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《圣杯骑士》:对意义的永恒追求——克尔凯郭尔的存在主义哲学

Knight of Cups | Our Eternal Quest for Meaning - Kierkegaard's Existentialism

观影有理
本视频包含剧透
“这些年来
“All those years,
“一直都有一个陌生人
“living the life with someone
“和我一起生活”
“I didn’t even know.”
姑且称《圣杯骑士》为“泰伦斯·马力克实验三部曲”中的第二部
Knight of Cups is the second film of what I guess can be called Terrence Malick’s experimental trilogy
另外两部是《通往仙境》和《歌声不绝》
which also includes To the Wonder and Song to Song.
为了试验即兴拍摄 隐喻意象等非传统电影制作手法
All three of these films were shot mostly without a script
这三部电影大部分内容都是在没有剧本的情况下完成拍摄的
to experiment with improvisation, metaphorical images and other nontraditional ways of filmmaking.
“有时候
”Sometimes,
“我会跟他们要一个GoPro 说
”they just give me GoPro and say
“我要去湖边转转有时候有另一个演员陪着 有时候就我自己
”I’ll go drive around the lake for a little bitwith one of the other actors or by myself.
“我就拍些东西 想的话就做个场景
”I just kinda film things and do a scene if we feel like doing a scene, you know,
“有时候会走进大海 游会儿泳”
”or go in the ocean for a little bit and swim.”
虽然很多人觉得最后的成果不那么令人愉快 也有点造作
Although the results may seemoff-putting and pretentious to many,
但我认为马力克创造的独特的电影制作过程和想象
Malick did create a unique process and vision
值得我们仔细深入地挖掘
which I believe deserves to be explored in more detail.
继《生命之树》后 马力克再次拾起了复杂的存在主义主题
Like The Tree of Life, Malick is again concernedwith complicated existential themes
并通过模仿The Acts of Thomas中的《珍珠颂》
and explores these in Night of Cupsby modeling its story
创作了《圣杯骑士》 来深入探索这些内容
after the Hymn of the Pearl from the Acts of Thomas.
《珍珠颂》讲述一个王子被派去埃及寻找一枚珍珠的故事
The Hymn of the Pearl tells a tale of a princewho was sent west into Egypt to find a pearl.
但当他到达埃及时 别人灌了他一杯药
But when he arrived, the people poured him a cup.
然后王子陷入了沉睡
and the prince fell into a deep sleep,
忘记了自己是国王的儿子
forgetting he was the son of the king,
忘记了珍珠
forgetting about the pearl.
马力克运用这个故事 隐喻迷失自我
Malick uses this storyas a metaphor for losing oneself,
丧失人生的方向感
one’s sense of meaning of purpose.
存在主义哲学家索伦·克尔凯郭尔
Existential philosopher, Soren Kierkegaard,
用相似的方式书写了这种陷入沉睡的危险:
wrote in the slimilar wayabout the danger of falling into this deep sleep:
迷失自我是最危险的事情
它的到来极为安静
仿佛它微不足道
没有任何一种迷失能如此安静
失去手臂 双腿 五块钱 妻子等等
都不会让人察觉不到
那么我们来深入了解一下马力克是如何探索这种自我迷失
So let’s take a closer look athow Malick explores this loss of self
以及随之而来的对意义的索求的
and the subsequent quest for meaning that follows it.
在《圣杯骑士》中 主人公瑞克
In Knight of Cups, we follow Rick,
是一位努力寻找人生意义的编剧
a screenwriter trying to find meaning in his life
这看起来徒劳无望尤其是在享乐至上的好莱坞
which especially in the hedonistic world of Hollywood seems like a hopeless pursuit.
在为了追求意义而与外部世界建立联系的过程中
Kierkegaard wrote extensivelyabout this fundamental discomfort
每个人都会经历这种根本窘境对此 克尔凯郭尔做了大量论述
every human being experiences when attempting to relate to the outside world in search of meaning,
他把这称为一种来源于自我的绝望
a despair that according to him arises from the self.
在克尔凯郭尔眼里自我不是一个名词 而是一个动词
The self is seen by Kierkegaardnot as a noun but as a verb,
这个动词关乎每个人身上都存在的
as that which relates tothe relation between the finite and the infinite,
两个极性间的关系——有限和无限
