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谢弗绘画入门#2 简化对象学会观察

Learn to Draw #02 - Simplifying Objects + Learning to See

Hey folks, Brandon Schaefer here once again.
大家好 我是布兰登·谢弗
I hope that you’ve had fun playing around with
希望在上节课里你们已经熟悉了
all the different pencils that you have in your little kit.
你们笔盒里的各种铅笔
If you have not yet, I encourage you to
如果还没有的话 我建议你去用用
try out all the different leads and
把不同硬度的笔都试一遍
try to make, you know, an extension of the last video with the sketching basics.
可以在上个视频的素描基础上自由发挥
Try to make different thicknesses,
尝试去画不同粗细的线
just get used to how a pencil moves,
习惯笔头的运作
and how it… the feeling of it, the textures that it creates.
熟悉一下运笔的感觉 和其画出的质感
You know, try using it, holding it in a different way. That’s also very important.
尝试不同的握笔方式 这也是非常重要的
Holding it in a certain way.
以某种方式握笔
Usually, you know, for loose sketching, you don’t wanna be holding a pencil like this.
一般来说 如果是画草图 你不能这样握笔
And kinda sketching like that,
不能像这样画
you want it to be really loose.
你的手要非常松弛
So your pressure is really light, light, light pressure.
这样你的笔触才能轻 轻轻地描
So…
那么
be sure to remember that
一定要记住
You want really light pressure when you’re holding it,
握笔的时候不能太使劲
kinda holding it back a little farther.
可以握后面一点
You can even hold it, you know, like this,
你甚至可以这样握
kind of a different way to do it.
又是种不一样的握笔方式
You know, try out some different things in practice
练习时可以尝试不同的握笔方式
and see what works best.
看看哪种效果最好
Like I was saying, put the pencil on its edge, and you know, try to make different marks,
你可以试着用笔的侧锋 去画各种线条
create some interesting shapes and just play around with the pencil.
画些有趣的形状 拿起笔自由发挥就好
So, in this video, it’s gonna be about breaking down
在这支视频里 我会教大家如何简化
any kind of picture or scene that you see.
你看到的任何图片或风景
You know, if you’re drawing what’s outside your door, you know…
如果你要画屋外的一些景物
Let’s say you have an image of
比如说你有幅图
some mountains and some trees, and a house etc.
里面有山和树和房子等等
All of reality is just different shapes.
所有这些物体的形状都不同
They can kinda be broken down quite simply into the four basic shapes.
可以将它们分解成四种基本的几何形状
I mean everybody knows these.
这些形状大家都认识
The square or rectangle, circle, triangles…
正方形 矩形 圆和三角形
Excuse me there. You get the point.
不好意思 能看懂就行
You know, and then there’s… just put in all these together.
差不多都是由这几种几何图形组合而成的
And also, not really… none of them are really 2D like this.
当然 现实中的物体都不是二维的
They’re all usually, you know,
它们一般来说
in reality we find them as cubes.
在现实中我们看到的是立方体形态
You know, like this, triangle, you know, triangular prisms and things.
像是这样 以三棱柱的这种形式存在
So, by simplifing everything,
所以 通过简化各种物体
and en… you know, by seeing just a scene outside,
在看到窗外的景物时
you know, let’s say this is outside,
比如 这是窗外的风景
and you have, you know, trees of walnuts, whatever the landscape is,
有胡桃树 不管是什么样的风景
you know, mountains in a distance, which are just soft triangles,
比如远处有山 呈平缓三角状
you know, horizon line, trees, etc.
然后是地平线 树木等等
Just break all these down in the basic shapes like I’m doing.
就像我这样把这些景物拆解成基础的几何形
So, to get something very basic,
拆解成基础的几何形
Ah, you know, chunks.
用矩形代表树干
It’s all like this. It’s just very basic.
就像这样 很基础的图形
So, play around with these thing, get used to the pencil,
多练练这些 与铅笔磨合一下
and just do very few basic shapes, because that’s what everything is.
就画最基础的形状 因为所有物体都可以简化
Everything is broken down into just basic shapes.
一切都可以简化成基础图形
Now later on, in other videos,
在之后的视频里
we’re gonna get into perspective and what makes it look real.
我们还会讲透视 以及怎样让画面更写实
But in this one, I just want you to get down
但在这支视频里 我只需要你学会
how to simplify shape,
如何简化物体形状
and really this goes hand-in-hand with painting.
这项学习对于画画来说至关重要
To simplify its massing out shapes,
简化繁杂物体的形状
also
同时
start trying to not only fill in shapes.
开始试着 不仅仅是画出形态
So, not only to just make the outlines or basic shapes,
不只是画出物体的轮廓和形态
