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NFT如何构建未来的互联网

Kayvon Tehranian: How NFTs are building the internet of the future | TED

NFTs are not a scam.
NFT不是一个骗局
NFTs are not a fad.
NFT不是一种时尚
In fact, NFTs are the building blocks of the internet of the future.
实际上 NFT是未来互联网的基石
But in order for us to see this future clearly,
但为了清楚地看到互联网的未来
we first need to go back into the past.
我们首先需要回到过去
The year is 1992,
那是1992年
the World Wide Web is only three years old.
万维网诞生仅三年
This is what it looks like.
这就是它的样子
For the first time in human history,
纵观人类历史
we share a global commons,
我们第一次可以共享全球公共资源
where, irrespective of where we are in the physical world,
无论身在何处
we can convene and share information freely.
我们都可以自由地收集并分享信息
Most people at that time couldn’t see what it meant
当时 大多数人还看不出
to be connected by a network of computers.
由计算机网络连接起来意味着什么
In fact, many people thought
实际上 当时许多人认为
the internet itself was a scam or a fad.
互联网本身是一个骗局或一种热潮
But a few early internet pioneers
但少数早期的互联网先驱者
saw the potential in this burgeoning technology.
看到了这一新兴技术的潜力
One of those early internet pioneers, John Perry Barlow,
其中一位先驱约翰·佩里·巴洛
saw both the opportunities and pitfalls inherent in our new digital world.
看到了我们新数字世界存在的机遇和隐患
And, of early cyberspace,
关于早期的网络空间
he posed a prescient riddle all the way back in 1992,
他早在1992年就提出了一个有预见性的谜题
that I’ll paraphrase for you:
我来释义一下:
“If our property can be infinitely reproduced
“如果我们的作品可以被无限复制
and instantaneously distributed across the planet without cost,
并在地球上瞬间传播而不需要成本
how are we going to protect it?
我们该如何保护它呢?
How are we going to get paid for the work we do with our minds?
我们怎样才能得到脑力工作的报酬?
And if we can’t get paid,
如果我们得不到报酬
what will assure the continued creation and distribution of such work?”
拿什么保证继续创作和传播这样的作品呢?”
A lot has changed on the internet since 1992.
自1992年以来互联网发生了很多变化
The internet itself is an alive and evolving technology.
互联网本身就是一种充满活力 不断发展的技术
And as predicted by its earliest champions,
正如其最早期的拥护者所预言的那样
the internet has increasingly become our default context.
互联网已经越来越成为我们的默认环境
Today, one’s job, wealth, relationships, sense of self,
今天 一个人的工作 财富 人际关系 自我意识
are all often more mediated through our digital contexts
往往都是通过我们的数字环境而
than our physical ones.
不是实体环境来连接的
Yet, Barlow’s riddle has remained vexingly unsolved.
然而 巴洛的谜题一直悬而未决
Concepts like property and ownership —
像财产和所有权这样的概念
ideas that have been with us for centuries in the physical world —
在现实世界中已经伴随了我们几个世纪
have evaded us in our digital spaces.
在数字空间中却与我们无缘
We’ve tried to foist copyright,
我们试图在互联网上强加版权
DMCA, DRM and watermarks
DMCA DRM和水印
onto the internet to protect our ideas
以保护我们的构思
and to restrain their distribution.
并限制其传播
None of these approaches have worked.
这些方法都没有奏效
Why?
为什么?
Because, as Stewart Brand, another early internet pioneer, famously coined:
因为 正如另一位早期互联网先驱斯图尔特•布兰德所说:
information wants to be free.
信息想要自由
It wants to travel effortlessly, without hindrance, without encumbrance.
它希望毫不费力 不受阻碍 没有负担地传播
This is what allowed the internet to succeed in the first place.
这就是互联网最初得以成功的原因
Since 1992, we’ve uploaded trillions of photos and videos
自1992年以来 我们已经将数万亿张照片和视频
and even cat memes
甚至猫咪表情包
to the internet for free.
