So far this war things had looked grim for the Russians.
They had unwillingly entered the war in the first place
and the colossal defeats at the battles of Tannenberg and Masurian lakes
had convinced the German and Austro-Hungarian armies that Russia’s army was both backward
and incompetent, but beginning this week they would learn that Russia was no pushover at
all and had two enviable assets- men and space.
I’m Indy Neidell. Welcome to the Great War.
上周 安特卫普落于德军之手 比军和德军撤往
Last week we saw Antwerp fall to the Germans,
佛兰德斯 修筑防御工事 并试图阻止德军向大海
and the Belgians and the British retreated into Flanders to build their defenses
and try to prevent the Germans from pushing to the sea.
while the French held the line further south.
东面战场 奥军被困在普热梅斯要塞 等待救援
In the East, the Austrians were under siege in their fortress at Przemysl awaiting relief,
the Russians further north were marching to positions to cross the Vistula and attack Germany
and the Germans were now only 20 km from Warsaw.
Here was the general German plan in the east
to strike, with Austrian help, at Warsaw and Ivangorod
and outflank the Russian army there
while the Austrians were being relieved from the siege further south.
The Russians, after weeks of disastrous marching through the mud
俄军终于到达了交汇点 他们修建桥头堡 开始渡河
had finally reached their crossing point, built a bridgehead, and began to cross.
The Germans reached Warsaw on October 12th,
but their attacks were thrown back and there would be no outflanking.
See, the Germans had seen the Russian march and its colossal mismanagement
and believed that Russia was weak around Warsaw,
但德军没有意识到 俄军是分批抵达 并进入战场的
but what they didn’t realize was that the Russians armies were arriving and entering the battle in sections,
and more and more of them were coming.
所以 10月15日之前 德军处于优势 但之后
so we see that before October 15th, the Germans had the upper hand,
but after that, not so much.
Soon there was no prospect of German General von Hindenburg getting a decisive
victory in view of the seemingly endless Russian reinforcements, now coming from central Asia and Siberia.
对于战情 我们有必要了解一下 此时 东面实际上有四条战线
It’s important to realize that by this point there were actually four fronts in the east-
German-Russian in East Prussia, German-Austrian-Russian on the Vistula,
Russian-Austrian on the San River, and Russian-Austrian in the Carpathians,
and the middle two of them were now a concerted operation.
10月11日 在Boroevic von Bonja将军的协助下
So along the San River, the Austrians had finally managed to break out,
relieved by General Boroevic von Bonja on October 11th.
This was timed to coincide with Hindenburg’s German advances toward Warsaw further north.
Boroevic, eventually a Field Marshall, was a brilliant defensive strategist who later
showed what he could do on the Italian front,
但现在 他还得和参谋长 打交道
but for now he had to deal with his chief of Staff Conrad von Hotzendorf.
Conrad thought that the combined forces of
加上 的增援部队 可以击败俄军
the Austrians from within Przemysl and Boroevic’s relief army could beat the Russians,
所以 10月14日 康拉德命令士兵试着渡过桑河 与俄军交战
so on October 14th, he ordered his men to try and cross the San river and engage the enemy.
It was a catastrophe, his men were bombarded not only by the Russians
而且由于沟通不善 遭到了友军轰炸 并且他们没有浮筒造桥
but by their own side because of miscommunications
and there were no pontoons to make bridges, so they had to use boats to ferry themselves over,
and since one of the Austrian commanders thought
a marching band might improve morale, he had one playing on the Austrian shore.
Now imagine being one of those poor Austrian soldiers;
trying to cross a river in a boat
while being bombarded by both the enemy and your own men,
your comrades are dying around you by the dozen
while a marching band on the shore plays “inspiring” music for you.
It was truly a scene from a madhouse.
So now that we’ve imagined being an Austrian soldier,
lets imagine that we live in Poland in October 1914.
德军率先闯入 然后是俄军 有时是奥军 之后德军又来一次
The Germans march in, then the Russians, sometimes the Austrians, then the Germans again,
各方部队来来回回 现在 俄军占领的波兰小镇
back and forth and up and down- by now the basic situation in the towns of Russian Poland
was total anarchy. At least the German officers had some training in civic leadership which
their Russian counterparts lacked completely. There sprang up a huge black market in this
售卖食物和酒 这你或许已经猜到了 但黑市也卖武器 制服
region for liquor and food, as you may guess, but also weapons, uniforms, anything that
以及一切当地人从战场搜刮来的东西 说的悲伤一点 从换食物的士兵那里得来的东西
the locals could scavenge from a battlefield, or sadly, get from a soldier in exchange for
food- even winter clothes with winter soon here. Really, the troops were so desperate
for food they were selling their winter boots,
knowing the Russian winter was coming in just a few short weeks.