but to start giving them some value.
还要给它们添加一些明暗关系
So we know the sky is gonna be the lightest thing.
我们知道天空颜色是最浅的
So try some different shading techniques and these are just thumbnails.
尝试不同的阴影铺设 这只是幅缩略图
It’s just really simple sketching.
非常简单的描画
Trying to plan out ideas
可以画自己想象出的画面
or just drawing from life, what you see.
或是直接把生活中看到的画面画出来
You know, that’s the idea.
就是这样
It’s to plan things out and start putting down some value.
把整体轮廓勾勒出来 然后铺设明暗关系
In later videos, I mean I’m gonna go over how to shade,
之后我会详细讲解怎样画阴影
how to do all this stuff.
怎样处理明暗
But for now, just get the simple concept
但现在你们需要对填充画面
of massing out shapes like this.
有个简单概念
You can see there’s a definite value change,
你可以在这幅画里看到明显的明暗变化
you know, between everything.
物体之间明暗不一
So that’s kind of reality there.
那么这就体现出了一点实感
That’s what makes things look realistic.
使画面看起来更真实
That’s what you’re looking for.
这就有了你要的效果
It’s different values,
这种效果就在于明暗变化
different variety of forms, shape.
在于各种形态的组合
So even breaking down, I mean let’s get down to it.
那么我们就来具体学学拆解简化物体
One of the best things you can do is try to just draw your hand.
最好的的方式之一就是尝试画自己的手
I filled up an entire sketchbook.
我会画满整张速写纸
I have it laying around here somewhere, but…
我会把手随处一搭 但是
Just different… you know, I’d look at my hand this way and
就不同的 我会从这个角度看我的手
I would just sit there and draw it.
然后开始画
And I’ll draw my finger like this.
也会这样画我的手指
I would, you know, do all different kinds of
就是会从各种不同的
angles and all different kinds of movement.
角度和姿态去画它
And I would just… I filled the whole sketchbook of just hands.
我会将整个速写本都画满
So about breaking down a hand, what is a hand?
那怎样简化手呢 手是什么形状
These are just cylinders.
手指的构成就是圆柱体
you know, that was the other shape up here that I didn’t draw in.
这是另一种形状 我这里还没有画上
It’s just a cylinder.
就是简单的圆柱体
So there’s two ovals and then connectors.
两个椭圆加两条线连接起来
That’s what these fingers are.
手指就是这样的
You know, everything you just break it down into really basic shapes.
所有的东西都可以拆解成基础几何
You know, ovals and then, you know, cylinders.
这里是椭圆 然后是圆柱体
I’ll show you real quick here.
我这里快速展示一下
You know, the hand,
手掌也是
I mean, it’s very basic shapes,
就是个简单的几何形
just different,
组成部分形状不同而已
you know, squares, circles.
有方形和圆形
You have knuckles here, you know, four different knuckles.
这边是四个不同的关节
And then, these are… that’s the beginning of the cylinders.
这里开始是圆柱体
So you have these different shapes that connect the fingers.
由这些不同的形状与手指相连
So I mean it’s basic stuff.
这是很基础的东西
But the best way to do it is to draw from life,
但最好的方法还是进行写生
draw what you’re actually looking at and start learning to see.
画你所看到的东西 并且学着去观察
That’s one of the most important things. It’s learning to see.
学会观察是最重要的事之一
But you have to learn what to see first.
但你首先要知道的是先观察什么
You have to learn that everything is just simple shapes.
你要知道所有东西都是简单的几何形
You know, a big square, maybe, you know, and then you start.
比如手掌是四方形的 然后开始画
Once you get down the basic shapes here, you start modifying here and there.
一旦画好基本的轮廓后 你可以做些调整
You know, maybe it wasn’t a complete perfect circle.
可能你的圆画得不太理想
There was little things sticking out,
有些地方凸出来了
You know, it’s not exactly… you know, you start out with a square here,
不是完全的…… 你画了个四方形
but there’s also this other shape here.
但其中也包含有其他的图形
So you kind of have to modify and just add other shapes,
所以你得调整 加上其他的一些形状
you know, curvature there, etc. So all these things.
调整成曲线等等 所有东西都是如此
But you have to learn the basics.
你必须先了解基础形状
You have to learn the rules before you can break them.
知道规则才能学会简化物体
And these are the rules, the simple rules to drawing.
这些就是绘画最简单的原理
and to… to drawing from life is that everything is broken down.
也是写生最简单的原理 一切都是几何形
You know, breaking things down into a simple form. So…
把物体分解成简单的几何形
Just think about when you look at anything.
想象当你看到一个物体的时候
And that’s some of the exercise, some of the… excuse me,
你需要做一些练习 不好意思