two opposites that are present in all of us.
有限与具体现实中我们有限的存在产生的必然结果有关
The finite relates to the necessary consequences of our limited being in a concrete reality.
而无限关乎可能性
The infinite, on the other hand, relates to the possible,
关乎某种能力 使我们产生创新的思维和想法 激发无限的可能
our ability to create new thoughts and ideasto come up with endless potential.
当一个人与这二者的关系失衡时存在主义的绝望就发生了
Existential despair arises when one relates tothis relation in an unbalanced way,
当瑞克来到好莱坞 发现了一个无限的世界时
which happened to Rickwhen he entered into the Hollywood life
他就经历了这种绝望
and found a world of the infinite.
“你看到那些棕榈树了吗?
”You see the palm trees?
“他们说 一切皆有可能
”They tell you anything is possible.
“你可以成为任何人
”You can be anything.
“做任何事”
”Do anything.”
他变成了克尔凯郭尔眼中的Aesthete
He turned into what Kierkegaard would call the aesthete,
一个对潜力过于敏感
a man who has become hypersensitive to his potential,
对什么都不满足终日寻欢作乐 只寻求片刻快感的人
settling for nothing and only chasing base pleasures and momentarily interesting.
“她们就如同不同的味道
”They are like flavors.
“有时候你喜欢覆盆子但一段时间过后 你就腻了
”Sometimes you want raspberry,and after a while, you get tired of it.
“你就会喜欢上草莓”
”You want some strawberry.”
和所有瘾一样 过度寻求感官刺激
Like any other addiction, overstimulation like this
会使人乏味 最后会导致无意义
leads to boredom and ultimately meaninglessness,
因为他追求的不是真正的意义
for it is not true meaning he is chasing,
最多算是寻求意义 正如一个角色所指出的:
just the idea of it, as one character notes:
“你想要的不是爱 而是爱的经历”
”You don’t want love. You want a love experience.”
电影名也反映了这一点
We also see this reflected in the title of the film,
它指的是张同名塔罗牌
which refers to a tarot card of the same name.
圣杯骑士牌倒过来看就像是电影海报
In definition practices, the Knight of Cups cardin reverse like the film poster inset,
在解读上 这象征了一种相似的性格——追求强烈感官刺激 迫切需要满足感
symbolises a similar type of personalitythat is highly sensual and desperate to feel good.
一个丧失了意义感最终陷于现实与幻梦之间的人
Someone who has lost his sense of meaningto end up stuck between reality and fantasy.
但他并没有完全迷失
He is, however, not completely lost.
随着《珍珠颂》剧情的推进
As The Hymn of the Pearl story continues,
王子的父亲东方之王写信给他
the prince received lettersfrom his father, the King of the East,
帮他记起自己是谁
to help him remember who he was.
在整部电影中 瑞克都在从遇见的人物
Rick also receives these messages throughout the film
和其他刺激性事件中获取类似的消息
from characters he encounters and other inciting events,
比如电影开头可以说是来自地震的起床电话
such as the almost literal wake-up callfrom an earthquake in the beginning of the film
推动他去寻找意义
that motiveted him on his quest for meaning,
也就是这里山顶上的光所代表的含义
represented here as the lights on top of the mountain.
“寻找东方的光
“Find the light you know in the east.
“像个孩子一样”
“As a child.”
每一章节由一张塔罗牌引出这就组成了《圣杯骑士》的结构
Knight of Cups is structured by the tarot cards that refer to the different chapters of the film.
每一张都预示了即将发生的故事
each one hinting at what is going to happen,
比如瑞克被抢劫的那章是塔牌
such as Rick being robbedin the chapter named after The Tower card
预示了猝不及防的打击
which predicts a sudden upset.
但我觉得这里最重要的是
What I think is most important here is
塔罗牌代表了瑞克对意义最深的渴望 任何意义
that the tarot card chapters represent Rick’s deeper longing for meaning, any kind of meaning,
