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学会如何学:掌握学习方法

Learning how to learn | Barbara Oakley | TEDxOaklandUniversity

我在不停地搬家中长大
I grew up moving all over the place.
到我上10年级的时侯
By the time I’d hit 10th grade,
我已经在10个不同的地方住过了
I’d lived in 10 different places.
数学是特别有连贯性的
Math is extraordinarily sequential.
直到我上三年级
By the time I’d hit 3rd grade,
我很潮流地把数学挂了 基本上
I’d fallen off the math bandwagon.
我考试不及格
Basically, I flunked my way
在小学 初中 高中的数学和科学上
through elementary, middle, and high school math and science.
所以现在这是一个有点奇怪的回顾
So it’s a little strange looking back now
因为现在我是一名工程学教授
because todayI am a professor of engineering
同时我对我的工作充满热情
and I’m passionate about my job.
一天,我的一名学生发现了我的过往
One day, one of my studentsfound out about my past,
他问我 你是怎么做到的 你怎么改变了你的大脑
and he asked me,”How did you do it?How did you change your brain?”
我想 你知道 我如何做到的
And I thought, you know how did I do it.
我意识是 我在这里 这个小孩子
I mean, here I was, this little kid,
我只是喜欢语言和文化
and I just loved language and culture,
那就是当我长大后所有我想要的学的
and that’s all I wanted to learn when I grew up,
但我没钱去上大学
but I didn’t have the money to go to college,
于是高中一毕业 我就去参了军
so I enlisted in the army right out of high school
去学了一种语言
to learn a language.
照片里的我 看起来很紧张
You can see me there, looking very nervous,
正准备扔手榴弹
about to throw a grenade.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
我确实是学到了一种语言
And I did learn a language.
我学了俄语
I’d learned Russian,
后来我在苏联拖网渔船工作
and I ended up working out on Soviet trawlers,
在白令海
up on the Bering Sea,
当一名俄语译者
as a Russian translator.
我就是热爱冒险和找寻新视野
So I just love adventure and getting new perspectives.
所以我也去了南极洲 南极站
So I also ended up in Antarctica, at the South Pole Station.
那是我遇见我丈夫的地方
That’s where I ended up meeting my husband.
所以我常说
So I always say –
[笑声]
(Laughter)
我得去到地球的尽头才能遇见那个男人
I had to go to the end of the Earth to meet that man.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
但我开始意识到一些事情
But I begin to realize something, though.
我做了这些冒险 看了这些新视野
I was doing all these adventures and seeing these new perspectives,
但它们却好像总是外部的
but somehow they were always external.
它们不是内部的 我没有本质上的改变
They weren’t internal; I wasn’t changing inside.
当我在军队工作时
When I’d worked in the military,
我和很多西点军校的工程师们一起工作
I worked with all these West Point engineers,
他们有强大的技术来解决问题
and they had these powerful techniques for problem solving.
我就想——
I thought, you know –
有时 我会看他们在做什么
I’d look sometimes at what they were doing,
他们的那些微积分学和物理学的书
and they had these calculus and physics books,
对我来说就像象形文字一样晦涩难懂
and it looked like hieroglyphics to me.
但我想 “如果我学会这些会怎么样呢”
But I thought,”What if I could get those ideas?”
“如果我学会这些语言会怎么样呢”
What if I could learn that language?”
我的意思是 世界在进化发展
I mean, the world’s evolving.
语言和文化很重要
Language and culture are important,
但数学 科学和技术也很重要
but math, and science, and technologyare important, too.
如果我能学到这些新的知识
What if I could learn these new ideas
并把它们运用到我已知并热爱的领域上会怎么样呢
and add them to the ideas I already knew and loved?
所以 当我26岁退役了之后
So when I got out of the military, at age 26,
我决定去试着改变我的思维方式
I decided to try and change my brain.
这并不容易
It wasn’t easy.
但如果那时的我知道
But if I knew then what
我现在所知道的学习方法
I know now about how to learn,
我会学得更轻松 更有效率
I could have learned much more easilyand much more effectively.
所以多年前 当我开始尝试回答那位学生的问题
So several years ago, as I begin trying to answer
即“我是怎样改变我的思维模式”时
that student’s question,”How did I change my brain?”,
我开始请教世界各地的顶尖教授
I begin reaching out to top professorsfrom around the world,
他们不仅拥有各自所在的
people who not only had knowledge
艰深领域的专业知识
of their difficult areas of expertise,
而且还能高效地教学