免费上传到互联网上
And what business model has allowed this information to be free?
而什么商业模式能让这些信息免费?
Advertising.
广告
Advertising is the internet’s default business model,
广告之所以是互联网的默认商业模式
not because that’s what we want,
不是因为我们想要广告
but because it’s what pays the bills.
而是因为它是用来支付费用的
Right now, the few large corporations that run the most effective ad networks
目前 经营着最高效的广告网络的几家大公司
control most of the value on today’s internet,
控制着当今互联网的大部分价值
not the people creating its content.
而不是创造内容的人
On today’s internet,
在今天的互联网上
we don’t get paid for the work we do with our minds.
我们的脑力劳动并没有报酬
And what’s more,
更重要的是
the content we upload to these services is trapped there.
我们上传的内容被限制在服务商那里
These services not only make money from our content,
这些机构不仅从上传的内容中赚钱
they control it.
还掌握着控制权
Until NFTs.
直到NFT的出现
NFTs are a technological breakthrough,
NFT是一种技术上的突破
they offer us the opportunity to break away from that broken system.
它们给我们提供了摆脱那个残缺系统的机会
So you’re asking yourself: What is an NFT?
所以你会问自己:什么是NFT?
It’s a certificate of ownership registered on the blockchain
NFT是一个在区块链上注册的所有权证书
for everyone to see.
所有人都可以查看
It’s not too dissimilar to the deed you get
它与你在现实世界中购买房屋时
when you buy a house in the physical world.
得到的房契没有太大区别
But instead of a house,
但NFT不代表房子本身
an NFT denotes ownership of a file on the internet.
而是表示互联网上文件的所有权
And unlike copyright or watermarks,
不同于版权或水印
which are ancient technologies rooted in bygone eras,
那些植根于过去时代的旧技术
NFTs are internet native.
NFT是互联网原生的
They are born of the internet, for the internet.
它们诞生于互联网 用于互联网
And NFTs don’t simply port our existing model of ownership
NFT不仅仅是将我们现有的所有权模式
from the physical world,
从实体世界移植过来
they improve it.
而是对其进行改进
In the physical world, ownership actually fences people out,
在现实世界中 所有权实际上是将别人隔绝在外
it precludes others from enjoying what you own.
阻止别人享用你拥有的东西
I wouldn’t expect to feel welcome in your home uninvited.
不请自来去你家里 我想我不会受到欢迎
Digital space, however, is expansive,
然而 数字空间是广阔的
it’s home to the infinite, the exponential, the instantaneous.
它是无限的 指数的 瞬时的
NFTs offer a system of ownership that reflects this expansiveness.
NFT提供了一个反映这种广阔性的所有权系统
With NFTs, my owning something doesn’t preclude others from enjoying it.
在NFT中 我拥有的东西并不妨碍其他人享受
In fact, it’s the opposite.
事实上 恰恰相反
The more an NFT is seen, appreciated and understood,
一个NFT越被人看到 欣赏和领会
the more possibility it has to increase in value.
它就越有可能增值
Let’s take an example:
我们来举个例子:
Nyan Cat, a wildly popular, instantly recognizable cat meme.
彩虹猫 一个很受欢迎辨识度很高的猫表情包
Since it was uploaded to the internet a decade ago,
自十年前被上传到网上以来
it has accumulated hundreds of millions of views.
它已经积累了数亿的浏览量
And precisely because of that virality,
正是由于这种病毒式的传播
when it was auctioned as an NFT,
当它被作为NFT拍卖时
it sold for 300 ETH, or the equivalent of over 600,000 dollars.
卖了300以太币 相当于60多万美元
And the person who now owns this NFT,
现在拥有这个NFT的人
they’re not preventing anyone from liking, resharing or remixing Nyan Cat.