来帮他构建支离破碎的人生
to give some sense of structure to his fragmented life
避免下地狱——他以为自己会遭受的命运
and avoid what he sees as damnation.
“我觉得这就是下地狱了
”I suppose that’s what damnation is,
“人生被分成一块块碎片
”the pieces of your life,
“永远无法拼凑完整”
”never to come together.”
观众想要从马力克碎片化的故事结构里寻找意义也体现了这一点
This is again reflected by the audience’s search for meaning in Malick’s fragmented narrative structure,
这是马力克无剧本拍摄无可避免的后果
which was the inevitable consequence of Malick’s unscripted approach
因为不到剪辑环节 他也不知道他到底在拍什么
in which even he didn’t know exactlywhat he was filming until he got to the editing face.
我个人认为这种手法是叙事与电影制作过程的优美结合
I personally see it as a beautiful interconnectednessof the narrative and the filmmaking process.
更近地触及真实人生
One that comes much closer to touching a real life
正如克尔凯郭尔所说人生在不断向前 可只有回首过去才能理解人生
that, as Kierkegaard puts, is lived forwardsbut can only be understood backwards.
大概是在与女人的关系中瑞克对意义的渴望体现得最为明显
Rick’s longing for meaning is probably most evident in his relations with women
其中他看到了自己失去的东西
in which he sees that which he himself has lost.
“当我们见到一个美丽的女人时
”When we see a beautiful woman,
“灵魂会为之颤动
”the soul remembers the beauty
“此美只应天上有”
”it used to know in heaven.”
结果 他将自己存在的重量放到她们身上
As a consequence, he seems toplace his existential burden on them,
让她们成为他存在主义困境的解药以至于他开始盲目崇拜她们
making them his source for existential closureto the point of fetishizing them,
这自然导致了关系的破裂因为现实是她们也是有限的
which of course dooms his relationsto failure as their finite reality
简单一点说 就是他的女人都是肉体凡胎
or, more simply put,the fact that his women are just human beings,
不可能达到瑞克的期望
can never live up to what Rick wants them to be.
于是 他继续寻找意义
And so, his quest goes on.
但随着电影的推进 瑞克似乎没什么长进
But over the course of the film,it seems as if Rick is making little progress.
马力克没有采取线性叙事结构将故事推向一个高潮
Instead of a more linear progressiontowards some form of climax,
而是呈现了一种貌似无限的循环
Malick shows us a seemingly endless cycle of
爱情开始又终结
falling in and out of love,
陷入沉睡又再次醒来
falling asleep and waking back up.
虽然与马力克频繁呈现的用于隐喻的荒凉地貌相比
Even though some encountersseem to provide a bit more hope
有些相遇看起来似乎带来了点儿希望
than others based on the metaphorical desert landscapes Malick frequently shows us,
但瑞克依旧身处存在的荒漠
Rick is still stuck in the desert,
他从未真正看见过那神圣的光只见过它的倒影
only seeing reflections of the greater lightthat continues to elude him.
“我该如何开始”
”How do I begin?”
临近电影结局
Near the end of the film,
瑞克遇见了一位牧师 他指出
Rick encounters a priest to point out that
正是瑞克所经受的苦难将他与上帝 即无限 连接了起来
Rick’s suffering is exactlywhat connects him to God or the infinite.
“承受苦难
”To suffer,
“让你与高于你的东西紧紧相连
”binds you to something higher than yourself,
“高于你自己的意志
”higher than your own will,
“带你超脱这个世界”
“takes you from the world.”
“去寻找
”To find,
“在它之上的东西”
”what lies beyond it.”
这里我们再次看到了克尔凯郭尔和他的自我概念的痕迹
Here again we see the influence of Kierkegaardand his concept of the self,
自我不是一个静态的孤立存在 而是一种行为
not as an stable entity, but as an act.
通过这种行为 人通过有限与无限之间的关系
As an act one focuses on relating oneself to
重新定位自我
the relation between the finite and the infinite
而不再把无限看作一种要紧握 要容纳的东西去一生一世追求无限