but also who could teach effectively.
我问他们
And I asked them.
我问 “你们是怎么学习的
I said,”How did you learn?
又是怎么教学使得别人可以学到东西的”
And how do you teach, so others could learn?”
我发现他们学习的方法
What I found was the way they learned,
和他们教学的方法通常和
and the way they taught was often similar
我学习和教学的方法很相似
to the way I learned and I taught.
它几乎就像兄弟间的握手一样
It was almost like this kind of shared fraternal handshake.
但我们通常都不知道为什么我们这么做
But we often didn’t know why we did what we did.
所以我开始研究神经科学和认知心理学
So I begin researching neuroscienceand cognitive psychology,
并请教这些领域的顶尖专家
and reaching out to talk to top experts of those fields.
我发现了高效学习的关键
Here is what I found, the keys to learning effectively.
正如我们所知 大脑是相当复杂的
As we know, the brain is enormously complex.
但我们可以将它的运作简化成两个不同本质的模式
But we can simplify its operation into two fundamentally different modes.
第一个我称它为集中模式
The first is just what I’ll call the focus mode.
集中模式就和它听起来一样
The focus mode is just like it sounds like:
你把注意力集中到某些事上 然后 嘭 它启动了
you turn your attention to somethingand boom! It’s on.
但第二模式有一点不同
But the second mode is a little different.
它是一种放松的神经状态
It’s a relaxed set of neural states
我称之为发散模式
that I’ll call the diffuse mode.
这包含许多休息时的状态
It’s a number of resting states.
由此看来 当你学习时
So it seems that, when you’re learning,
你就在这两个不同的模式来回转换
you’re going back and forth between these two different modes.
如何才能更好地理解这些模式呢
How can we better understand these modes?
通过类比
Through analogy.
我们用弹球机来作类比
What we’re going to use is a pinball machine analogy.
你们都了解弹球机是怎样工作的
You all know how pinballs work.
你只需要拉起活塞
You just pull back on a plunger,
球就会弹出来
and the ball goes boinking out
在橡胶缓冲器上弹来弹去
and bounces around on the rubber bumpers,
然后你就会得到分数
and that’s how you get points.
我们会将
What we’re going to do
这个弹球机
is we’re going to take this pinball
放进你的大脑里
and we’re going to put it right on your brain.
像这样
So, there it is.
这就是你大脑里的弹球机
There’s the pinball machine on your brain.
如果我们把它来比作集中模式的话
If you look, this is the analogy for the focus mode.
当你学习的时候 由于你正专注于某事
When you’re learning, you’re often thinking tightly,
所以你会很集中
as you’re focusing on something.
它涉及你已熟悉的东西
It involves thoughts you’re somewhat familiar with,
也许是以前就有的思维模式
perhaps historical patterns,
或者是你熟悉的乘法表
or you’re familiar with the multiplication table.
所以当你有一个想法 把它弹出来
So you think a thought, and it takes off,
然后平稳地
and moves along smoothly,
按照你的思路进行移动
pretty much along the pathways that you’ve already laid.
但如果你想到的是
But what if the thought you’re thinking
一个新想法 一个新观念 一种新技术
is actually a new thought, a new concept, a new technique
是那些你以前从未想过的东西 会怎样呢?
that you’ve never thought of before?
我们以弹球机底部的
Well, that’s symbolized by this new pattern
这个新图形来作比喻
towards the bottom of the pinball machine metaphor.
为了到达这个新的地点
To get to this new place, I mean,
打个比方说
at least sort of metaphorically speaking,
看看这些挡在路上的橡胶缓冲器
look at all the rubber bumpers that are in the way.
怎样才能到达那里呢
How can you even get there?
你需要一个不同的思考方式
You need a different way of thinking,
也可以说是一种新视角
a new perspective in a sense,
而这是由发散模式提供的
and that’s provided here by the diffuse mode.
看看那些橡胶缓冲器之间的距离
Look at how far apart those rubber bumpers are
间隔得有多远
from one another.
当你想到一个想法 将它弹出来
When you think a thought, it takes off,
它的活动范围会非常广阔
and it can range very widely,
在你尝试得到一些新点子的时候也是如此
as you’re attempting to come up with some new ideas.
所以 你不能采用集中模式那种
So, you can’t do that careful, focused thinking
仔细专注的思考方式
that you can in the focus mode,
但你至少可以
but you can, at least,
在你需要的地方
get to the place you need to be in
抓住这些新点子
to grapple with these new ideas.
对我们所有人来说
The bottom line for all of us
