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设计改变城市,创意成就舒适

Kent Larson: Brilliant designs to fit more people in every city

翻译者:Joseph Geni校阅者: Morton Bast
Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast
我想从一个非常简短的城市历史说起
I thought I would start with a very brief history of cities.
一般 人们在泉边形成聚居地
Settlements typically began with people clustered around a well,
聚居地的大小差不多就是
and the size of that settlement was roughly the distance you could walk
你头顶着一壶水所能走的距离
with a pot of water on your head.
实际上 比如 假设你在德国上空飞过
In fact, if you fly over Germany, for example,
往下看 能看到好几百个小村庄
and you look down and you see these hundreds of little villages,
它们大约都只有一英里的距离
they’re all about a mile apart.
你很容易走到田里
You needed easy access to the fields.
在长达几百年 甚至几千年的时间里
And for hundreds, even thousands of years,
家就是生活的中心
the home was really the center of life.
对于大多数人来说 生活范围很小
Life was very small for most people.
家就是娱乐 生产 工作的中心
It was a center of entertainment, of energy production, of work,
也是救护中心
a center of health care.
那里是婴儿出生 家人逝去的地方
That’s where babies were born and people died.
随着工业化的发展 一切都开始变得集中
Then, with industrialization, everything started to become centralized.
让肮脏的工厂搬到了城市的郊区
You had dirty factories that were moved to the outskirts of cities.
产品都被集中在装配车间
Production was centralized in assembly plants.
让能源生产集中起来
You had centralized energy production.
人们在学校学习
Learning took place in schools.
在医院接受治疗
Health care took place in hospitals.
接着 网络发展起来了
And then you had networks that developed.
用水网络 污水管网的出现
You had water, sewer networks
并且无限制的扩张
that allowed for this kind of unchecked expansion.
社会分工逐渐细化
You had separated functions, increasingly.
连接住宅区 工业区和商业区的
You had rail networks
铁路网络出现
that connected residential, industrial, commercial areas.
汽车网络也应运而生
You had auto networks.
事实上 这个模式就是……嗯……人人都有车
In fact, the model was really, en,give everybody a car,
到处修路
build roads to everything,
并且人们走到哪停到哪
and give people a place to park when they get there.
它并不是一个非常有效的模式
It was not a very functional model.
但这就是我们生活的世界
And we still live in that world,
所以这就是我们所得到的
and this is what we end up with.
因此有了洛杉矶的扩张区
So you have the sprawl of LA,
墨西哥城的扩展区
the sprawl of Mexico City.
在中国崛起的难以置信的各种新城市
You have these unbelievable new cities in China,
你会称之为高楼的扩张
which you might call tower sprawl.
他们一直在建造城市
They’re all building cities
效仿着我们在50 60年代创建的模式
on the model that we invented in the ’50s and ’60s,
我觉得那相当过时
which is really obsolete, I would argue,
全世界有成百上千的新城市
and there are hundreds and hundreds of new cities
在规划中
that are being planned all over the world.
单单就中国 有3亿人民 有人说是4亿
In China alone, 300 million people, some say 400 million people,
将在接下来的15年涌入城市
will move to the city over the next 15 years.
那意味着将在15年内建造相当于
That means building the equivalent
美国整个国家的基础设施
of the entire built infrastructure of the US in 15 years.
想象一下
Imagine that.
我们应该关心你是不是住在城市
And we should all care about this whether you live in cities or not.
城市占有90%的人口增长
Cities will account for 90 percent of the population growth,
80%的二氧化碳排放 70%的能源消耗
80 percent of the global CO2, 75 percent of energy use,
但同时也令人向往
but at the same time it’s where people want to be,
且与日剧增
increasingly.
世界上超过半数的人住在城市里
More than half the people now in the world live in cities,
且还在持续增加
and that will just continue to escalate.
城市是人们狂欢 展示自我的地方
Cities are places of celebration, personal expression.
像快闪族的枕头大战
You have the flash mobs of pillow fights that —
我曾经参与过 他们很有趣
I’ve been to a couple. They’re quite fun.
