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激光考古:揭示亚马逊地区的都市丛林

Laser Archaeology: Revealing the Amazon's Urban Jungle

This SciShow video is supported by LMNT.
本期《科学秀》视频由LMNT赞助播出
You can head to DrinkLMNT.com/scishow
你可以访问DrinkLMNT.com/scishow
for a free sample pack of electrolyte drinks with any order.
下单即可免费获取电解质饮料样品包
[♪ INTRO]
[前奏]
To learn about the people and societies that existed long before us,
为了解早在我们之前就存在的人与社会
we often have to literally dig up the past.
我们通常不得不名副其实地去“挖掘”过去
Excavating historical sites is one of the major ways
挖掘历史遗址是考古学家
archaeologists piece together human history.
整合人类历史片段的主要方式之一
But it’s not easy to find every interesting site,
但要找到每个有趣的遗址并不容易
let alone excavate it.
更不用说挖掘了
The traces of many major civilizations
许多主要文明的遗迹
are buried in hard-to-reach places.
都埋藏在难以到达的地方
That’s why scientists are now using lasers
这就是为什么科学家现在
to scan the ground for structures
使用激光扫描地面
that might have been built by ancient people,
寻找可能是古代人类建造的建筑物
offering clues about where and how they lived.
为他们在哪里生活以及如何生活提供线索
One place archaeologists are especially interested in is the Amazon.
考古学家特别感兴趣的一个地方是亚马逊
This region has been home to indigenous groups for thousands of years,
早在西班牙殖民者到来之前
since long before the arrival of Spanish colonizers.
该地区就已经是数千年来土著部落的家园
In the past, archaeologists assumed that
过去 考古学家认为
these people lived in small, isolated groups
这些土著生活在小而孤立的群体中
rather than large societies.
而不是大型社会中
In fact, many considered the region
事实上 许多人认为该地区
unsuitable for permanent settlement.
不适合永久定居
So researchers figured that the Amazon never had sophisticated societies
因此 研究人员认为亚马逊地区从未有过
that might have transformed the environment through things like irrigation or agriculture.
通过灌溉或农业等方式改变环境的复杂社会
That notion helped create an image of the Amazon
该观念有助于将亚马逊塑造成为
as this pristine environment unaffected by humans until modern times.
在近代之前未受到人类影响的原始生态环境的形象
But a growing amount of evidence suggests
但越来越多的证据表明
that may be anything but the truth.
这也许根本不是事实
For instance, satellite images and archaeological expeditions in recent years
例如 近年来的卫星图像和考古探察
have revealed some human settlements in the southern Amazon.
发现了亚马逊南部的一些人类居住区
But it was not clear how extensive they were.
但目前尚不清楚其范围有多大
Researchers also couldn’t tell if they were related to each other
研究人员也无法判断它们是否相互关联
or just self-contained sites.
或仅仅是独立的遗址
But there was reason to believe they could be connected.
但有理由相信它们可能存在联系
In historical accounts from the 1600s,
在17世纪的史料记载中
Jesuit missionaries in this region
该地区的耶稣会传教士
described large villages
描述了其称之为
with what they called powerful chiefs
有权势的酋长和有影响力的萨满
and influential shamans.
领导的大型村落
So, archaeologists began to wonder if this could be true.
因此 考古学家开始怀疑其是否属实
It’s well established that
在公元500到1400年间
between 500 and 1400 CE,
卡萨拉贝人生活在此地区
a people known as the Casarabe lived in this region.
这一点已得到充分证实
They inhabited a tropical savanna
他们居住在名叫Llanos de Moxos的
called Llanos de Moxos.
热带稀树草原上
So, archaeologists became intrigued by the possibility
因此 考古学家对卡萨拉贝人
that the Casarabe had developed a sophisticated agricultural civilization
在如今的热带雨林中发展出复杂的
