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难以突破?你可能要检查下自己是否是习得性无助 – 译学馆
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难以突破?你可能要检查下自己是否是习得性无助

Learned Helplessness

欢迎来到 不列颠哥伦比亚省的美丽的温哥华
Welcome to beautiful Vancouver, British Columbia.
河那边就是我长大的地方
This is actually where I grew up, just across that water.
还记得年少时 我想成为一个制片人
And I remember when I was a teenager here I wanted to be a film maker.
我是如何做的呢?
And so what did I do?
我发现一个名字很怪的导演 她住在温哥华
Well, I found a film director with a strange name who lived in Vancouver.
我在杂志封面上见过她
I saw her on the cover of this magazine
于是我就在白页电话簿里查找她的号码
and then I just looked up her number in the phone book,
因为2000年大家都是这么查找号码的
in the white pages, because that is how you did back in the year 2000.
然后我给她打了个电话 她说她正在通话
And I gave her a call and she said she was on the other line,
稍后给我回电
but she would call me back.
你猜怎么着 她真打回来了
And, strangely enough, she did call me back.
真是个惊喜 我和她讨论了有关电影制作的问题
And it was amazing. I got to chat to her about film making.
我估计当时我真心想有人能给我一个开始的机会
I guess what I really wanted was for someone else to be able to provide me with an opportunity to get on set,
向我传授一些行内的经验
to get some experience in that industry and show me what it is like.
我知道门外汉想入行简直无从下手
I just want to know and it is so hard when you are on the outside to figure out how to break in.
这时候你就想找个行家求教:
You just want to reach out to someone who knows and say:
请帮帮我吧
Help me with this.
有种心理现象 叫习得性无助
There is a psychological phenomenon known as learned helplessness.
数十年前就有实验来证明这种现象
And the experiments conducted way back decades ago
不过这些实验很残酷
that established this phenomenon were really quite terrible.
他们找了一群狗
What they would do is take dogs and for some of them, at least,
并对其中一些狗施加惩罚
they would force them to endure a punishment.
比如 狗会受到电击
For example they would receive electric shocks
却丝毫不能躲避这些电击
and there was nothing they could do to prevent those shocks.
对于另一些狗 则会设置一些栏杆或栅栏
For other dogs there were actually little levers or a fence
只要跳过去就能免受电击
they could hop over that would stop the shocks.
过了一段时间 他们再次对所有的狗做实验
Now later on they took all of those dogs and they tested them again,
但这次所有狗都有机会
but in environments where every one of those dogs had the opportunity
采取一些行动来免受电击
to avoid the shocks by taking some action.
结果 那些曾经被迫承受电击
Now what was found was those dogs that had been forced to endure the shocks
且无力改变的狗
and had no way of stopping them
竟然对电击毫无反抗
just kind of came to accept the shocks
即使它们能够通过一些行动来规避电击
even when there were actions that they could take which would stop them.
这就是习得性无助
So this is learned helplessness.
它们已经认定自己无力改变这种不舒服的状况
They have learned that there is nothing they can do to stop that uncomfortable situation.
还有一个相关的实验 实验对象是成人
There is a related study carried out with adults
这些人试着完成任务
where they were trying to complete a task,
不过会有恼人的噪音干扰他们
except there was this distracting noise playing.
一些人有资格关闭噪音
Now some of the adults had the ability to turn off that noise,
而另一些人没有控制噪音的资格
whereas others did not. It was not under their control.
咱们来看看他们的表现
And when you look at the performance,
那些能够控制噪音开关的人表现得更好
the adults who had the control to turn off the noise performed better
即使他们实际上并没有关掉噪音
even when they didn’t actually exercise that control.
虽然噪音一直开着
So they just let the noise play,
但是他们知道自己想关就关
but the knowledge that they could shut it off if they wanted to,
仅仅这个事实就能让他们表现得更加优异
made them perform better.
我做过很多工作
I have worked at many jobs now,
有些很卑微 有些更偏向经理或老板之类的
some very menial and some more managerial or entrepreneurial
也就是说基本上是我说了算
like I was basically running the show.
我发现雇员和管理者之间是有区别的
And what I found is that there is kind of this divide between employees and managers.
当你是雇员 你被安排了一项任务
When you are an employee and you are assigned to do something,
你尽力把它做到最好
you try to do it as best you have been shown,
但如果你遇到了阻碍 停滞不前
but if you hit a roadblock you kind of stop