最重要的是
out of this is this:
学习时
when you’re learning,
你需要在这些模式之间来回转换
you want to go back and forth between these modes,
如果你发现你自己在集中于某事时
and if you find yourself, as you’re focusing in on something,
比如在学习一个新概念或者解决一个问题时
trying to learn a new concept or solve a problem,
卡住了
and you get stuck,
你可以把注意力从那个问题上转移开
you want to turn your attention away from that problem
转换为发散模式 在休息状态下
and allow the diffuse modes, those resting states,
用潜意识工作
to do their work in the background.
我们如何把这些技巧应用到现实生活中呢
How can we actually use these ideas in real life?
来看照片中的这个人
If you look at this guy right here,
他是萨尔瓦多·达利
he was Salvador Dali,
20世纪最杰出的超现实主义画家之一
one of the most brilliant surrealist painters of the 20th century.
达利是不羁的典范
Dali was the very definition of a wild and crazy guy.
照片里的他
You can see him there.
抱着他的宠物 豹猫巴布
He’s got his pet, Ocelot Babu.
在达利画画遇到瓶颈时
What Dali used to do when he was kind of stuck
他经常会
as he was solving some problem related to his painting
手里拿着一些钥匙
was he’d sit down and he’d relax in a chair,
然后坐在椅子上放松
and he’d have keys in his hands.
他握着那些钥匙
He’d hold those keys, and he’d relax,
放空思绪
kind of letting his brain noodling away.
当他放松到快要睡着时
Just as he’d relax so much that he’d fall asleep,
钥匙会从他手中掉落
the keys would fall from his hands,
落地的声音会把他惊醒
the clatter would wake him up,
然后就行了 他会把发散模式下获得的
and off you go: he’d take those ideas
那些点子转移到集中模式下
from the diffuse mode over to the focus mode,
思考它们的用法并精炼它们
where he could work with them, refine them,
最后应用在他的画作上
and use them for his painting.
你可能会想 “那太棒了 这招对画家很有用
You might think, “That’s great! It’s good for an artist.
但我是个工程师
But I’m an engineer.
我也能用这种方法吗”
So how can I use these ideas?”
看这个人 他是托马斯·爱迪生
If you see this guy right here, he was Thomas Edison,
历史上最杰出的发明家之一
one of the most brilliant inventors in history.
爱迪生是怎么做的
What Edison used to like to do,
据说
at least according to legend,
他会坐在椅子上 手里拿着球状轴承
he’d sit in a chair with ball bearings in his hand.
闭上眼睛想问题
He’d relax away, kind of thinking about the problem, loosely,
在放松的状态下思考和他的发明有关的问题
that he was trying to solve related to his inventions, relaxing.
在他刚要睡着的时候
Just as he’d fall asleep,
球状轴承会从他手上滑落
the ball bearings would fall from his hands,
然后行了 他醒来了
and off you go: he’d be woken up,
他把这些点子立刻
and he’d take those ideas from the diffuse mode
转移到集中模式下处理
back into the focus mode.
将这些点子提炼并应用于他的发明上
He’d use them to refine and finish his inventions.
最重要的事在于
The bottom line for all of us out of this is this:
无论何时你坐下解决
whenever you’re sitting down to solve
一个新问题或分析一个新点子
a new problem or analyze a new idea,
即使数百万的人有相同的想法
even if millions of other people have thought the same thoughts,
或解决相同的问题 对你来说 它就和
or solved the same problems, for you, it’s just as creative
像达利和爱迪生那样的名人一样具有创造性
as it was for famous people like Dali and Edison,
你想要使用这些创造性的方法
and you want to use some of these creative approaches.
但你可能会跟我说“是啊 但我有个问题
But you might say to me,”Yeah, but I’ve got a problem, though.
你知道我就是喜欢拖延
You know, I just love to procrastinate.
这样切换的模式是很好 但我没时间
This back and forth stuff is great, but I don’t have time.
临时抱佛脚 那就是我”
I cram at the last minute. That’s just me.”
所以我们来稍微谈谈拖延症
So, let’s talk just a little bit about procrastination.
当你拖延的时候会发生什么
What seems to happen when you procrastinate is this:
你看着你一点都不想做的事
you look at something you’d really rather not do,
你会感觉
and you actually feel a physical pain
头疼
in the part of your brain that analyzes pain.
有两个办法能让你处理这个
So, there are two ways.that you can handle this.
第一个办法是
The first way is you can just kind
继续工作
of keep working a way through it.
研究显示几分钟后压力就会消失
