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谢弗绘画入门#1 素描基础和材料准备

Learn To Draw #01 - Sketching Basics + Materials

Hey, folks! It’s Brandon Schaefer.
大家好 我是Brandon Schaefer
Welcome to the drawing series videos.
欢迎收看绘画系列视频
This is the first one, kind of an introduction and some materials,
本期是第一期 关于绘画介绍和材料准备
but we are gonna get into some drawing here shortly.
不过稍后我们会画点东西
So what I have here in front of me,
我面前这些
just a few things to get started with drawing.
是绘画入门要用到的几样材料
And that would be a small sketchbook.
包括一本小号素描本
This one is five by eight pretty much.
这本差不多是5×8英寸
You could also get a bigger one.
你也可以买尺寸更大的
You know, eight by ten or whatever.
8×10英寸或者任何尺寸都行
So you’re definitely gonna need some sketchbooks.
你肯定需要一些素描本
Also, the next important thing are the pencils.
另外 铅笔也是很重要的
So you can find a little drawing set,
你在几乎任何地方
pretty much anywhere.
都能买到一套简易的绘画工具套装
So a little drawing set,
简易绘画套装
usually you can find some, a bunch of different pencils,
通常含有一组不同型号的铅笔
and they come with an eraser and a pencil sharpener,
并配有橡皮擦和卷笔刀
really cheap.
很是便宜
We’ll go over what all the different
之后我们会在另一个视频里
kinds of leads and pencils mean later in a different video.
讲一下各种型号的铅心和铅笔的区别
So pick up some of those,
选购几种型号
you know, or you can get a little, a larger set of them.
或者买一套型号更多的工具套装
Whatever your price range is.
无论你的预算有多少 总能买到
Also, something that deals less with drawing,
还有一些与素描关系不大
but will be helpful for painting,
但有助于绘画的工具
when we get into thumbnail sketches and such just having some
在我们简单勾画草图时
shades of gray markers.
会用到这些灰影记号笔
See they are all just different shades of gray.
看 它们仅是色度深浅不一的灰
This is really good for value sketching
非常适合于明暗度绘画
and for doing things of that nature.
以及性质类似的绘画
So if you can find these, that would be cool,
如果能找到这些固然很好
but if not, don’t worry about it,
找不到也没关系
but just something handy to have around.
但手头上有的话比较方便
Next thing are the different kinds of erasers.
下一样是不同种类的橡皮
This is a gum eraser.
这是一块树胶橡皮
I recommend these.
我推荐你用
These really work the best for me when I’m doing drawing.
画素描时 对我来说最好用
You can also get a kneaded eraser.
你也可以用可塑橡皮
They look like this, but usually they’re completely square and flat.
现在是这模样 但通常形状是正方扁平的
But what you can do is, you know, you use them
你可以做的是
and then when it gets black or dirty or something,
把它用得变黑或变脏了以后
you can fold it over on itself.
弯折起来
So you can shape it and mold it into,
反复揉捏 塑成一块
you know, a really fine point eraser that you might need.
形状称手的尖头橡皮
So these are good for really fine details and such like that.
这种橡皮适合于处理细节这类情况
And they tend to pick up graphite pretty well.
同时它们能很好地吸附石墨
And this is just a regular old plastic kind of eraser.
这就是一块常见的发旧的塑料橡皮
Not the best, but if that’s all you can get,
虽不是最佳选择 但如果你只能找到这个
it’ll do the job.
那也够用了
A pencil sharpener, of course.
当然还有卷笔刀
That will most likely come with the kit.
很可能随附在工具套装里
These will also come with a kit
如果你买的工具套装不错
if you get a nice kit.
这些也会附在里头
These are called blending stumps.
这些叫做纸擦笔
What it is is a rolled-up sheet of paper,
它其实是一张卷起来的纸
and with a really fine point.
有一端很尖锐
And you rub it.
用它在纸上擦抹
They’re pretty much for shading,
很适合用来做阴影效果
and we will get into that later.
我们稍后会讲到
But here, that’s what they look like.
这就是纸擦笔的样子
So we’ll get into what those do later.