instead of always chasing the infiniteas something to be grasped or contained.
一种哲学思想也让这种观点变得流行起来
This has also been made popular by new age power of now-type philosophies that
这种思想不注重人对外界的依赖
focus on the role of one’s attitude towards the outside world
而注重人对外界的态度
instead of one’s attachments to it.
克尔凯郭尔认为调和有限与无限 让他们达到平衡
For Kierkegaard, reconciling this balancebetween the finite and the infinite
是逃出绝望的唯一通道
is the only way out of despair.
他认为 这要通过信仰来达到
This, according to him, is down through faith,
但不是传统意义上那种要求你加入某个宗教组织的信仰
but not in the traditional sense that requires you to be a part of an organized religion
也不是要你坚定不移地相信一个你知道并不存在的客观世界
or hold on to an objective world fieldthat you know is not true.
相反 他说是信仰的跨越
Instead, he speaks of taking a leap of faith,
通过将自己的全部交给一个超然的存在来与无限相连
connecting to the infinite byrelating oneself absolutely to a transcendent source,
将对他人的爱转变为对一个照耀他们灵魂的永恒存在的爱
transforming love for other people intoa love for the eternal being that shines to them
因此就会放弃在有限的事物中追求无限
and therefore not trying toachieve the infinite in finite things.
“他人眼中的光
“The light in the eyes of others.
“珍珠”
”The pearl.”
这一行为并不遵循逻辑或理性
This is not an act based on logic or reason,
所以它才叫信仰的跨越
which is exactly why it’s called a leap of faith.
它强调主观世界的重要性 而非客观世界
It emphasizes the importance ofa subjective world field rather than an objective one.
而正相反的是 看待自己要从客观世界出发
And inversely, an objective field towards oneself
而非主观世界
rather than a subjective one.
通过这一跨越 “圣杯骑士”成为了“信仰骑士”
By making this leap, the Knight of Cupsbecomes the Knight of Faith,
即克尔凯郭尔所说的 一个表面上平淡无奇
a person who, according to Kierkegaard, is someone outwardly indistinguishable from the crowd
但内心一直在进行无限运动的人
but inwardly is constantlymaking this movement of infinity,
这将他连接到了一个更加超然的无限
this relating oneself to a higher source of the infinite.
但“信仰骑士”基本是个假设性存在
The Knight of Faith is,however, a mostly hypothetical being.
因为在现实中 要想从绝望中解脱出来
For in reality, to be free from despair
意味着要借助荒谬的力量来进行长期的信仰运动
means that this movement of faith must be made continually on the strength of the absurd,
一种几乎无法长期反抗的反复运动
a repetition that is almostimpossible to oppose continuously.
电影结局将这点阐释得很清楚
This becomes clear at the end of the film
瑞克看起来很快乐 挣脱了绝望
and Rick is seemingly happy and freed from despair,
爬上山 向着光亮走去
scaling the mountains towards the light,
就在这时基拉尔的《逃离》旋律响了起来
when suddenly Kilar’s Exodus starts playing again,
就是那首将《珍珠颂》引入电影并伴着瑞克陷入沉睡的插曲
the song that earlier introduced The Hymn of the Pearl and Rick’s falling asleep.
我们看到云朵聚集起来 遮住了光
We see clouds move in to obscure the light,
将它逼回了天边
pushing it back to the horizon.
结尾画面里 瑞克又踏上了一场旅程奔向一直在躲避他的夕阳
Concluding with the image of yet another journey towards the elusive sunset,
伴随着两个字:
accompanied by the single word:
开始
begin.

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译制信息
视频概述

泰伦斯·马力克的实验三部曲之一《圣杯骑士》再次探索了存在主义人生哲学,体现了克尔凯郭尔的哲学思想,理想和逻辑无法揭示人的个性,无法揭示人的存在,通过信仰的跨越才能引发行动从绝望中解脱。

听录译者

Philovist

翻译译者

Philovist

审核员

NL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0ZE1_bRUgsA

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