你就会去找经理或者主管 然后对他们说:
and you go to your manager or supervisor and you say:
嘿 我现在该怎么办?
Hey, what do I do now?
我就这样做过 那时候我是一个助理研究员
I have done that before. I have done it when I was a research assistant.
有些实验结果 我不知道是怎么得出的
I would get some result. I didn’t really know what was going on.
我就把它拿给主管看 主管就说:
And I would just take it to my supervisor. The supervisor would say:
那么 你或许可以试试这个办法?
Oh, well, why don’t you try this?
他们给的建议其实我也知道
And that suggestion that they made was always one that I knew or,
如果真想达到那个目标
you know, I could have thought of if I had just spent five minutes on it
花5分钟就能想到一个主意
or if I really wanted to achieve that goal. But instead,
但是我怀着这样的心态:做事情时
I just had this mentality like: I am carrying out this task
遇到不懂的 就直接向别人请教
and when I get stuck, I am just going to ask someone else.
蒂姆·菲利斯讲过这样一个故事
You know, there is a story that Tim Ferriss tells.
他是《每周工作四小时》的作者
He is the guy who wrote The Four Hour Work Week
推荐你去读一下这本书
which is a book I would recommend.
他访问一所大学时
But he went and visited this university and
向听他演讲的学生提出挑战
he challenged the students that he was talking to.
他说:我给你25000美元 或者让你环游世界
He said: Look, I will give you 25,000 dollars and a trip around the world
只要你能够通过签名 邮件 写信等方式
for anyone who shows that they have made contact,
联系到下列人物中的任意一个:
by some sort of signature, email or letter or something
詹妮弗·洛佩兹
with either Jennifer Lopez,
比尔·克林顿 那时他好像还是总统? 不是了
Bill Clinton—who I think at the time was the President, possibly—
J.D. 塞林格 他就是那个长期隐居的作家
and J.D. Salinger, who is the most reclusive writer of all time.
有人做到吗? 不 一个也没有
And did anyone do it? No. Not a one.
第二年蒂姆又回到这所大学
Now the following year he went back to the same university
这次他除了发起同样的挑战
and in addition to making the challenge
还告诉了学生们去年的挑战状况:
he told them the story from the previous year,
没人完成任务 他们也没尽力
that no one had actually done it, no one had really tried.
那年 有六个人成功完成挑战
And that year six people actually achieved his challenge.
我想说 你需要想办法克服习得性无助和雇员心态
The point being, you need to find a way around the learned helplessness mentality, the employee
并想办法意识到那些看起来不可完成的事都有可能实现
mentality and find a way to realize that things that seem impossible can be accomplished if
只要你能说服自己你可以控制它们 你就能控制
you really accept that you have control of these things, that it is not outside of your control.
我们应该问这样一个问题:
It may be a question we should ask is:
我们的教育系统助长了习得性无助吗?
Does our school system promote learned helplessness?
我们是不是一次又一次地强迫孩子们忍受惩罚
Do we force kids to suffer punishments that they really can’t change time and time and
然后我们把他们扔到这个世界上
time again and then we expose them to a world
对他们说:现在去做你想做的事去吧
and say: Now you go out and do what you want to do?
某种程度上我们就是在这样做
I think to a certain degree we are doing that.
你懂的 对于很多学生来说
You know, school is for a lot of kids just
学校就是一种怪异且反常的惩罚
a weird and unusual kind of punishment
难怪他们这样想
and I guess it is no wonder that they learn
因为学校的事情超出他们的控制
that, you know, there is things beyond their control,
毕竟学校某种程度上就是要剥夺孩子的控制权
because school is kind of about taking control away from kids.
对于狗 如何让狗克服习得性无助
You know, for the dogs. How did they get the dogs to overcome their learned helplessness
让它们从电击中恢复过来呢?
and actually get away from the shocks they were receiving?
他们试图喂食 并且鼓励它们 然而并没用
They tried treats and encouragements,but it didn’t work.
后来他们将狗从接受电击的地方转移了至少两次
They had to physically move the dogs away from the area where they were being shocked
这样狗们才终于敢相信
at least twice before they would actually learn that they had the power
自己不会受到连续电击了
to change their faith, that they didn’t have to suffer that kind of punishment again and again.
但对于你 我认为仅仅让你知道“习得性无助”的存在
But with you, I feel like just letting you know that this thing exists might be enough
就足够改变你对人生和机遇的看法
to change the way you view your life and your opportunities.
让我们来简单地讨论一下职业道路
Let’s talk briefly about career paths.
