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数百万实验室培养的蚊子正被释放

Lab-Grown Mosquitoes Are Being Released by the Millions, Here's What You Need to Know

蚊子最让人头疼
Mosquitoes are the worst.
它们完全是对生物量的浪费 并且很讨人厌
They’re a complete waste of biomass and they’re annoying.
现在 私人公司向野外释放基因改良的蚊子
And now, private companies want to decimate the mosquito population
希望大量毁灭蚊子种群
by releasing millions of modified mosquitoes into the wild.
这是真的
True story.
蚊子是世界上最致命的动物之一
Mosquitoes are one of the deadliest animals on earth.
世界卫生组织1996年的世卫报告就提到
The World Health Organization’s 1996 World Health Report said
每年有270万例死亡可被归因于蚊子
2.7 million deaths annually could be pegged to those suckers.
此后数据有所下降 但具体数字很难确定
It’s since dropped, but solid numbers are hard to find,
有消息说如今是只有几十万了 不过还是很多
with some saying it’s now only several hundred thousand, which is still a lot.
当然 蚊子不会直接致人死亡
Of course, mosquitoes don’t kill people directly.
除了在我正在写的二流恐怖电影剧本里
Nobody’s ever been sucked bone dry by a swarm of mosquitoes
没人会被一大群蚊子吸干了血
outside of the B-movie horror script I’m writing.
蚊子能杀死那么多人 是因为它们是疾病携带者
Mosquitoes kill so many people, because they’re carriers of diseases
比如疟疾 登革热和寨卡
like malaria, dengue, and zika.
这些都是些难以控制的疾病
They’re also really hard to control.
不能期望用杀虫剂将它们除净
We can’t just pesticide them into oblivion
因为同时会无差别杀死其他昆虫 破坏生态系统
because we’ll kill a lot of other bugs indiscriminately and damage the ecosystem.
也无法在繁殖处铲除 因为它们在积水里繁殖
And we can’t just eliminate where they breed because they breed in standing water.
我们总不能排干所有的水坑
We can’t just drain every puddle, everywhere.
这完全不切实际
It’s totally impractical.
所以我们需要采用不同方法
So we need a different approach.
许多不同的公司最终提出了近似相同的主意
A couple different companies have come up with basically the same idea.
谷歌母公司-字母表公司旗下的Verily公司
Verily, is owned by Alphabet, Google’s parent company,
弗吉尼亚的生技公司英创松旗下的Oxitec公司
and Oxitec is owned by a biotech firm in Virginia, called Intrexon.
Verily公司希望自己培育埃及伊蚊
Verily had the idea to breed their own mosquitoes of the species Aedes aegypti,
这种蚊子携带有多种感染人类的疾病
the ones that carry a lot ofthese diseases that infect humans.
他们的蚊子不像野外种群
Their mosquitoes aren’t like wild mosquitoes,
因为它们携带沃尔巴克氏体细菌
because they carry a bacteria called Wolbachia,
这是种自然存在的细菌 60%的昆虫体内都存在
It’s naturally occurring bacteria and found in up to 60% of insect species,
但有趣的是 通常埃及伊蚊体内没有这种细菌
but, interestingly, not usually in Aedes aegypti.
Verily公司计划找到此细菌存活于蚊子内的条件
Verily’s plan is to condition the bacteria to live in the mosquitos
然后将它感染到一些雄蚊子体内
and then infect a bunch of males with it.
之后将这些感染该细菌的数百万蚊子释放野外
Then, they want to release these male Wolbachia-mosquitoes by the millions.
但别惊慌 听我解释
But don’t freak out. Hang on a sec.
当感染细菌的蚊子被释放到野外后
When the wolba-squitoes are released into the wild,
它们仍会活跃不停搞事情
they still go out and try and get busy,
但细菌会抑制精子与未感染雌性所产卵的相容性
but the bacteria renders their sperm incompatible with the non-infected female’s eggs.
如果有足够的雄性产生不育精子
Get enough males who are firing blanks
我们差不多可以清理掉整个下一代蚊子
and you can nearly wipe out the next generation,
降低蚊子种群数 进而降低感染率
reducing mosquito populations and thereby infection rates!