And research has shown that within a few minutes it actually will disappear.
第二个办法是转移注意力
But the second way is you just turn your attention away,
你猜会怎样?
and guess what?
你立马就感觉好点了
You feel better, right, right away.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
所以你做了一次 又做了两次
So you do this once, you do this twice;
这并不是什么大问题
it’s just not that big a deal.
但你经常这样做 然后就会上瘾
But you do this very often, and it’s actually like an addiction.
会给你的生活带来问题
It can really cause problems in how you lead your life.
所以你该怎样解决它呢
So, how can you handle it?
一个非常简单的方法 采用波莫多罗技术
A very simple way: using the Pomodoro Technique.
其实波莫多罗技术
The Pomodoro technique, as it turns out,
所需要做的就是准备一个计时器
all you need to do is you get a timer.
什么计时器都可以
Any timer will do.
然后将它定时25分钟
Then you just take it and set it for 25 minutes,
确保其他东西都关闭
and make sure everything else is turned off
没有即时通讯工具 没有其他会影响你的东西
– so, no instant messengers, nothing like that –
集中注意力工作25分钟
and you work with focused attention for 25 minutes.
任何人都能做到这25分钟 几乎任何人
Anybody can do 25 minutes, virtually anyone.
当你完成了 就会发现其中的乐趣
When you’re done, you do something fun;
一小会 放松几分钟
just a little bit, a few minutes of relaxed fun.
这样做的好处就是
What this seems to do is this:
你在进步 你既锻炼了
you are enhancing, you’re practicing in some sense
集中注意力的能力
your ability to have focused attention,
也锻炼了快速放松的能力
and you’re also practicing your ability to relax a little bit.
现在你们明白了放松
Now you understand that relaxation
也是学习过程的重要部分
is also an important part of the learning process;
一些事情在潜意识下也会被处理
there are things going on in the background.
唯一要注意的是:当你做波莫多罗时
The only thing is this: when you do the Pomodoro,
你要明白你不能坐在那里说
you want to make sure that you don’t sit there
“我要把我全部作业都
and say,”I’m going to do my entire homework set
在25分钟内完成” 不行
in these 25 minutes.” No.
你只能说“我要集中注意力25分钟”
You just sit and say,”I’m going to workwith focused attention for 25 minutes”,
那是关键
and that’s the key.
学生们有时会错误地认为
Students sometimes make the mistake
他们身上的某些特质
of thinking that some of their absolute best traits
反而是缺点
are their worst traits.
什么意思呢
What do I mean by this?
我们以记忆来举例说明
Let’s take the idea of memory.
假设你的记忆力很差
Let’s say that you have a poor working memory.
你不能牢牢记住东西
You can’t seem to hold things in mind very well.
你看着其他的学生
You watch these other students
他们可以抓住
and they’re able to grasp
那些点子并且巧妙地处理
all these ideas and kind of manipulate them,
但你不行
but you can’t.
事实上 这意味着你其实更加具有创造性
Well, what this means is: surprisingly, you are more creative.
因为有时候当你不能集中注意力时
Because you can’t hold these ideas in mind so tightly,
其他的想法就会慢慢的冒出来
other ideas are often creeping in.
如果你容易紧张
If you have problems with the tension,
你总会想着逃避
you’re always kind of diverting off into some other idea,
事实上
it’s similar:
你更有创造力
you are often more creative,
这些新观念会逐渐转化为各种创意和创新
because these new ideas are slipping in instead.
还有一件事 那就是慢思考
There’s another thing, and that’s slow thinking.
一些学生把自己和其他人做比较
Some students compare themselves to other students
并告诉我:“你知道 相比之下 我真的很慢
and say,”You know, I’m really slow by comparison.
这些其他的学生 他们就像赛车手
These other students, they are like race car drivers;
他们飞快地从我身边经过”
they go past me so fast.”
但是 如果把你自己想象成一个徒步旅行者
But, think of yourself as a hiker.
当然
Yes, a race car driver
赛车手比你快多了
gets there much faster than you ever can,
但是徒步旅行者却有完全不同的体验
but a hiker has a completely different experience.
徒步旅行者能闻到松树的气息
A hiker can smell the pine air,
他们可以伸出手去触摸树叶
they can reach out, touch the leaves,
他们能看到兔子的踪迹
they see the rabbit trails.
在许多方面 你的经历会更深入 更深刻
In many ways, your experiences are deeper and more profound,
你不会急于下结论
and you don’t jump to conclusions.
所以如果你是一个慢性思考者
