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《天国王朝》–保持良知或一切皆空,康德道德哲学 – 译学馆
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《天国王朝》--保持良知或一切皆空,康德道德哲学

Kingdom of Heaven | A Kingdom of Conscience, or Nothing - Kant's Moral Philosophy

[观影有理]
“保持无畏 即使敌人近在眼前
Be without fear in the face of your enemies.
“保持勇敢和正直 上帝就会爱你们
Be brave and upright that God may love thee.
“保持诚实 即使你会因此死去
Speak the truth, even if it leads to your death.
“保护弱者
Safeguard the helpless.
“这就是你们的誓言”
That is your oath.
康德的道德哲学一个要么保持良知 要么一切皆空的王朝
“那么 我的朋友
So my friend,
“到了立下我遗嘱的时候了”
the time has come to conclude my affairs.
《天国王朝》里的这段关键片段
In this pivotal scene in Kingdom of Heaven
电影的主角贝里昂被要求迎娶茜比拉
Balian – the film’s protagonist – is asked to marry Sybilla
来阻止电影的反派居伊
to prevent Guy – the film’s antagonist –
挑起与穆斯林国王萨拉丁的战争
from starting a war with Saladin, king of the Muslims.
如果贝里昂同意 居伊和他的追随者就会被处决
If Balian agrees, Guy and his followers will be executed…
或许就可以避免一场战争
and war might be averted.
然而贝里昂不想让这一切因自己而起
Balian however doesn’t want to be the cause of that.
“我不能让他们因我而死”
I cannot be the cause of that.
这也使得居伊变成了王接着发动战争 然后一败涂地
This leads to Guy becoming king, going to war and losing.
贝里昂留下来负责防御耶路撒冷
Balian is left in charge of defending Jerusalem
最后将城池献给萨拉丁
and ultimately surrenders the city to Saladin
条件是每个人都能前往大海
on the condition that every soul is given passage to the sea.
现在由于贝里昂没有采取行动来避免战争
Now Balian has been criticized by some viewers
致使一些观众对他持批评态度
for not taking an action that could have avoided a war.
甚至电影中的角色们看起来也很失望
Even the characters in the film seem frustrated;
“终有一天……
There’ll be a day.. ..
“你会明白 为成大善可不拘小恶”
when you will wish you had done little evil to do greater good. Yet,
我想说明的是这种观点缺少了
I want to argue that this view is missing a vital element
贝里昂人生旅程 和电影整体的一个关键要素
from Balian’s journey and the film as a whole.
尽管有关《天国王朝》所呈现的宗教与宗教冲突的
For although a lot has been said about Kingdom
评论比比皆是
of Heaven’s portayal of religion and religious conflict,
但我相信这部电影仍包含一个对道德哲学的有趣讨论
I believe it also contains an interesting discussion on moral philosophy,
特别是伊曼努尔·康德的道德理论
Especially the ethical theory of Immanuel Kant.
康德哲学的基础原则是绝对命令
The fundamental element of Kant’s moral philosophy is the Categorical Imperative.
对康德来说 一个行动类似于一个演绎推理:
For Kant, an act is similar to a syllogism;
一个由两个或多个命题 及由此推导出的结论所组成的逻辑论证
a logical argument consisting of two or more propositions that lead to a conclusion.
亚里士多德对这种最早形式的定义如下
Aristotle defined the earliest form of this as follows;
一个主要前提 加上一个次要前提
There is a major and a minor premise
就能得出一个结论
from which a conclusion can be deduced.
例如:
For example:
所有人都是凡人
All men are mortal.
苏格拉底是个人
Socrates is a man.
因此苏格拉底是个凡人
Therefore, Socrates is mortal.
康德使用同样的结构说明一个行动由
Kant uses the same structure and explains an act as consisting of a maxim,
原则 情况 结论三部分组成
a situation and a conclusion.
例如:
For example:
我不会闯红灯
I will not run a red light.
红灯亮了 因此
The traffic light is red. Therefore,
我会停下来
I stop.
对这三个要素
Of these three elements,
康德称你只能决定它们中的一个
Kant argues that you can only determine one of them.
你无法确定结果
You can not determine the conclusion,
因为结论由原则和情况自动产生
because that follows automatically out of the maxim and the situation.
你也无法决定情况
You also cannot determine the situation.
所以对你来说剩下唯一可以决定的就是原则
So the only thing that’s left for you to determine is the maxim.
主要的问题就变成了“我应该做什么?”“我应该秉持什么原则?”
The main question then is”what must I do?”,”which maxims should I live by?”
康德为此举了两个主要的构想来回答
Kant poses two main formulations to answer this.
一个常被称为普遍性原则
One is often referred to as the universalizability principle.