我三次申请戏剧学院 被拒绝了三次
I applied to acting school three times and was rejected three times.
我两次申请电影学院 两次都被拒绝
I applied to film school twice and was rejected twice.
我想通过这些机构找到一种可靠而有效的入行方式
I think what I was looking for out of those institutions was a sure fire way to get to the career that I wanted.
我基本上是在重蹈覆辙
I was basically doing the same thing that I was doing
就像当年请那位温哥华导演来带我入门一样
when I asked that director in Vancouver to help me out, to get me on set.
我一直请求他人帮我梦想成真
I was asking for someone else to make this possible for me.
我的意思是 只有少数工作的职业道路是确定的
I mean, there is a small number of jobs where the career path is clearly laid out.
你想成为医生 就去医学院念书
You want to be a doctor, you have to go to med school.
想成为律师 就去法学院
You want to be a lawyer, you have to go to law school.
想当学者 就去读个博士学位
You want to be an academic, you have to do a PhD.
但我认为有太多职业
But I think there is a much larger group of careers
需要靠你自己摸索出一条路
where you really have to figure out a way to do it yourself.
这才是重点
And that is the whole point.
面对挑战时
That is the whole challenge.
你觉得自己难以控制局面
You feel like you are not in control
所以你想让别人帮你控制 或者帮你实现梦想
and you want someone else to help you get that control or get in
但是能帮你的只有你自己
the place where you need to be, but no one can really help you.
就像那个导演不能真正帮我实现梦想一样
Just like that director couldn’t really help me get where I need to be,
我也不能帮别人梦想成真
I cannot help other people get where they need to be.
一切取决于你自己
You really have it all up to you.
我的意思是 你必须自己证明:
I mean, you have to demonstrate that
你能做到你想做的事
you can do what you want to do.
有这样一句名言:
You know, there is this quote.
请赐予我平静 让我接收无法改变的
Grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change
给予我勇气 去改变我能改变的
and the courage to change the things I can and
赐我智慧 分辨这两者的区别
the wisdom to know the difference.
我的观点是 当你分辨事物是否可改变之前
Now my point is: When you are contemplating the things that you can and cannot change, ere
请坚信你可以改变的比你意想中的多的多
on the side of thinking that you can change much more than you can,
因为事实往往是这样
because often you will be able to.
也就是说 任何事在完成之前都似乎是不可能的
I mean, everything seems impossible until it is done.
这是纳尔逊·曼德拉的名言 用在这里正合适
That is a Nelson Mandela quote, which I think is kind of appropriate in this circumstance.
事情总是表面上很困难
Things look a lot more impossible than they are.
实际上 事在人为
And, really, it is up to you to find out.
你们都知道 书籍会对生活和人生观产生巨大影响
Hey, as you can tell, books have had a huge impact on my life and how I see the world.
当我旅行时 我喜欢听有声书
And when I am traveling I like to listen to them as audio books, because it is just more
因为在飞机和火车上听有声书更方便
convenient on planes and trains.
我恰好有一本书要推荐给你们
And there is actually one I wanted to recommend to you.
就是这本《怪诞行为学》 作者是丹·艾瑞里
It is called Predictably Irrational by Dan Ariely.
这本书是讲 人的行为并非如你所想的那么理智
It is about how humans don’t really behave rationally even when we think that is what we are doing.
它让我们洞察自己和他人的大脑工作原理
So it provides pretty good insight into how your brain works and how the brains of everyone around you work.
如果你想读这本书 请访问Audible.com/Veritasium免费获取
And if you want, you can download this book for free by going to Audible.com/Veritasium
想选其它书也行 因为可以免费试听一个月
or you can pick any other book of your choosing for a one month free trial.
Audible是个非常好有声书网站 各类书籍超过180,000本
Audible is a great audio book website with over 180,000 titles in all areas of literature
包括小说 非小说 期刊
including fiction, non fiction and periodicals.
所以你一定要去看看
So you should definitely check them out.
感谢Audible对本视频的支持 感谢观看
I want to thank Audible for supporting me and I want to thank you for watching.

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视频概述

本视频讲了“习得性无助”这种普遍存在的心理状态,是指人通过反复学习,接收了让人备受煎熬的现实,在条件允许的情况下仍然被动地承受,采取消极的不抵抗策略。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ccz

审核员

审核团HL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YMPzDiraNnA

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