So if you are a slower thinker, yes,
是的 你可能需要更加努力
you may have to work harder
才能掌握这些知识
in order to grasp the materials,
但在许多情况下 懂得权衡取舍是非常值得的
but the trade-offs in many cases are well worth it;
你对所学的东西获得了扎实的掌握
you gain solid mastery of what you’re studying.
有一种叫做“学习能力的错觉”
So, there is something called”illusions of competence in learning”.
这意味着你整天的学习
What this means is you can study all day long
你不停地运转却达不到效果
and you can be spinning your wheels
就是因为你没有采取有效的学习方法
because you’re not using effective study techniques.
因为考试而焦虑
There is such a thing as test anxiety,
但在很多情况下 令人惊讶的是
but in many cases, surprisingly many,
它的出现是因为
it arises because you’ve just
你刚和一只可怕的熊面对面
come face to face with the scary bear,
[笑声]
(Laughter)
这就是你刚刚了解到
and that is that you have just learned
你不是知识的主人
that you are not a master of the material.
研究人员同时研究动物和人
Researchers with both critters and people,
以寻找更高效的学习技巧
are finding powerful insights into how we can learn most effectively.
其中一种方法就是通过锻炼
One of those ways is simply through exercise.
通过几天的锻炼
Exercise within a matter of a few days
可以增加我们学习和记忆的能力
can increase our ability to both learn and to remember,
研究人员研究了
and researchers are beginning to understand
允许这种情况发生的神经生理学途径
the neurophysiological pathways that allow this to occur.
测试 测试是最好的方式
Tests. Tests are the best.
始终自我测试 给自己各种小测试
Test yourself all the time. Give yourself little mini tests.
制作记忆卡片 甚至是数学和科学技术
Make flash cards, even in math and science,
把卡片混合起来 随时随地学习
mix them up, study them in different places,
这就像是家庭作业
and this brings me to homework.
当你遇到难题时
When you do a homework problem,
不要认为完成了就可以抛之脑后
never just work at once and put it away.
只唱过一次的歌曲 你还会记得那首歌吗?不会
Would you ever sing a song once and think you knew that song? No.
自己测试下
Test yourself,
在之后的几天里 把这些难题多重复几遍
work that homework problem several times over several days
直到解题思路像歌曲一样从你的脑海里流淌出来
until the solution flows like a song from your mind.
回忆
Recall.
当你在看书时
When you’re looking at a page
你是希望能从中学习到一些东西
as you’re trying to learn something in a book,
人们倾向于找重点 对吧
people’s tendency is to highlight, right?
在书上的划线
There’s something about the motionof the pen on a page
会让你以为这些内容实际上进入了你的大脑
that makes you think that it’s actually going into your brain,
但事实并非如此
but it often isn’t.
通常情况下 人们需要重新阅读
Often times, people will just reread,
但这也只是简单的加深印象
but that too is simply spinning your wheels.
最有效的方法就是当你看完一页
The most effective technique is simply to look at a page,
然后把目光移开 看你能回忆起多少
look away, and see what you can recall.
这样做 有助于建立深刻的神经连接
Doing this, as it seems, helps build profound neural hooks
有助于增强你对知识的理解
that help enhance your understanding of the material.
最后 不要被错误的观点所迷惑
And finally, don’t be fooled by the erroneous idea
因为理解的过程已经足够建立对知识的掌握
that understanding alone is enough to build the mastery of the material.
理解是真正重要的
Understanding is truly important,
只有在各种情况下
but only when combined with practice and repetition
结合实践和重复
in a variety of circumstances
你才能真正掌握你所学的知识
can you truly gain mastery over what you’re learning.
所以 最后我想说的是
So, in closing, I would like to say
学会如何学习
that learning how to learn
是你能掌握的最强大的工具
is the most powerful tool you can ever grasp.
不要只是追随你的爱好
Don’t just follow your passions;
扩大你的兴趣范围 你的生活将变得更加丰富多彩
broaden your passions, and your lifewill be enriched beyond measure.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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视频概述

高效学习的技巧

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

茧·道

审核员

审核员 W

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O96fE1E-rf8

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