稍后我们会讲它们的用法
But if you have some, that would be great.
如果你手头有的话 那很不错
And this you may not really need,
这个你可能不太需要
but it’s pretty much just sandpaper.
但它基本上就是砂纸
And if you need like a really sharp point on your pencil,
如果你需要一个很尖的铅笔尖
you just kinda, you know, sharpen the side of your pencil there
只要把笔尖一侧在砂纸上来回打磨
to get a nice sharp tip when needed.
需要时就有个尖锐的笔尖了
So it can be handy.
所以很是方便
But really more for details.
不过主要是为细节准备的
Alright folks, so let’s get into it here.
好了 大伙儿 开始画吧
I usually start out with a 2B.
通常我先用2B铅笔
That’s usually my favorite pencil to use.
这一般是我最喜欢用的铅笔
And just briefly I’ll go into what these different pencils mean.
我简单说一下铅笔不同型号的意思
I’m sure if you have a kit already,
如果你有了一套绘画工具的话
you’ve noticed that there’s a lot of different
我相信 你已经注意到铅笔的型号有很多
Hs and Bs and F.
H型铅笔 B型铅笔 和F铅笔
Well, here is a good example an 8B.
这有个很好的例子 8B铅笔
Well, what B stands for is black.
B代表黑度
So the higher the number,
数字越大
the softer and darker it’s gonna be.
铅笔就越黑也越软
So the Bs are usually… they get softer the higher the number.
B型铅笔通常是数字越大 笔芯越软
So right here I have an 8B and a 6B.
我这儿有8B铅笔和6B铅笔
The 8B is softer
8B比6B笔芯更软
and most likely darker than the 6B.
也很可能更黑
Ok, so I hope that make sense.
希望我讲明白了
So 1 being, you know,
1B……
the highest like 8 being the softest lead,
数值最高的8B是笔芯中最软的
and then it gets harder and harder
B型铅笔的数值越低
as you get lower in the Bs.
笔芯就越硬
Now for the H’s, 2H.
现在来说H型铅笔 这是2H铅笔
H stands for hardness.
H代表硬度
So the higher the number in H is,
H的数值越大
So if you have like a 6H. I don’t even think I have that in here.
比如你有一支6H铅笔 我这儿居然没有
But if you did have a 6H,
但如果你有一支6H铅笔
the higher it gets, the higher the number the harder it gets.
数值越高 笔芯就越硬
So 2H isn’t that hard,
所以2H没那么硬
but if you had a 4H, the 4H is gonna be a lot harder than the 2.
如果你有4H铅笔 4H会比2H硬很多
So hopefully that makes sense.
希望我讲明白了
And now if you see an HB, that’s kind of in the middle,
如果发现一支HB 可以说它处于
you know, hard and blackness.
硬度与黑度的中间值
This is kinda like a normal pencil that we write with.
这有点像我们平常写字用的普通铅笔
So I usually use to draw and sketch…
对于绘画和素描
I usually use a 2B. It’s a little softer.
我常用2B铅笔 笔芯略软
It allows me to get some darks that,
用它来画暗色
without switching pencils,
可以不必换笔
without going to like a 4B or a 6B,
不必换成4B或6B那类铅笔
I can get some darker tones just for sketching,
画素描时可以呈现一些更深的色调
you know, nothing too detailed.
没有什么太复杂的东西
But after drawing a while,
学过一段时间绘画后
you’ll realize what pencils you like.
你就会了解自己喜欢哪种铅笔
It’s just like paint brushes with the paint.
跟选画刷和颜料一样
So we are gonna start out with a 2B here.
现在我们从2B铅笔开始
And one of the first things that
在绘画课上
you know, they do in drawing classes and that you learn to draw,
你要学习的头几件事之一
is to how to make things 3-dimensional.
就是物体的三维画法
And I have a few tricks,
我有几招秘诀
but I’m gonna just show you
不过在这第一期视频里
how we do it in this first video.
我就会教给你们
I’m trying to make a short video.
我尽量把视频录得短一些
So we start out with a simple object.
我们从一个简单的物体画起
And really where I should start is how to sketch.
实际上应该是从素描的画法开始
Most people don’t know exactly how to sketch.
大多数人并不太清楚如何素描
So I’m gonna zoom in here,
因此 我会把画面放大
just see you can really see what I’m doing.
让你能看清我的每一步动作
So when you sketch,
开始画素描的时候
you wanna draw many different lines.
你要画很多条不同的线段
So if you’re sketching a circle out,