你还……
You have —
[笑声]
(Laughter)
城市还是创造财富的地方
Cities are where most of the wealth is created,
特别是在发展中国家 女性可以在那里找到机会
and particularly in the developing world, it’s where women find opportunities.
城市快速发展的原因数不胜数
That’s a lot of the reason why cities are growing very quickly.
但存在一些影响城市的趋势
Now there’s some trends that will impact cities.
首先 工作趋向分散和移动
First of all, work is becoming distributed and mobile.
办公楼基本被个人办公所淘汰
The office building is basically obsolete for doing private work.
由于分布式结构 居家办公再次出现
The home, once again, because of distributed computation —
通讯成为生活的中心
Communication is becoming a center of life,
所以它也成为了生产 教育 消费 医疗的中心
so it’s a center of production and learning and shopping and health care
而所有这些我们曾认为
and all of these things that we used to think of
只会发生在住所之外
as taking place outside of the home.
逐渐地 任何可以买到的东西
And increasingly, everything that people buy,
任何用户产品
every consumer product,
以这样或那样的方式变得个性化
in one way or another, can be personalized.
这是个值得思考的重要趋势
And that’s a very important trend to think about.
所以这就是我想象中的未来城市
So this is my image of the city of the future.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
在这种情况下的人们 是吧
In that it’s a place for people, you know.
人们的衣着可能不会是这样 但……
Maybe not the way people dress, but —
是吧 现在的问题是
You know, the question now is,
如何让我们认定的城市只有优点
how can we have all the good things that we identify with cities
没有缺点呢?
without all the bad things?
这是班加罗尔
This is Bangalore.
去年在班加罗尔 我开几英里就花了几个小时
It took me a couple of hours to get a few miles in Bangalore last year.
所以 城市里充满了拥挤和污染
So with cities, you also have congestion and pollution
还有疾病和所有坏处
and disease and all these negative things.
那么我们怎么才能只得好处而没有坏处呢
How can we have the good stuff without the bad?
让我们回过头来看看那此优秀的城市
So we went back and started looking at the great cities
那些未被汽车统治的城市
that evolved before the cars.
巴黎是由一些小村子聚集起来的
Paris was a series of these little villages that came together,
在今天 你仍可以看到一些痕迹
and you still see that structure today.
巴黎的20个郡彼此相邻
The 20 arrondissements of Paris are these little neighborhoods.
人们大多数的日常需求仅需5到10分钟步行
Most of what people need in life can be within a five- or 10-minute walk.
如果你看这些数据 当你拿到这个布局时
And if you look at the data, when you have that kind of a structure,
你会发现在巴黎
you get a very even distribution
商店 医院 药店
of the shops and the physicians and the pharmacies
和咖啡店是分布式的
and the cafes in Paris.
之后再看这些汽车统治的城市
And then you look at cities that evolved after the automobile,
它并不是这种模式
and it’s not that kind of a pattern.
比如匹兹堡 它小到不用5分钟
There’s very little that’s within a five-minute walk
就可以到达大部分地方
of most areas of places like Pittsburgh.
不是想说匹兹堡的不好
Not to pick on Pittsburgh,
美国大多数城市也是这样发展来了
but most American cities really have evolved this way.
所以我们说 嗯 让我们看看新城市
So we said, well, let’s look at new cities,
我们选了几个中国的新城市案例
and we’re involved in a couple of new city projects in China.
如我所说 从社区单元开始
So we said, let’s start with that neighborhood cell.
我们把它看作一个简单的城市单元
We think of it as a compact urban cell.
在20分钟步行范围内为 供应人们生活所需
So provide most of what most people want within that 20-minute walk.
包括弹性电微网
This can also be a resilient electrical microgrid,
社区供暖 电力 通讯网络等等
community heating, power, communication networks, etc.
接通这里
can be concentrated there.
Stewart Brand很可能会在正中心
Stewart Brand would put a micronuclear reactor
设置一个微型核电站
right in the center, probably.
也许他是对的
And he might be right.
事实上 我们就能形成一个网状网络
And then we can form, in effect, a mesh network.
这是一种互联网式的模式
It’s something of an Internet typology pattern,
你可以得到一系列类似的社区
so you can have a series of these neighborhoods.