另一个现在被称为尊重人的基本原则
The second is referred to nowadays as the principle of respect for persons.
普遍性是指你要始终根据一条原则行动
Universalizability is that you should always act according to a maxim.
这条原则就是道德准则
A maxim is a moral rule.
根据一条你可以使其成为普遍道德准则的原则行动
According to a maxim that you could will as universal moral law.
所以这大概意思就是假设你的原则也能成为其他所有人的原则
So this basically means that if you can imagine your maxim to be the maxim of everyone;
那么它在道德上就是合理的
it is morally okay.
第二个构想是:
A second formulation is;
这条也体现了普遍性
We should always, there’s the universalizability carried over into this..
当我们在待人接物时应该始终为他人着想
We should always treat persons as ends in themselves,
而不应该只将他人看作工具
rather than as means only.
他不是说永远不能把人看作工具
Now he’s not saying never treat persons as means,
我们一直都在这样做
we do that all the time.
你现在就在利用我来获取几个学分
You’re using me right now, to get some credit.
而我在利用你们养家糊口
And I’m using you to earn a living.
他不是说这样是错的
He’s not saying that’s wrong
他说的是我们利用他人的方式方法
But he is saying that in the ways in which we use people..
对待他人时要尊重他人的价值
treat those people as a value in themselves.
这使得康德的道德哲学成为了义务论哲学
This makes Kant’s moral philosophy a deontological one..
即道德的判断
meaning that morality is not judged
不根据一个人的行为结果进行
on the consequences of one’s actions,
而是在于指导他们的准则
but rather on the rules that precede them.
可以看到这一转变是
You see the turn is a turn away from the observing,
从观察外部科学世界
the external world of science..
转到审视自己内心世界
to the inner world of the self.
这是不是他的哥白尼式革命呢?
That was his Copernican revolution was it not?
康德不是一个浪漫主义者 但他经常被称为道德理想主义者
Kant is hardly a romanticist, but he’s often called an ethical idealist.
一个用道德语言描述最高实在中
That is to say, one who describes the ultimate reality in ethical terms,
是非问题的人
in terms of right and wrong.
是一名道德理想主义者
An ethical idealist.
《黑暗骑士》三部曲中的《蝙蝠侠》就是一个很好的例子
A great example of this is of course Batman in The Dark Knight trilogy.
“你知晓所有的规则 你认为这些规则能救你吗?”
You have all these rules and you think they’ll save you?
“我有一个原则”
I have one rule.
“你一定是在耍我”
You gotta be kidding me.
“没有枪 没有杀戮”
No guns, no killing.
“这很有意思吗?”
Where’s the fun in that?
再近一点的例子:《钢锯岭》里的德斯蒙德·多斯
And more recently; Desmond Doss in Hacksaw Ridge.
“对不起中士 我不能碰枪”
I’m sorry Sergeant, I can’t touch a gun.
“我可以穿着军装敬礼 也可以履行我的义务”
I got no problem with wearing my uniform and saluting the flag and doing my duty.
“但我就是无法拿起枪去夺走一个人的性命”
It’s just, just carrying a gun and taking a human life.
这种道德通常与我们的本能欲望背道而驰
This kind of morality usually goes against our instinctive desires..
因此它常被描述为基于责任或规定的道德
and is therefore often described as rule- or duty-based ethics.
绝对命令中的一个核心设想
One core assumption of the Categorical Imperative is
就是人类有自主意志
that human beings have an autonomous will.
一份让他们能选择做出道德行为的基本自由
A fundamental freedom which enables them to act morally if they choose to.
绝对命令要求基于你自己的良好意志来行动
The Categorical Imperative requires that you act out of your own good will.
“善良源自内心
Goodness comes from within.
“善良是一种选择
Goodness is chosen.
“当一个人无法进行选择时 他就不再为人”
When a man cannot choose, he ceases to be a man.
它是一种自由的行为
That it be a free act.
基于自己意愿的自主行为
Self-determined Acting of your own will.
不是处在被控制 被他人意愿所驱使的境况下
Rather than being governed, driven by other people’s desires and expectations.
随波逐流
Going along with the crowd.
屈服于社会压力
Conforming to social pressures.
追随你自己的心愿 而不是根据自由意志行动
Following your own desires rather than acting out of free will,
被自己的性格倾向所束缚
enslaved by your own inclincations.
现在让我们回到《天国王朝》
Now let’s go back to Kingdom
看看康德哲学是如何塑造贝里昂的旅程的
of Heaven to see how Kant’s philosophy has shaped Balian’s journey.
贝里昂道德思想的产生主要基于