如果要勾画一个圆出来
you know, try to find the shape,
就得用长短弧度不同的线条
within all these different lines you wanna find the shape.
一点点勾勒出你要的形状
Now that’s a very messy circle,
现在这个圆真是一团糟
but you get the idea is that you don’t want to commit.
但你要明白一点:不要定型
See this is more of something you want to do,
这种画法才是你要学习的
and then you go back kind of darken, you know, the line.
然后拐回头 加深线条
You can, you know, you find the shape within all those lines.
从所有这些线条当中找出形状来
You can go back and darken where I’ve committed.
从头加深线条 将形状固定下来
Something you don’t wanna do when sketching
在画素描时 你不会
is being totally committed right at the beginning.
一开始就把形状完全固定下来
You don’t wanna just draw a circle like this.
你不会下笔就画出个这样的圆
Very hard, and see now I mean that looks,
一笔很难画圆 看呐
it just even if I finished it.
画出来一言难尽
It doesn’t look good, you know, compared to that one.
和刚才那个相比 它有够糟的
This one is more of a circle because I,
左边这个更像一个圆
you know, I sketched it.
因为它是素描出来的
And this one I committed,
而右边这个
you know, first time I tried to do it.
在下笔之初就定型了
I just committed to it instead of
我上来就确定了形状
sketching and refine the edges,
而不是通过素描来完善边缘
and finding the best line within those lines.
从所有这些线段中找出一条最合适的
So now if I go back over and sketch over that,
现在回过头去 在原图上素描
and sketching, it’s just different lines.
就是勾画出很多不同的线条
It’s just doing lines like,
就是像这样画线
you know, different shapes.
形状各异的线
So that’s what sketching is,
这就是素描
and you can see I kinda fix it up there.
可以看到我在这做了一些修补
So, don’t be committed.
因此 不要一槌定音
If you’re drawing a tree or something or sketching anything
如果要画一棵树什么的 或素描任何东西
I suggest that you start drawing everything in your house,
我建议你从房子里的事物开始画
your whole house layout, start sketching everything.
整个房屋布局 总之开始素描一切事物
But if you are sketching a tree,
但如果你在画一棵树
you know, if you’re doing like the trunk, don’t commit,
比方说 如果画树干 不要下笔定型
you know, to this being the trunk, don’t commit to that.
一笔就画出树干 不要那么做
You know, kinda sketch it out first, get the general idea.
你知道 先勾勒几笔 有个大致思路
You can even get the general shape you know
甚至可以有个大致的形状
just do really quick and then, okay, maybe,
只要快速地画线
it doesn’t dip in that much,
或许树干没那么凹进出
so you kinda you know draw another line there,
在旁边再画下线条
another line there.
一条接着一条
And then you know, once you start finalizing it,
大致有了形状以后
you kinda harden the edge we need to.
加深我们需要的边线
And then these other, these lighter lines will just disappear over time,
然后 另一些稍浅的线条会渐渐消失
you know, you only, it’s not even important that you have those lines there.
甚至于留着那些线条也无所谓
You can go back and erase later on when you’re finishing up the sketch or the drawing.
可以等素描或绘画完成后 再擦掉
But don’t commit to the very first,
别在下笔之初就定型
you know, more than likely, it’s not gonna be perfect the first time
因为第一笔画东西
you try to draw something.
很可能不完美
And you saw there with that circle, that it was not good at all.
你也看到了 那个圆就是那么画的
Compared to this one,
相比于花时间素描的这个圆
where I took my time and sketched.
那个真是糟糕透了
So keep that in mind when sketching.
因此 素描时要记住这一点
That’s the proper way to sketch.
这才是素描的正确方法
Now making something 3D, this is two dimensional
画物体的三维效果 这是二维的
because there’s no depth, there’s no shadow really.
因为没有深度 没有阴影
So the first thing you have to do just like in painting
素描中你要做的第一件事与绘画时相似
if you follow my painting lessons
如果你订阅了我的绘画课