你可以上调人口密度
You can dial up the density —
每个单元20000人 那就是剑桥
about 20,000 people per cell, if it’s Cambridge.
调到50000人 就是曼哈顿的人口密度
Go up to 50,000 if it’s Manhattan density.
接通所有物流
You connect everything with mass transit
就可以在社区内提供人们日常所需
and you provide most of what most people need within that neighborhood.
可以发展街道设计
You can begin to develop a whole typology of streetscapes
和相应的交通工具
and the vehicles that can go on them.
我不会去参与 只是展示一下
I won’t go through all of them. I’ll just show one.
这是波尔得 是关于跑步林荫路的例子
This is Boulder. It’s a great example of kind of a mobility parkway,
为慢跑者和自行车手的高速公路
a superhighway for joggers and bicyclists,
在这里你可以从一个城市到达另一个城市
where you can go from one end of the city to the other
而无需穿过马路
without crossing the street,
这里还有共享单车 我在这里会花一点时间
and they also have bike-sharing, which I’ll get into in a minute.
这里一个有趣的方案
This is even a more interesting solution
源于韩国首尔
in Seoul, Korea.
他们想避免修建高架桥
They took the elevated highway, they got rid of it,
他们改造街道 改道河流
they reclaimed the street, the river down below,
沿着街道
below the street,
你可以从首尔一端到另一端
and you can go from one end of Seoul to the other
而不必穿过机动车道
without crossing a pathway for cars.
和曼哈顿的高线公园十分相似
The High Line in Manhattan is very similar.
自行车道在世界范围内迅速兴起
You have these rapidly emerging bike lanes all over the world.
我在曼哈顿住了15年
I lived in Manhattan for 15 years.
几周前我回去
I went back a couple of weekends ago,
给这些已修建的神奇自行车道拍了几张照片
took this photograph of these fabulous new bike lanes that they have installed.
它们和哥本哈根还不一样
They’re still not to where Copenhagen is,
在那里 市内行程有42%
where something like 42 percent of the trips within the city
依靠自行车
are by bicycle.
主要因为他们有极好的公共设施
It’s mostly just because they have fantastic infrastructure there.
在波士顿我们就完全做错了
We actually did exactly the wrong thing in Boston.
大开挖……
The Big Dig —
[笑声]
(Laughter)
确实我们避免了高架桥 但我们制造了交通岛
So we got rid of the highway but we created a traffic island,
除了汽车之外什么都不能在上面的道路移动
and it’s certainly not a mobility pathway for anything other than cars.
根据需求选择出行工具是我们一直想要实现的
Mobility on demand is something we’ve been thinking about,
因此我们想我们需要共享车辆的机制
so we think we need an ecosystem of these shared-use vehicles
来沟通物流
connected to mass transit.
我们对一些车辆进行了尝试
These are some of the vehicles that we’ve been working on.
但共享是关键
But shared use is really key.
如果你共享一辆车 就可以让至少四个人使用
If you share a vehicle, you can have at least four people use one vehicle,
而不是一个人
as opposed to one.
我们在波士顿设置了Hubway 在巴黎设置了Vélib系统
We have Hubway here in Boston, the Vélib’ system in Paris.
我们在媒体实验室里不断改良 让这些城市小车
We’ve been developing, at the Media Lab, this little city car
达到最好 从而更适合在城市共享
that is optimized for shared use in cities.
我们放弃了诸如引擎和变速器这些无用的东西
We got rid of all the useless things like engines and transmissions.
把所有东西移到轮子上
We moved everything to the wheels,
像是传动马达
so you have the drive motor,
转向器 刹车……所有的都在轮子上
the steering motor, the breaking — all in the wheel.
它突破了底盘的障碍 你就可以像这样折叠起来
That left the chassis unencumbered, so you can do things like fold,
把这辆小车折叠起来可以减小占地面积
so you can fold this little vehicle up to occupy a tiny little footprint.
这是欧洲电视台上周播放的一段视频
This was a video that was on European television last week
展示了西班牙工业部长开着这辆小车
showing the Spanish Minister of Industry driving this little vehicle,
当它折叠起来的时候 还可以转圈
and when it’s folded, it can spin.