Balian’s moral philosophy is mostly based
与三个人物的冲突
on his encounters with three characters;
鲍德温四世 医护骑士和戈弗雷 贝里昂的父亲
King Baldwin, the Hospitaler and Godfrey, Balian’s father.
让我们从他开始
Let’s start with him.
在这场戏里戈弗雷授予贝里昂爵位并给了他以下规则
In this scene, Godfrey knights Balian and gives him the following rules.
“保持无畏 即使敌人近在眼前保持勇敢和正直 上帝就会爱你们
保持诚实 即使你会因此死去
保护弱者 无愧天理
这就是你的誓言”
这些基本上就是贝里昂获得的原则
These are basically the maxims that Balian is given.
大部分意思都很浅显易懂
Most of these maxims speak for themselves,
但这条却看起来很极端 格外突出
but one seemingly extreme line that springs out is this one.
在康德哲学里 这实际上是一个有效的原则
In Kant’s philosophy, this is actually a valid maxim.
这是因为说谎与我们在人生中
This is because lying is in conflict with
应秉持什么原则这一问题的早期答案互相矛盾
the earlier given answers to the question of which maxims one should live by.
对于一个不想生活在充满谎言的世界里的人
For one would not want to live in a world where everyone lies.
他也不想将别人作为工具
Nor does one want to treat people as means rather than ends
因为谎言意味着欺诈对方
as lying implies a deception of the other.
影响贝里昂道德哲学的第二人是医护骑士
A second influence on Balian’s moral philosophy comes from the Hospitaler.
圣者 侠也挺身而出 见义勇为 除强扶弱
神者 仁也
存于一念之间 一心之隔
君子小人之别在于平日所做善恶
医护骑士不仅像康德一样
Not only does the Hospitaler, like Kant,
强调从内心发掘道德
emphasize that morality is found within.
他同时还指出
He also points out the autonomy
人们每天必须要自主决定是否根据道德行事
that people have to decide everyday whether they act based on that morality.
最后 贝里昂遇到了鲍德温四世
Finally Balian encounters King Baldwin.
“没人真的知道我们的尽头在何处
None of us know our end really,
“也没人知道引领我们走向那里的是何方神圣
or what hand will guide us there.
“国王可以调动人民
A king may move a man.
“父亲可以要求儿子
A father may claim a son.
“但是人们也可以调动自己”
But that man can also move himself.
他继续指出了康德道德哲学里的一个重要元素
He goes on to note one vital element of Kant’s moral philosophy.
要记住 即使处于王权之下霸者之前人也不可不自问良知
当你面对上帝时
你不可推说无奈 不可推说不合乎时代
推卸不得 切记
在康德理论的基础部分
Here we find the moral absolutism that is
我们找到了道德绝对论的影子
at the foundation of Kant’s work.
鲍德温提到的理由
The excuses that King Baldwin mentions;
由于别人的话或者时局不便
Acting against your morality because others told you to,
而去违反你的道德
or because the situation wasn’t convenient,
同样不足以说服康德
also do not suffice for Kant as they are determined
因为他们是由外力确定的而不是比他们重要的原则
by outside forces instead of the maxims that precede them.
回到贝里昂早期面临的选择
Going back to the earlier presented choice Balian is given.
考虑到贝里昂的人生被康德的道德哲学所影响
Taking into account Balian’s journey as shaped by Kant’s moral philosophy,
现在的情况变成了考验贝里昂的道德正直性
it has now become a situation in which Balian’s moral integrity is tested.
如果他接受了 那他就违背了自己的原则
If he would have accepted, he would have acted against his maxims.
讽刺的是 是因为其他人叫他这么做的
Ironically exactly because others told him to,
而且他的道德观念不符合那个时代
and because his virtues were not convenient at that moment.
他本来是会违反他的原则的
He would have gone against his maxims
因为通过迎娶茜比拉 处死居伊和他的支持者们
because by marrying Sybilla and executing Guy and his followers,
他仅仅将他们作为
He would have used them
实现自己政治权力目标的工具而已
as mere means to achieve the end of political power.
他也会变得与其他那些
And he would have been no different
为了证明这是他们所信仰的神的国度
from all the others who have been fighting over Jerusalem..
而为耶路撒冷而战的人们没什么不同
to manifest the kingdom of their God.
相反他一直忠于自己内心的道德观
Instead he stays true to his inner morality.
他的“天国王朝”
His Kingdom of Heaven.
用一句恰当的表述作为结语:
Concluding with the fitting statement:
“在这个王朝里 要么保持良知 要么一切皆空”
It is a Kingdom of Conscience, or nothing.
[观影有理]

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视频概述

要么秉持道德,要么一切皆空,了解《天国王朝》中贝里昂的道德哲学

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RRoJey3NBvE

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