that you’ve heared this before, you need to find the light sourse.
就会听过这个知识点 那就是先寻找光源
So where the light coming from?
光是从哪儿来的?
I’m just gonna say it’s coming from over here.
就说它是从这边来的吧
You know something to that effect.
用箭头表示光照的方向
See? Make sure you even sketch in the arrow,
一定要把箭头也画出来
you know, never know where you want it come from.
谁知道光会从哪里来呢
So if the light is right here,
如果光源在这里
there’s the sun.
这里是太阳
Now you have to think three-dimensionally.
现在你要从三维角度来思考
Is it shining behind it hitting the back of it?
阳光是在球体后 直射球体背面呢?
Is it right on the side there? Is it more toward you?
还是在离你近的这一边?
You know, it just depends.
这要看情况
But we’ll say that this is gonna be really light,
我们就说这一区域很亮
so the shadow is gonna be over here.
那么阴影就会在这里
So this is what you need to practice doing,
这就是你需要练习的地方
start shading in really lightly
画阴影渐变效果 开始下笔时要轻
these different areas of shadow,
画出不同的阴影区域
trying to make things three-dimensional.
试着让物体呈现三维效果
Now in later videos,
后面的视频中
I‘ll go into depth on how to shade,
我将讲解巧画阴影的方法
different techniques you can do, all these things,
种种技法 悉数道来
but you know at the beginning I just kinda wanna give an overall……
但在开始时 我只想绘个大致的草图
thing that you need to start thinking about and making things look realistic,
借此展开后续思路 让画面看着更真实
and determining light sources and things.
确定光源及其位置
And this is a very important foundation.
这些是很重要的基础步骤
Before you even begin a painting, before you begin drawing
在还没开始绘画之前就应该
always ask where is the light source? How many light sources?
不断问自己 光源在哪儿?光源有多少个?
Maybe there is another light source over here.
也许这里还有一个光源
So then this shadow is just down here.
那么只有球体中下部这里才有阴影
So I mean there is so many different factors that you need to be aware of.
有太多不同的因素需要你去考虑
And you know and then it’ll have a shadow like this.
再接下来 它会有一个这样的阴影
You know then you have to think what is it sitting on.
你还得考虑它放在什么表面上
Is it sitting on something flat?
是放在某个平面上吗?
You know there is a background.
这儿有一处背景
Something like that, a little off.
类似这样的 有点画偏了
But you get my point, is it sitting on something like that?
你懂的 它是在这样的表面之上吗?
Does the shadow dip way down, like this?
阴影有没有 像这样低下来?
Give more of the 3D look.
三维效果再多一点
There is many different things you have to think about.
有各种各样的事情你必须考虑
So I want you to just practice things like this.
所以我想让你们像这样练习
Start sketching everything in your house.
对着房子里的一切素描
Get used to the sketching lines.
熟悉素描线条
Get used to the really messy lines,
熟悉这些杂乱的线条
and have fun with it.
并且乐在其中
And just try different techniques.
放手尝试各种技巧
Start doing some crosshatching.
尝试交叉画法
We’ll get into that a lot later.
我们在后续节目会讲到
But hopfully this helps you just understand how to sketch,
希望这些技巧能帮你理解如何素描
and knowing that it may not be perfect the first time you try it,
并且明白第一次可能做不到完美
but that what erasers are there for.
但橡皮擦就派上用场了
That’s why you have this big canvas of paper.
用这么大一张纸 原因也正在于此
You know, if this one didn’t turn out well,
如果这个画得不好
okay start over on this one and try it again.
那就重新画一个
Try it from the different angle. Try the light up here and then just…
尝试让光源从其他角度射过来
Try the light up here and then just…
试试把光源放这里
You know, okay where is the shadow going to be.
阴影就会在哪里
Actually maybe there’s another light source here.
没准这儿也有一个光源
Okay so now what do I do, you know?
那现在我要做什么呢?
Shadow it up here a little bit.