in what’s now a tropical rainforest.
农业文明的可能性产生了兴趣
If they had, it would suggest that
若确有其事 这将表明
human civilization may have left a footprint on the Amazon rainforest,
人类文明可能在亚马逊雨林留下了足迹
this place that was considered “untouched” before modern times.
而此处在现代前被认为是“未经开发”之地
But actually investigating this question was a challenge.
然而调查这个问题确实是个挑战
The Amazon is vast and full of rough terrain
亚马逊地区幅员辽阔 充满了
that makes it hard to explore through ground expeditions.
难以通过地面考察勘探的崎岖地形
And an aerial view won’t offer many clues
并且因为植被过于茂密
because the tree cover is too dense.
鸟瞰图并不能提供很多线索
So in a 2022 study,
因此在2022年的一项研究中
researchers turned to a relatively new tool: Lidar.
研究人员求开始使用一种新兴工具:激光雷达
Lidar works by bouncing pulses of laser light
激光雷达的工作原理是将激光脉冲
off the ground from the air.
从地面反射到空中
Since light travels at a fixed speed,
由于光以固定速度传播
Lidar detectors can tell exactly how far away the ground is
激光雷达探测器能根据激光脉冲反射时间
based on how long it takes the laser pulse to bounce back.
准确地判断出地面的距离
So, by scanning an area with Lidar,
因此 通过激光雷达扫描某一区域
researchers can actually construct 3D maps of the surface.
研究人员实际上能构建该地地表的三维地图
Lidar can’t pass through trees,
激光雷达无法穿过树木
but enough pulses will make it through gaps in the foliage
但足够的脉冲会使其穿过枝叶间的缝隙
that this technology can be used to map out forest floors.
从而让这项技术能用来绘制森林地形图
So the researchers in this study decided to use Lidar
所以此项研究的研究人员决定用激光雷达
to look for possible human-made structures
在Llanos de Moxos的树林下
beneath the trees in Llanos de Moxos.
寻找可能的人造建筑
They launched Lidar pulses
他们从直升机上
from a helicopter down into the Amazon.
向亚马逊地区发射激光雷达脉冲
And what they found was incredible.
其发现令人难以置信
In all, they identified 26 sites with structures
他们总共确定了26处遗址
that appeared to have been built by the Casarabe people.
其建筑似乎是卡萨拉贝人建造的
These structures were organized into what the researchers described
这些建筑组成了研究人员所谓的
as an urban-like system,
类城市系统
essentially a group of cities and smaller settlements.
本质上是一群城市和较小的定居点
These weren’t cities like New York or Chicago
这些城市不像纽约或芝加哥
where many people live together in a tightly packed area,
许多人聚居在一个拥挤的地区
they were more like large population centers surrounded by collections of settlements.
它们更像是被定居点环绕的人口密集区
These centers were protected by curved moats and defensive walls,
人口密集区由弯曲的护城河和防御墙保护
and they were connected to the smaller surrounding settlements by raised causeways.
并通过凸起的堤道与周围较小的定居点相连
Kind of like how today’s cities are linked to smaller towns.
有点像今天的城市与小城镇间的联系方式
This design suggests that some people would have lived
这一设计表明有些人可能住在
out around their farms or hunting grounds,
他们的农场或狩猎场周围
but they would have been well connected to the population centers.
但仍与人口密集区紧密相联
Another thing that stood out about these urban systems
这些城市系统的另一个突出特点
was how well they managed water.
是它们对水资源管理多么高效呀
At the time the Casarabe lived,
在卡萨拉贝人居住时
the region wasn’t covered in trees yet.
该地区还未被树木覆盖
Instead, it flooded seasonally,
相反 该地季节性地洪水泛滥
and went through cycles of droughts and floods.
历经旱涝交替
So it took some engineering to have a steady supply of water
因此 需要构筑工程来提供稳定的供水
that could support a major civilization.
以支持这一主要文明的发展
But the Casarabe were up to the task.
