LASIK, or laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis,
is the most commonly performed laser eye surgery
用来治疗 近视 远视 散光
to treat myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism.
The goal of the treatment is to reshape the cornea
to correct the refractive error of the eye.
The cornea is the transparent dome-shaped structure in front of the eye.
The cornea refracts light
and accounts for about two-thirds of the eye’s total optical power.
Altering the curvature of the cornea changes the way light rays enter the eye.
As a result, the light rays can be focused properly onto the retina for clearer vision.
For nearsighted people, the laser is usedto flatten the cornea.
For farsighted people, the cornea is madesteeper.
For patients with astigmatism,
the laser is used to smooth the irregularly-shaped cornea
into a more regular shape.
The outer layer of the cornea –
the epithelium is capable of replacing itself within
a few days after being damaged or removed.
The deeper layer of the cornea – the stroma,
on the contrary, is a permanent corneal tissue
with very limited regenerative capacity.
The stroma, if reshaped by a laser, will remain that way permanently.
In this procedure, a thin, circular”FLAP”is created in the surface of the cornea to
gain access to the permanent corneal tissue.
This can be done with a mechanical cutting tool called a microkeratome,
or, for a blade-free experience by a femtosecond laser.
An excimer laser is then used to remove
some corneal tissue to reshape the cornea.
Excimer laser uses cool ultraviolet light
beams to vaporize microscopic amounts of tissue
in a precise manner to accurately reshapethe cornea.
The excimer laser is computer-controlled and
is programmed based on the patient’s refractive error.
The flap is then laid back in place and is allowed to heal.
LASIK eye surgery is mostly painless and can be completed within minutes.
Improved vision can usually be seen overnight.
PRK, or photorefractive keratectomy,
was the first type of laser eye surgery for vision correction
and is the predecessor to the popularLASIK procedure.
In PRK, no flap is created, rather,
the epithelial cells on the eye surfaceare simply removed.
An excimer laser is then used to reshape the cornea just
like it does in LASIK.
The vision correction outcomes of PRK surgery are comparable to those
of LASIK, but the
recovery period is longer.
This is because the epithelium is completely removed in PRK
in PRK and it takes a few days to regenerate.
PRK patients also have more discomfort and haziness
of vision in the first few days after the surgery.
Improved vision also takes longer to achieve.
PRK does, however, offer certain advantages.
Because PRK does not involve creation of a flap, which contains both epithelial and deeper
stromal tissue, the entire thickness of the stroma is available for treatment.
The treatment range is therefore higher.
This is particularly useful for patients with high levels
of myopia or for those whose cornea is too thin for LASIK.
PRK is also free of flap-related complicationrisks.