不需要倒车 不需要平行趴车
You don’t need reverse. You don’t need parallel parking.
只需要转向 然后直直开进去
You just spin and go directly in.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
我们正在和公司沟通来使它商业化
So we’ve been working with a company to commercialize this.
我的博士生Ryan Chin提出了这个点子
My PhD student Ryan Chin presented these early ideas
在两年前在TEDx会议上
two years ago at a TEDx conference.
多有意思
So what’s interesting is,
接着如果你加入一些新东西 比如自主控制
then if you begin to add new things to it, like autonomy,
你下车 停到你的目的地
you get out of the car, you park at your destination,
拍拍它的屁股 它就去自己停好 自己交费
you pat it on the butt, it goes and it parks itself, it charges itself,
可以看到 对一块场地
and you can get something like seven times as many vehicles
可以停放的小车是传统车的7倍
in a given area as conventional cars,
我们觉得未来就是这样
and we think this is the future.
实际上我们今天可以做到这一点 这并不是一个真正的问题
Actually, we could do this today. It’s not really a problem.
我们可以把共享 折叠 自主控制联合起来
We can combine shared use and folding and autonomy
使用这种策略
and we get something like 28 times the land utilization
土地利用可以达到28倍
with that kind of strategy.
我们的一个毕业生说
One of our graduate students then says,
嗯 这个无人驾驶车怎样感知行人
well, how does a driverless car communicate with pedestrians?
没有人用眼睛盯着
You have nobody to make eye contact with.
你不知道它会不会从你上面碾过去
You don’t know if it’s going to run you over.
因此他制定了一些策略
So he’s developing strategies
这个车就可以和行人交流了 所以……
so the vehicle can communicate with pedestrians, so —
[笑声]
(Laughter)
头灯是眼睛 瞳孔可以放大
So the headlights are eyeballs, the pupils can dilate,
利用定向声源 可以把声音直接传给人们
we have directional audio, we can throw sound directly at people.
这个项目中我最喜欢的
What I love about this project
是他解决了一个还未存在的问题 所以……
is he solved a problem that doesn’t exist yet, so —
[笑声]
(Laughter)
我们也在考虑让自行车道更大众化
We also think that we can democratize access to bike lanes.
你们知道 穿运动裤的年轻人最常用自行车道 所以……
You know, bike lanes are mostly used by young guys in stretchy pants. So —
[笑声]
(Laughter)
我们考虑可以开发一种可以上自行车道的小车
We think we can develop a vehicle that operates on bike lanes,
供老人和残疾人 穿裙子的女士 商务人士使用
accessible to elderly and disabled, women in skirts, businesspeople,
还要同时应对能源 拥堵 机动性
and address the issues of energy, congestion, mobility,
老龄化和肥胖等问题
aging and obesity simultaneously.
这是我们的一项挑战
That’s our challenge.
这是我们早期设计的小三轮车
This is an early design for this little three-wheel.
它是一款电动自行车
It’s an electronic bike.
你必须在自行车道上蹬脚蹬子
You have to pedal to operate it in a bike lane,
但如果你是老年人 这里设置了按钮
but if you’re an older person, that’s a switch.
如果你是个健康的人 你可能需要用力来加速
If you’re a healthy person, you might have to work really hard to go fast.
你需要消耗40卡路里让它工作
You can dial in 40 calories going into work
消耗500回家 并洗个澡
and 500 going home, when you can take a shower.
我们希望在今年秋天把它造出来
We hope to have that built this fall.
房子是另一个可以优化的地方
Housing is another area where we can really improve.
波士顿的Mayor Menino说
Mayor Menino in Boston says
年轻人难以负担房价
lack of affordable housing for young people
这是城市面临的一项大难题
is one of the biggest problems the city faces.
开发商说 好 我们造点迷你公寓
Developers say, OK, we’ll build little teeny apartments.
人们说 我们一点也不想住在狭小的传统公寓里
People say, we don’t really want to live in a little teeny conventional apartment.
所以我们说 不如造些标准样板
So we’re saying, let’s build a standardized chassis,
像我们的车一样
much like our car.