some of the exercises you should do. You know, if you’re drawing a chair,
你需要做一些练习 如果你要画一把椅子
just real loose and real quick,
松松的握住 然后快速勾勒
just break down the shape of a chair.
把椅子拆分成几个几何图形
You know the legs are just rectangles.
椅子腿是长方形的
Just try to block it in,
大致画个草图
you know, get all the shapes down.
把几个几何形画出来
Yeah, and there’s your, you know, quick simple chair,
这就是简单快速画出来的椅子
and then you start refining.
然后开始调整
You know, sketches don’t have to be perfect.
线条不用太完美
They’re not gonna be perfect the first time around.
刚开始的线条勾勒不用非常完美
You may have to sketch start over three or four different times.
你可能还需要练习3到4次
But the point is to just capture what you’re seeing.
但重点就是你要学会捕捉你所看到的东西
You know, there’s not much more to say about that.
这一点我们不用再赘述了
So once you start simplifying the shapes,
当你准备把物体简化为图形的时候
just to start blocking in the value tones that you see.
只要画一个明暗变化的草图就行
And usually squinting helps to simplify,
通常眯缝着眼观察有助于简化物体
you know, maybe back here,
比如在椅子的后腿上
all this is in shadow, you know, the really dark shadow.
画上阴影 很深的阴影
You have the shadow going back this way
在椅子的后面
for the chair, whatever.
要画上投影
But then all this is in light, so it’s gonna be shadow here, shadow here.
然后这边是亮的地方 这边就必须是阴影处了 这边
and shadow here. But all the lights coming from over here.
还有这边 但是要注意光是从这边照过来的
Sorry can’t let you see it that much, but…
抱歉没能全部展现出来 但是
So you just start breaking it down and then just slowly
刚开始学习分解物体的时候
you know, with light pressure, filling it in.
处理光影下笔要轻
So, anyway, I can’t really zoom in on that area.
我这里镜头框不到那个区域
So, but you get the idea.
但你明白就行
So start blocking things in.
学着开始画草图
You know, whatever you see in nature, just start blocking it in.
不管你在大自然中看到什么 学着画草图
I would suggest just start drawing from life, doing as much as you can.
我建议你从日常的东西画起 尽量多地画
Draw your hands, draw your feet, draw…
画你的手 脚
tables, chairs, etc. Draw everything.
画桌子 椅子等等 所有东西都去画
Break it down into the simple shapes.
把它们拆解成简单的几何图形
And then one thing that can help is to…
然后教大家一件有用的事
Let’s say you’re doing… you know, I’ll show you something simple.
假设你在 我来教你们一个很简单的东西
Just to keep it really simple.
让画画变得更容易
Like if you’re doing something that’s a sphere.
比如我们要来画一个球面
So, that’s not really sketching, huh.
我刚刚不算素描哈
I’m just doing it for… you know.
我是要用来
So let’s say we have the sphere now.
比如我们现在有个球面了
You wanna show the roundness of it.
你要表现它的立体感
Now how do you do that?
要怎么做呢?
Well, one thing is trying to imagine…
首先你需要去想象
try to imagine it being 3D.
把它想象成3维状态
So, there’s a back and a front.
这是球的背面和正面
So imagine this wire frame around it.
想象这周围有个线框
So this is the back of it, this is the front.
那么这是它的背面 这是前面
And really there’s a wire frame, you know, all the way around it.
而这个球体有很多层线框围绕组成
And even going this way, you know, there’s a wire frame.
甚至这个走向也有框线
I know that kinda… it’s kinda messy.
我知道看起来有点乱
Just try to imagine it like this,
要把这些线想象成这样
like a… like dipping out, coming back in.
这样绕下来 然后绕回去
So this part is actually closest to you.
所以这个部分是离你最近的
And then as it gets farther out, it’s kind of like perspective.
然后是向边上画 有点涉及到透视
It’s a little harder to understand.
可能会比较难懂
But it’s kind of simple, just wireframe.
但其实还是挺简单的 就是框线而已
You know, so try to think of it that way.
先把这个球想象成这样子
And when we get into shading, I’ll show you some things you can do.
当我们学明暗关系后 你们可以这样做
So, let’s say you have a sphere here.
比如你画好了球体
And to kinda shade it you do.
当你要画阴影时
You follow the motion, the curvature.
你要沿着这个球的转向 它的弧度
You follow the curvature of the sphere,
沿着这个球体的弧度去描
and that makes it look more realistic for shading.
这样画阴影就会看起来更真实了
You know, if you’re shading the sphere,
你在给球体上阴影的时候
you don’t want to shade with lines like this really.
你不能像这样画线
Just straight up and down, I mean, you can, it just depends.
不能上下画直线 当然有时候情况不一样
But you want to follow the curvature of it.
你需要跟着球面的弧度去画弧线