而卡萨拉贝人完成了这项任务
In the Lidar images,
在激光雷达图像中
researchers found large reservoirs.
研究人员发现了大型水库
And around one of the population centers,
在其中一个人口密集区周围
they found canals connecting it with rivers and a lake.
他们发现了连接河流和湖泊的运河
All this evidence indicated that
所有这些证据都表明
ancient people hadn’t just lived passively in the rainforest.
古代人并不仅仅是被动地生活在雨林中
They had redirected water and reshaped the land,
他们改变了水的流向和地形
transforming this tropical region into an agricultural landscape.
将这一热带地区变成了农业景观地区
This finding settles the debate about
这一发现平息了
whether or not people developed settlements in the southern Amazon
在欧洲人到来前是否有人类在亚马逊南部
before the arrival of Europeans.
建立定居点的争论
In fact, not only did the Casarabe settle there,
事实上卡萨拉贝人不仅定居于此
they developed a civilization far more sophisticated
他们还发展出了一种远比任何人预期
than anyone expected to find in this region.
在此地发现的更先进的文明
Finding this type of urbanism in the Amazon of all places,
在亚马逊河全域发现此类城市化
highlights the fact that
突显了这一事实
rainforests are not always pristine, untouched environments.
即雨林并不总是原始的 未被开发的地方
In fact, the Amazon may not be the only rainforest
事实上 亚马逊可能不是唯一
to have hosted an ancient civilization.
拥有古代文明的雨林
It’s possible that other dense rainforests,
其他茂密的雨林
like the Congo Basin in central Africa,
如中部非洲的刚果盆地
could have seen urban development in the past too.
过去也有可能经历过城市发展
And as Lidar gains strength as an archaeological tool,
随着激光雷达作为一种考古工具的实力不断增强
scientists are in a better place to get to the bottom of these questions.
科学家们有了更好的办法来弄清这些问题的真相
Now if the scientists were trying to reach these sites on foot,
现在 若科学家们试图步行到达这些遗址
they might benefit from LMNT.
他们也许会受益于LMNT
LMNT, spelled L-M-N-T,
LMNT 拼写为L-M-N-T
is an electrolyte drink mix
是一种电解质混合饮料
made to be used by everyone
从职业运动员
from pro athletes to every day exercise enthusiasts.
到日常运动爱好者每个人都可饮用
It replaces the sodium that you lose through sweat
它能代替你因出汗而流失的钠
to reduce muscle cramps, fatigue, sleeplessness, and headaches.
从而减少肌肉痉挛 疲劳 失眠和头痛
LMNT gives you fun flavors like watermelon and mango chili
LMNT为您提供西瓜和芒果辣椒等有趣的口味
without any sugar or coloring.
不含任何糖或色素
It just has sodium, potassium, and magnesium.
只有钠 钾和镁
That means it’s vegan friendly and gluten free.
这意味着它适用于素食者且不含麸质
And if you don’t like it, they’ll give you your money back with a no-questions-asked refund.
如果你不喜欢 可享无理由退款
Right now, LMNT is offering SciShow viewers a free sample pack with any order.
现在下单 LMNT为《科学秀》观众提供免费的样品包
That’s eight single serving packets free with any LMNT order.
下单LMNT即可获得八个免费的单包样品
It’s a great way to try all eight flavors or share with a friend!
这是尝试所有八种口味或与朋友分享的好方法!
You can get yours at DrinkLMNT.com/SciShow.
你能在DrinkLMNT.com/SciShow上获取你的样品包
That’s DrinkLMNT.com/SciShow.
网址是DrinkLMNT.com/SciShow
Thanks to LMNT for supporting this video
感谢LMNT对本视频的赞助
and thank you for watching!
感谢观看!
[♪ OUTRO]
[片尾曲]

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视频概述

随着科技的发展,考古学家利用一种新兴科技——激光雷达,帮助其深入雨林探索亚马逊地区的人类文明,让我们一起去看看吧。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Kris

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wNSvDvNf1SA

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