我们把先进技术应用于公寓
Let’s bring advanced technology into the apartment,
通过技术可及性
technology-enabled infill,
为人们提供包括开放空间样板的工具
give people the tools within this open-loft chassis
通过这个过程来让人们明确
to go through a process of defining
他们的需求 价值观和各种活动
what their needs and values and activities are,
接着通过匹配算法匹配到独特的搭配
and then a matching algorithm will match a unique assembly
把个性化的部件
of integrated infill components,
家具 装饰组合起来
furniture, and cabinetry, that are personalized to that individual,
他们把这个工具提供给顾客
and they give them the tools
来完成这个过程 然后完善它
to go through the process and to refine it,
就像是有个建筑师在旁边
and it’s something like working with an architect,
当你给人提供选择时
where the dialogue starts
会得到交流反馈
when you give an alternative to a person to react to.
这之中让我们觉得最有趣的实现
Now, the most interesting implementation of that for us
是当你拥有了机器墙
is when you can begin to have robotic walls,
你的锻炼区可以转变为工作区
so your space can convert from exercise to a workplace,
如果你经营一个虚拟公司的话
if you run a virtual company.
有客人来访时
You have guests over,
可以变成两个客房
you have two guest rooms that are developed.
还可以布置一个单间
You have a conventional one-bedroom arrangement
如果需要的话
when you need it.
可能大多数时间都是这样
Maybe that’s most of the time.
当举办晚餐聚会
You have a dinner party.
桌子展开可以容纳16人进餐以及一个传统的单间
The table folds out to fit 16 people in otherwise a conventional one-bedroom,
也许你想要一个舞厅
or maybe you want a dance studio.
我的意思是 这些想法建筑师已经考虑了很久
I mean, architects have been thinking about these ideas for a long time.
我们现在要做的
What we need to do now,
就是把它推广 让城市中的3亿中国人
develop things that can scale to those 300 million Chinese people
他们会想要住进去 并且觉得舒服
that would like to live in the city, and very comfortably.
我们觉得我们能造出一套小公寓
We think we can make a very small apartment
利用这些策略 让人觉得好像有两倍大
that functions as if it’s twice as big by utilizing these strategies.
我不相信智能房屋 那是伪命题
I don’t believe in smart homes. That’s sort of a bogus concept.
我觉得你必须造一个哑巴房子 再把智能的东西塞进去
I think you have to build dumb homes and put smart stuff in it.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
所以我们正在研发墙的样式
And so we’ve been working on a chassis of the wall itself.
你知道 标准的平台
You know, standardized platform
工作时需要发动机和电池
with the motors and the battery when it operates,
低压电供电的小螺线管可以把它适当地固定起来
little solenoids that will lock it in place and get low-voltage power.
我认为这方面可以标准化
We think this can all be standardized,
之后人们可以用个性化的材料填进墙里
and then people can personalize the stuff that goes into that wall,
就像小车一样 我们可以设置各种传感器
and like the car, we can integrate all kinds of sensing
感知人们的活动
to be aware of human activity,
如果有小孩子或狗挡住了
so if there’s a baby or a puppy in the way,
你不必担心会出问题
you won’t have a problem.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
开发商说 嗯 不错
So the developers say, well, this is great.
比方说一个传统建筑 我们有一个固定的空间
OK, so if we have a conventional building, we have a fixed envelope,
我们可以在里面设置14个单元
maybe we can put in 14 units.
如果这些房子能提供的空间相当于它本身的两倍
If they function as if they’re twice as big,
那我们就可以设置28个单元
we can get 28 units in.
那意味着要设置两倍的停车位
That means twice as much parking, though.
停车位很贵
Parking’s really expensive.
建筑区内造一个传统停车位
It’s about 70,000 dollars per space
要花7万刀
to build a conventional parking spot inside a building.
如果你用可折叠自主控制的小车
So if you can have folding and autonomy,
只需使用七分之一的空间
you can do that in one-seventh of the space.
单就停车费一项
That goes down to 10,000 dollars per car,
每辆车可省10000刀
just for the cost of the parking.
再加上共享使用 省的会更多
You add shared use, and you can even go further.