If you just make your line straight across like that,
如果就这么描直线的话
it’s not gonna look like it’s real.
这个球就立体不起来
So you know we’ll get into cross hatching at things where…
我们来学一下交叉阴影线
You know, you just make lines like this following the curvature.
这样沿着球的曲面来画弧线
And that’s what can make it look realistic.
这样会让这个球体看起来真实立体
You know, have them curving this way.
再沿着这个方向画弧线
I just want you to understand the concept of simplifying shapes.
我就是希望大家了解简化物体的概念
Simplifying a hand, you know, what is a hand?
要如何简化手部 手是怎样的?
Yeah, its fingers. But what is a… you know, break down the finger structure.
首先是手指 把手指结构分解成几何图形
Break it down into cylinders, rectangles, etc.
分解成圆柱体和长方形等等
And that’s all it is.
就是这样
See, I mean how quickly you can get a hand shape.
练习一下 看看自己能画得多快
Yeah, it may not be perfect, but you go back and refine it.
可能刚开始画得不完美 但可以再修改
You know, that’s what it’s all about,
画画就是要不断去调整
going back, refining things, and getting it down.
来回地地修改 最后完成这副作品
So anyway, I hope this video was somewhat helpful.
不管怎样 希望本期视频能对你们有帮助
The next videos are gonna be great.
往后的视频会非常精彩
I’m really looking forward to making them.
我很期待去制作它们
They’re gonna cover, you know, all the different points of
它们会涵盖各种关于
perspective, shading techniques, using all these materials.
透视原理的知识 用画笔铺设阴影的技巧
I just have to get past the basics here,
我必须先讲这些基础的东西
so that everyone’s on the same page. Everyone knows…
这样每个人起点一致 每个人都知道
hasing some things to be practicing.
都知道要去练些什么
And really the most important thing is just drawing from life.
最重要的就是画日常的东西
Draw whatever you’re interested in.
画一些你自己感兴趣的东西
If you wanna be an animal, you know, portrait artist or an animal artist,
如果你想成为肖像艺术家或者动物艺术家
just draw animals all the time.
你就需要一直画动物
And you know what the face is, something like that.
这样你才知道它们脸长啥样
Let’s go over that real quickly.
我们来快速地画一下
You know, face is simple. It’s just… usually you start out with a circle.
脸部的描绘很简单 首先画一个圆
If… say it’s like an animal face, you know, maybe like a
假设这是一张动物的脸 也许大概
2/3 view or something that’s looking to the side.
找个三分之二的地方画分割线
I mean if it’s a dog, you know, the heads here and then you have the ears.
如果这是条狗的话 这是头部 在这边画上耳朵
Or maybe it’s a cat, you know, ears are triangles.
也可能是一只猫 耳朵是三角形的
The snout, you know, comes out a little bit on a cat.
猫的口鼻部位要稍微向外突出一点
I mean just break these things down.
把这些物体进行分解
That’s all I’m trying to say.
我想说的就是这个
I’m not drawing from life here, so you know, it’s hard to do it.
我现在没有实物参考 所以不太好画
But it’s all can be broken down very simply,
但所有物体都可以被简化分解
you know, especially if you’re doing a…
尤其是你在画
a side view, like a dog or something.
画侧面图时 比如狗狗或者是别的东西
You know, the snout comes out, maybe not that long.
它的鼻子是向外突出的 可能没有那么长
But the snout comes out, you know, the heads here, and then has ears up here.
但是要突出来 这边是头 上面是耳朵
Neck…
脖子在这
you know, it’s just practicing, getting the proportions down,
就是练习而已 找好比例
and using either a photo reference or drawing from life.
不管是临摹照片还是实物写生
That’s the most important thing.
比例很重要
And then, you know, you’ll start getting used to…
那么你要开始习惯
You’ll be able to… you know, when you draw enough hands,
你就能 当你把手部练够了
you’ll be able to draw a hand, no problem.
你就能随意画手 没有问题
So, practice, practice, practice,
所以多练 多练
play with your pencils and
玩转你的铅笔
see what you can come up with, see what you can create
看看你能画出什么 能创造出什么
and have fun.
享受这个过程吧
So, anyway, hope you enjoyed this video.
不管怎样 希望你们喜欢这个视频
Stay tuned for the next one.
锁定下一期视频
Like and Subscribe if you wish to see more. I’d appreciate it.
点赞加关注观看更多视频 感谢大家
And thanks for watching. Take care of yourself. Peace.
最后谢谢收看 照顾好自己 愿世界和平

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视频概述

本视频主要讲述在素描的初级阶段,要如何将自己看到的东西进行拆解简化,通常简化成四种简单的几何图形。再进一步通过简单的阴影处理和明暗变化来完成初步的作品。

听录译者

jm

翻译译者

原来是阿树

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nDe7kHa6MVo

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