Another effect of anarchy in Russian Poland was that when the German troops arrived, the
local populations often turned against the Jews, claiming they were secretly sympathetic
to the German cause, and they began a series of atrocities against them.
犹太人的商店和会堂被洗劫 焚烧 每天都有犹太人被绞死
Shops and synagogues were looted and burned, and Jews were hanged every day.
The idea that Jews were sympathetic to the German cause
totally ignored the fact that a quarter of a million Jews
were serving in the Russian army at the time.
And that army was finally beginning to turn itself around, not only because of its enormous
but because Russia had a way of approaching battle that none of the other combatants had.
看见了吗 俄军完全可以舍弃土地 用空间打仗
See, Russia had no problem giving up land to the enemy and using space to fight a war
instead of just force. This had always held true- think of Napoleon marching on Russia
拿破仑入侵俄军 最后惨淡收场 俄国的土地
100 years ago and the disaster it ended in for him. Russia had thousands upon thousands
延绵数千英里不绝 就算敌人得到一些土地 甚至拿下整个省 那又怎样？
of miles of land and if the enemy made some gains, or even took a whole province- so what?
当敌人战线拉的过长 耗尽精力时 俄国可以轻易地重夺失地
It would simply be re-taken when the enemy stretched itself too thin and became exhausted.
And how does an enemy counter this when the enemy can’t think like that?
而只有俄军才拥有这样宝贵的资源 对德国来说 割让东普鲁士的任何一点土地给俄军
None of the other armies had that luxury.
It was immoral for the Germans to cede any of East Prussia to Russia,
it was humiliating to the Austrians
that Russia now held Austrian ground and cities
and it was absolutely unthinkable for the Belgians and French to give up an
放弃了任何一寸土地给德国 这是绝对无法想象的 因为在西面 能带来决定性胜利的是
inch of their land to the Germans in the west,
这是绝对无法想象的 因为在西面 能带来决定性胜利的是
where the war for a decisive victory was now
道路 村庄 以及山丘
a war for roads, villages, and hills.
The Race to the sea had been going on for weeks as the Germans tried to outflank the
包抄英军 法军 比军 反之亦然 随着阵地战始终难分高下
British, French, and Belgians, and vice versa. The trench lines grew ever longer as neither
side was able to gain an advantage and both sides were forced to dig in.
Battles that would rage for weeks began in places like La Bassee, Armentieres, and Messines
这些地方持续数周 10月11日 德军开始轰炸
as the line grew further and further north. On the 11th, the Germans began bombarding
Lille, which surrendered on the 13th and would remain in German hands for the next four years.
This part of France and Belgium, called Flanders, was still mostly untouched by the war, and
10月14日 部分英军进入 看起来
when on October 14th, some British forces entered the town of Ypres, it seemed like
a nice quiet country town. They promptly began calling it Wipers.
The next day they marched east a few miles
and made preparations to make a quick advance on the Germans
as soon as the rest of the British expeditionary Force turned up.
No one realized yet that this quaint little patch of Belgian countryside
would soon become the gravesite for over 200,000 British soldiers during the next four years.
British soldiers were going to a watery grave this week as well,
as the German submarine U-9, already infamous for dispatching
three British cruisers in one hour,torpedoed the Hawke in the north sea.
525 British sailors drowned.Only 21 were saved.
不过 随着海战日臻完善 英军幸运地获得了优势
However, as the war in the seas grew and developed, the British gained a lucky advantage.
Russia sent them a German navy signal book
it had captured when the German signalman
about to destroy it was killed by an artillery shell.
Because of this, British cryptographers in
future had a leg up decoding wireless messages and finding their adversaries at sea.
So there we are at the end of the week, with the British arriving at a nice quiet town
called Ypres at the northern end of the miles and miles of trenches, the Austrians sinking
陷入绝望 因为他们的 德军现在意识到
into despair as their maneuvers once again prove disastrous, the Germans realizing that
Russia was nowhere near as incompetent as they’d thought, and the Russians bringing
more, and more, and ever more men to bear down on the Germans along the Vistula River.
Germany and Austria knew, of course, that Russia had the population advantage, but they’d
gone to war confident that their advantages in tactics and equipment would more than make up for this.
And for the Germans, at least, so far it had.
But nobody quite realized the depth of the Russian reinforcements
and as the enemy army’s initial forces were depleted,
that depth, as well as the use of the endless open space,
had finally made the Russian army a real force to be reckoned with
and over the next two months, hundreds of thousands of men
would die on the enormous battlefields of the Eastern Front.
If you like to see how the trench warfare developed in the war,check out these episode
about the battles on the banks of the Aisne River, and click subscribe to never miss an
episode. For the next four years.