BOOM.
这就是为啥释放百万蚊子你也不用抓狂的原因
Ok, so here’s why you shouldn’t freak out by the release of millions of mosquitoes,
这不是说会被叮咬更多
it doesn’t mean more itchy-time,
蚊子小知识101 雄蚊子不咬人只有雌蚊子咬人
Little mosquito-101: Males don’t bite, only the females do.
另外一家生技公司Oxitec 也培育雄蚊子
So, the other biotech company Oxitec, has also created male mosquitoes.
他们的蚊子能够长大孵化 但长不到繁殖后代
Their mosquitos do grow up and hatch, but they don’t live long enough to breed for themselves,
这就导致种群数量下降
which causes populations to drop.
Oxitec公司在巴西 巴拿马 开曼群岛
Oxitec has released their brand of mosquito
释放了自己品牌的蚊子
in areas of Brazil, Panama, and the Cayman islands,
已经造成当地蚊子数量骤降 有时甚至下降90%
which caused the local mosquito populations to nosedive, sometimes by as much as 90%.
当然 2016年当Oxitec公司想要在弗罗里达释放蚊子时
However, when Oxitec tried to release their mosquitoes in Florida in 2016,
他们遭到了阻拦
they hit a stumbling block.
当地居然不想释放蚊子 并且游行激烈反对
Some local residents didn’t want them, and campaigned vehemently against them,
因为不像Verily公司的蚊子 虽然也被感染了细菌
because unlike Verily’s mosquitoes, which again, are infected with bacteria,
但Oxitec公司的蚊子却是转基因的
Oxitec’s are genetically modified.
通常大家说的恐怖之事是一旦被转基因蚊子叮咬
One commonly cited fear was that a person who is bitten by a GMO mosquito
会被转移进的DNA损伤 虽然事实并非如此
would be harmed by the added DNA, which is not how any of this works.
转基因的蚊子是雄性的 它们也不会叮咬人
The genetically modified mosquitoes are male, so again, they don’t bite,
它们的后代也不能长到能叮人并繁殖的年龄
and the offspring they make don’t reach an age where they could bite and they also can reproduce.
即使它们能叮人
But even if they did bite you,
也从来没有蚊子本身基因会伤害人的先例
there’s never been a case of a mosquito gene by itself harming a human.
Oxitec最终在佛罗里达释放了蚊子
Oxitec eventually did release their mosquitoes in Florida,
但由于公众对“基因” “改造” 词汇的不信任
but because of public mistrust of the words “genetically” and ”modified,”
Verily公司染菌蚊子的方式或许会赢得公众认可
Verily’s Wolbachia infected buzzers may be the method that wins the public over.
但这两种方式都不是长久之策
But both of these methods aren’t long term solutions.
短期内能造成蚊子数量大量下降
They’ll temporarily cause the population to drop a lot,
但时间一长蚊子数量便会恢复
but over time the mosquitoes will come back.
有趣的是一旦科学家将蚊子感染沃尔巴克氏体菌
Interestingly, once scientists infected mosquitoes with Wolbachia,
——插一句 正常情况下不会发生这事
remember not something that would normally happen,
他们发现了一个有用的副作用
they found a beneficial side-effect,
染菌蚊子是革登病毒的糟糕寄主
The wolba-squitoes are a bad hosts for the dengue virus!
出于某种原因 如果染菌蚊子同样感染革登热
For some reason, if a wolba-squito was also infected with dengue,
革登病毒不能很好复制 科学家还在弄清楚原因
the virus just didn’t replicate very well, and scientists are still trying to figure out why.
即若科学家将所有生物都感染沃尔巴克氏体细菌
This means if scientists infect whole species with wolbachia,
就可以消除革登热了
they could knock back dengue!
但雄性染菌蚊子就可以和雌性染菌蚊子繁殖
But then, the male wolba-squitoes could breed with the female wolba-squitoes,
我们就又回到原点 没有革登热
and we’re back to square one with everything that’s not dengue.
不过即使如此 我们依然在寻找解决方法
Even still, all these solutions are being explored
来试图阻止这些傻乎乎却致命的昆虫杀了全球人
to try and stop this stupid deadly insect from killing people all over the world.
或许某天 它们会都感染沃尔巴克氏体细菌
Maybe someday, they’ll all have wolbachia,
然后就没有革登热了
which would stop dengue,
我们会另想办法是他们不育
and we’ll have another way to make some of them sterile!
不管怎样 蚊子是够恶心的
either way, mosquitoes suck.
蚊子就是这样的害虫
Mosquitoes are such pests,
让人忍不住想将它永远灭绝 是吧
it’s tempting to just wipe them out forever ,right?
但这会对环境造成什么影响?
but what kind of impact would that have on the environment?
娜塔莉亚·里根和我会在这讨论这个问题
Natalia Reagan and I talk about it right here.
那么你对此有何感想?
So how do you feel about this?
如果有公司想在你社区释放百万蚊子你能接受么
Would you be cool if a company decided to release millions of mosquitos in your neighborhood?
在评论里告诉我们把
Let us know in the comments.
希望你喜欢这个视频 也别忘了订阅
Please like this video, and don’t forget to subscribe.
然后再回来收看更多的《搜寻者》
And come back soon to watch more Seeker.

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视频概述

夏天是否经常被蚊子叮咬而气愤不已,想不想一举灭了这些讨人厌的吸血昆虫?这里就告诉你

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VjKTm3VSkUw

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