can roar.
老虎 狮子 美洲虎和猎豹 而雪豹被排除在外
Tigers, lions, jaguars, and leopards, excluded are snow leopards,
雪豹比阿拉伯豹亚种的体型更大但不会咆叫
which are larger than the Arabian leopard subspecies, but don’t roar.
云豹从豹属中其他物种繁衍出来 如印度豹和美洲豹
Clouded leopards, which earned in the panthera genus, cheetahs, pumas and several others.
其吼叫的能力来自韧带伸展性良好的喉咙
The ability to roar comes from a specialized voice box with a stretchable ligament,
而不是靠坚硬的上舌骨
instead of a solid epihyal bone.
这个柔韧的结构让它们发出的吼叫声更低沉不匀
This flexible structure allows for the low, deep, uneven rumble that makes up a roar.
对小型猫科动物而言 喉咙是呼吸时振动的一个固定式结构
In small cats, that voice box is a fixed structure that vibrates when breathing,
让小型猫科动物发出大型猫科动物所不能发出的咕噜声
allowing for small cats to purr, something that big cats can’t do.
猎豹很难与生活在南美洲的美洲虎区别开来
Leopards can be tough to tell apart from jaguars, which live in South America.
最简单的方法就是通过它们的斑点来区分
But the easiest way is by their spots, or lack thereof.
在猎豹和美洲虎的皮毛上都有叫玫瑰斑的斑点
Both leopards and jaguars have spots on their coats, called rosettes.
但猎豹的玫瑰斑点里没有圆点 而美洲虎有
But leopards don’t have dots inside the rosette, while jaguars do.
美洲虎也比它们池对岸的老兄更壮硕些
Jaguars are also bulkier than their slider cousins from across the pond.
基于猎豹的物种 它们的皮毛颜色变化不一
Depending on the species of leopard, their coats vary in color.
生活在草原的猎豹皮毛偏浅色
Those that live in grasslands have lighter coats.
生活在热带雨林的颜色则会更深
And those that live in rainforests have darker coats.
猎豹有黑变病 所以黑色表皮的猎豹主要生活在东南亚光线昏暗的雨林中
Leopard’s with melanism, so a black coat are primarily found in the dark rainforests of Southeast Asia,
黑色会让它们比皮毛浅色的同胞更有优势
where the darkness gives them advantage over their lighter brethren.
然而 黑豹不完全是黑色的
Black leopards are not completely black, however.
如果你近看 你可以看到它们和所有猎豹一样 都有玫瑰斑点
And if you look closely, you’ll see that they feature the same rosettes as all leopards.
现存9种猎豹亚种
There are 9 extant subspecies of leopard.
在非洲乃至亚洲都能发现它们的踪迹 它们也是根据栖息地域来命名的
And they can be found across Africa and Asia, each named for the region they inhabit.
由于在大片不同的环境和地形都有其生存领域
Due to this massive range of differing landscapes and terrains,
猎豹开始变得精于适应环境
leopards have become masters of adaptability.
它们是捕猎之王 在中国西北的丛林里 泰国丛林和
They are champion hunters, adept at stalking prey in the mountains of Northwestern China,
南非热带稀树大草原 以及所有地方都能熟练地围捕动物
the jungles of Thailand, the savanna grasslands of Southern Africa, and everything in between.
由于它们的物种比其它大型猫科动物更多
Since their range is so much more extensive than all the other big cats,
而且因为它们在大型猫科动物中身形最小
and since they’re the smallest of the big cats,
猎豹常打败狮子 老虎或狼群
leopards can often find themselves knocked off the top of the food chain,
位居于食物链顶端
if there’s a lion, a tiger, or a pack of hyenas present.
然而 猎豹在体型上不占优势 常以偷袭来补其拙
However, while leopards lack in size, they make up for in stealth.
它们常会悄无声息地从树上扑下毫无戒备的猎物身上 这在大型猫科动物中最为常见
They’re the most arboreal of the big cats, an often hunt by silently dropping out of trees onto unsuspecting prey.
美洲豹有纤长和肌肉发达的后腿
Leopards come equipped with elongated muscular hind legs
这提供了它们蹦上树需要的力量
that provide the power they need to launch themselves into the trees.
为避开竞争对手和食腐动物
In order to get away from competing predators and scavengers,
猎豹会借助它们强健的腿把猎物拖回树上
leopard will use their muscular legs to drag their prey back up into the tree,
瞪羚 狒狒哪怕偶尔捕捉到的长颈鹿都可以
which can be anything from gazelle, to baboons, to the occasional giraffe.
猎豹的速度非常快 以每小时58公里的速度冲刺
Leopards are pretty speedy, topping out at 58 kilometers an hour.
但它们不是追猎者 它们是伏击掠食者
But they aren’t chasers, they’re ambush predators.
它们会等待猎物进入自己的陷阱 然后猛扑或跳下来
They’ll wait for prey to enter their trap, and then pounce or drop.
它们1次弹跳可以向前跳跃6米 高度达3米
They can leap forward 6 metres in a single bound, and 3 metres directly up.