阴影会在中间靠上一些
You know depending on the shape of the ball…
要看球的形状了
And maybe if you don’t know the answer,
如果你不知道阴影在哪
you know, get a round object and put two lights on each side in real life.
那就找个真实的球形物 两侧各放一盏灯
And see how does the shadow react.
观察阴影是如何呈现的
You know, there’s probably a shadow over here like this.
这边可能有个这样的阴影
There is going to be crossing shadows in real life.
现实中两边的阴影会交叉
So like how does this work?
原理是怎样的呢?
You know this is going to be a really dark shadow where they cross,
它们交叉的地方会形成深重的阴影
but there’d probably still be a light shadow over here,
但旁边那里可能还会有浅色阴影
and a light shadow on this side.
这边也有浅色阴影
So it just depends, I mean you have to really think about this stuff,
视具体情况而定 对此你必须仔细思量
and try it out to see how realistic you can make things.
再试着画出来 看看效果的真实度有多高
Just simple sketches like this, and start trying it with
像这样只是简单的素描
and start trying it with cubes,
然后尝试来画立方体
you know, rectangular objects.
也就是方形的物体
Make them 3D.
让它们立体化
And get used to just doing these quick sketches. It doesn’t have to be perfect.
逐渐适应快速素描 不必苛求完美
Get rid of the perfectionist mentality,
摆脱完美主义心态
and get into the training mode.
进入训练模式
You know, light is coming over here. You know, that’s gonna be light, little shadow there.
光线从这里过来 顶面会有点浅浅的阴影
Shadow, so this is going to be the darkest.
背面的阴影是最暗的
You know, just things like this. Just play around and have fun with it,
就是这么个事情 玩耍一样随意 尽兴就好
and see what you can come up with.
看看你能画出些什么
And you know once you can do cubes and all these different objects,
当你能画立方体和这些三位物体后
that’s all nature is.
会发现大自然就是这些形状组成的
You know this is just a big cylinder, you know,
其实这就是一根大圆柱
and then how is the light hitting it?
光线是如何照射它的?
There is a light here, so it’s going to be a bit shadow coming this way.
这里是光源 所以会有些朝向那边的阴影
Whatever the case is.
不管什么情况 根据情况画
So play around. Get used to the sketching lines.
像玩游戏一样 逐渐适应素描线条
That is all I ask for you this week.
这是本周我对你的全部要求了
And get the metarials, and play around with everything, and have fun.
集齐材料 像玩一样画你所见 尽情尽兴
Start skectching things in your house.
从房内之物开始素描
Just get as far as you can. Just sketch things.
能画多少就画多少 简单素描就行
And if it looks terrible in the end, don’t worry about it.
如果画出来很糟糕 也不要紧
Don’t stress over. Do your best.
不要有压力 尽力就好
And next week we gonna get into, you know, all the stuff.
下周我们要讲的都是干货
You know, maybe it will be shading
可能讲到阴影的画法
or how to make things look more 3D
或是让物体看起来更立体的画法
using wire frames and, you know,
利用线框
drawing it on there and visualizing it.
在画面上构建线框 把物体展现出来
We will get into that when the time comes.
到时候我们再讲
But for now just play around these sketching lines,
但现在我们只需要玩转这些素描线
and see what you can come up with, have fun.
看看你能画出些什么 尽情享受吧
Anyway I hope this video was helpful in anyway.
总之 希望这个视频能有所帮助
And stay toned for next week, next saturday.
下星期六继续收看
I’d appreciate it.
我会非常感激
If you liked this video,
如果你喜欢这个视频
please give it a thumbs up. I’d appreciate it.
请点个赞 我会很感激的
Like and subscribe if you wish to see more and
如果想看更多视频 请点赞并订阅
take care of yourself. Peace.
请多保重 再见

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视频概述

绘画入门系列视频之素描基础和材料准备。

听录译者

Icyyyy🌸

翻译译者

晚糖

审核员

审核员BC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ewMksAbgdBI

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