我们还在这一个过程中
We can also integrate all kinds of advanced technology
加入各种高新技术
through this process.
通过市场化的创新公司
There’s a path to market for innovative companies
把技术带回家
to bring technology into the home.
因此 我们正在和西门子合作一个项目
In this case, a project we’re doing with Siemens.
装有传感器的家具和装饰物
We have sensors on all the furniture, all the infill,
可以感知人们的位置和行动
that understands where people are and what they’re doing.
蓝光是很有效的
Blue light is very efficient,
所以我们使用可调的24位LED灯具
so we have these tunable 24-bit LED lighting fixtures.
它可以确定人的位置和行动
It recognizes where the person is, what they’re doing,
需要时可发出全频段可见光
fills out the light when necessary to full spectrum white light,
并且相比于当前最新照明系统
and saves maybe 30, 40 percent in energy consumption, we think,
节约30%到40%的能量损耗
over even conventional state-of-the-art lighting systems.
这里展示的是从传感器得到的数据
This just shows you the data that comes from the sensors
传感器嵌入家具中
that are embedded in the furniture.
我们并不需要家用摄像头
We don’t really believe in cameras to do things in homes.
无线传感器更加有效
We think these little wireless sensors are more effective.
我们也可以将日光个性化
We think we can also personalize sunlight.
某种程度上来说那是个性化的终极
That’s sort of the ultimate personalization in some ways.
我们都见过镜子的正面
So we’ve looked at articulating mirrors of the facade
它能四处反射阳光
that can throw shafts of sunlight anywhere into the space,
在像今天一样热的天气里
therefore allowing you to shade most of the glass
可以用镜子为你遮阳
on a hot day like today.
这个例子里 她拿起手机
In this case, she picks up her phone,
让她在厨房里准备食物时
she can map food preparation at the kitchen island
把阳光固定在一个地方
to a particular location of sunlight.
某种算法可以保证在她忙着准备食物时 光线在同一个位置
An algorithm will keep it in that location as long as she’s engaged in that activity.
这也可以和LED灯一起用
This can be combined with LED lighting as well.
我们认为工作场所也该推广共享模式
We think workplaces should be shared.
我的意思是 这是未来工作模式
I mean, this is really the workplace of the future, I think.
这是星巴克
This is Starbucks, you know.
也许是第三(世界国家)
Maybe a third —
可以看到每个人背对着墙
And you see everybody has their back to the wall
把食物和咖啡放在过道上
and they have food and coffee down the way
他们每个人都在自己的小空间里
and they’re in their own little personal bubble.
我们需要共享的空间进行互动和合作
We need shared spaces for interaction and collaboration.
这方面 我们做得不是很好
We’re not doing a very good job with that.
在剑桥创新中心有共享办公桌
At the Cambridge Innovation Center, you can have shared desks.
我在芬兰阿尔托大学的设计工坊待过一段时间
I’ve spent a lot of time in Finland at the design factory of Aalto University,
他们有共享商店 共享创新实验室 共享静音室
where the they have a shared shop and shared fab lab, shared quiet spaces,
电子空间 娱乐场所
electronics spaces, recreation places.
我们相信这些最终都会结合在一起
We think ultimately, all of this stuff can come together,
成为新型的移动方式 新型的住宅方式
a new model for mobility, a new model for housing,
新型的生活工作方式
a new model for how we live and work,
市场化的高新技术
a path to market for advanced technologies.
但最终 我们要面对的是人
But in the end, the main thing we need to focus on are people.
城市属于人
Cities are all about people.
城市服务于人
They’re places for people.
我们必须想方设法改善
There’s no reason why we can’t dramatically improve
城市的宜居性和创造性
the livability and creativity of cities
就像墨尔本的街道
like they’ve done in Melbourne with the laneways
可以同时大幅降低CO2 减少能耗
while at the same time dramatically reducing CO2 and energy.
这个全球性问题迫在眉睫 刻不容缓
It’s a global imperative. We have to get this right.
谢谢
Thank you.
[掌声]
(Applause)

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视频概述

未来的城市会是什么样子?有什么新的创意可以实现?这里告诉你。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

tu3535

审核员

赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SM_hPk4rmMM

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