它们脚上有巨大的厚肉垫 可以防止它们走动时发出声音
They have huge thick pads on their feet that dampen the sound of their movement,
在跟踪猎物时 它们对周围的环境非常敏感
and are very conscious of their surroundings when stalking prey.
所以 如果你在猎豹的领地上 最好抬起头来 提防跳下来的豹子
So, if you’re ever in leopard territory, better look up. Drop cats.
仅次于美洲虎和老虎
Third only to the jaguar and tiger,
猎豹是非常强壮的游泳者 甚至潜水也没有问题
leopards are very strong swimmers, and have no problem diving underwater for a meal.
他们没有特定的交配季节 雄性会通过气味追踪雌性
There’s no specific mating season, and males will track females down through scent,
然后跟着它们走 直到雌性猎豹决定要繁殖
and followed them around, until she decides she’s ready to breed.
幼崽通常有两到三只 它们和妈妈一起住在一个小洞里
Litters are small, usually two or three cubs. And they live with mom in a small dinner burrow.
3月大时 母亲会带它们出去 教它们些猎豹的生存技能
At 3 months, mum will start taking them out, and teaching them to do leopard things.
围捕猎物 突袭和猎杀猎杀这些所有你知道的有趣的东西
You know, stalking, pouncing, killing… All that fun stuff.
母亲将和幼崽们一起生活 约2年 直到它们准备好自己出发去捕猎
Mother will stay with the cubs for about 2 years, before they’re ready to set out on their own.
猎豹主要是被猎杀大型动物的捕猎者和偷猎者杀死的
Leopards are primarily killed by big-game hunters and poachers,
他们会出售猎豹的皮毛和胡须 剩余的被用于一些西非的药剂
who sell their coats and whiskers, the latter of which are used in some West African potions.
虽然偷猎者和猎杀大型动物者很容易被妖魔化
While poaching and big-game hunting is easy to demonize,
但猎豹受到危害的另一个来源却不是因为他们
the other source of their endangerment isn’t.
在极其贫穷的国度 猎豹会猎杀家禽
Leopards often hunt livestock in very poor countries,
农民们为保护他们的牧群 常会毒死或射死这些大型猫科动物
so to keep their herds safe, farmers will often poison or shoot the big cats.
这个比它们的胡须中提取药水
An issue that is a bit easier to empathize with than, say making potions out of their whiskers,
穿着豹皮大衣 在Instagram软件上直播杀猎豹更容易些
coats out of their coats, and killing leopards for Instagram likes.
幸运的是 有一些鼓励当地农民不要捕杀猎豹的项目正在取得进展
Fortunately, there are programs in place that are making progress, incentivizing local farmers not to kill leopards.
相反地 去鼓励人们捕捉猎豹
Instead, they’re encouraged to capture the leopard, which are examined by veterinarians,
然后让兽医帮它们检查后又放生原处
and then released back into its original territory.
研究发现 捕捉时留下的创伤足以让猎豹无法回到那些农场捕猎
Studies have found that the trauma of the capture was enough to keep the leopards from returning to hunt at those farms.
豹子已经在6个国家灭绝了 还有超过6个国家正在威胁它们的生存
Leopards have gone extinct in 6 countries, and there’s 6 more on the way.
历史上它们曾在非洲49%的区域
They have vanished from 49 percent of their historic range in Africa,
以及欧亚大陆84%的区域出现过
and 84 percent of their historic range in Eurasia.
阿穆尔河猎豹受威胁最严重 它们在俄罗斯自然栖息地仅剩57头存活
The amur leopard is especially threatened, with only 57 remaining in their natural habitat in Russia.
这很糟糕 同时有个好消息
That being sad. There’s good news.
俄国政府因此在2012年建立了一个26.2万公顷的大型国际公园
As a result of the Russian government establishing a massive 262 thousand hectare national park in 2012,
阿穆尔河猎豹从2007年来在这个区域数量从30到57 几乎翻了一倍
amur leopards have almost doubled in population in the region since 2007 from 30 to 57.
对于我们上个视频的上传时间过长而深感抱歉 但我们今年会有一大堆新剧集要播出
Sorry, it’s been so long since our last upload, but we have a whole bunch of new episodes coming out this year.
好了 下回我们探讨什么动物呢? 在评论区下告诉我们吧
So, what animal should we check out next? Please let me know in the comments.
然后订阅我们每周Animalogic新的作品
And be sure to subscribe for new episodes of Animalogic every other week.
感谢您的观看
Thanks for watching.
我是丹妮尔•迪福
Danielle Dufault.
贝尔基金
Bell Fund

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视频概述

本剧集介绍了猎豹的种类和豹属中的亲缘关系以及生活状态,猎豹你知多少?

听录译者

红花老七

翻译译者

CRAB

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fv8-s-MH1Bs

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