不会阻止任何人对彩虹猫点赞 分享或二次创作
Nyan Cat is free to travel the internet as it always has.
彩虹猫一如既往地在互联网上自由穿梭
What’s different now is that,
现在不同的是
as Nyan Cat’s popularity continues to grow,
随着彩虹猫越来越受欢迎
so can the value of the NFT.
其NFT的价值也在增长
Because of NFTs, Chris Torres, Nyan Cat’s creator,
得益于NFT 彩虹猫的创造者克里斯•托雷斯
has received direct compensation for his creation.
直接从他的创作中获得了报酬
But what’s more is he’ll continue to receive compensation
但更重要的是 NFT每被转售一次
every single time the NFT is resold.
他都会继续收到报酬
This is because of the royalty system
这是因为管理NFT的智能合约中
baked into the smart contracts that govern NFTs.
嵌入了版税系统
NFTs are software, they can be programmed.
NFT是软件 可以被编译
And with something as complicated as royalties,
对于像版税这样复杂的东西
which require enormous amounts of legal and manual labor
在我们的现实世界中需要
to implement in our analog world,
大量的法律和体力劳动来实现
we can now express them in a few simple lines of code.
我们现在可以用简单的几行代码来表达
This represents a breakthrough innovation
这对于任何基于版权费的行业
for any industry predicated on royalty payments, such as publishing or music.
如出版业或音乐界 都是一个突破性的创新
And just as blogs and MP3s
正如博客和mp3
re-architected these industries in decades past,
在过去几十年里重新构建了这些行业
NFTs will catalyze their next evolution.
NFT将促进它们的下一步发展
The internet dissolved our geographic boundaries,
互联网消除了我们的地理界限
NFTs dissolve economic boundaries.
NFT消除了经济界限
Yatreda, an Ethiopian artist collective,
埃塞俄比亚艺术家团体Yatreda
created these beautiful portraits of heroes and heroines from Ethiopia’s past.
创作了这些埃塞俄比亚历史上男女英雄的美丽肖像
They sold them as NFTs,
他们把这些画作为NFT出售
and in one weekend, they made 13 ETH,
一个周末他们就赚了13个以太币
or the equivalent of over 40,000 dollars.
相当于4万多美元
And they were paid out instantly.
这些钱是立即支付的
No customs, no foreign exchange, no international wire transfers.
没有海关 不需要外币兑换和国际电汇
An artist collective based out of Addis Ababa
一个来自亚的斯亚贝巴的艺术家团体
has the same economic tools at their disposal now
现在拥有与洛杉矶 纽约或伦敦的艺术家
as an artist in LA, New York or London.
一样的经济工具
And while the NFTs for Nyan Cat and Yatreda
虽然彩虹猫和Yatreda的NFT是
were created and sold on the same platform,
在同一个平台上创建和销售
they’re not confined there, remember: information wants to be free.
但它们并不局限于此 记住:信息要自由
And unlike the current internet,
不像现在的互联网
where information is made available through proprietary apps and platforms,
信息是通过专有的应用程序和平台提供的
NFTs are portable.
而NFT是可移植的
Instead of living on a company’s private servers,
它们不再依赖于某个公司的私有服务器
they live on decentralized infrastructure that is peer to peer, open and transparent.
而是依赖于点对点 开放 透明的去中心化基础设施
But understanding this complex decentralized infrastructure
了解这种复杂的去中心化的基础设施
is not a prerequisite to understand what NFTs unlock for the human experience.
不是理解NFT为人类体验解锁什么的先决条件
Once digital value and ownership
一旦数字价值和所有权
are no longer the sole domain of a few corporations,
不再是少数公司的独有领域
radical new possibilities emerge.
全新的可能性就会出现
In other words, 30 years later,
换句话说 30年后
NFTs finally solve John Perry Barlow’s riddle.
NFT最终会解开约翰·佩里·巴洛的谜题
And this isn’t science fiction, the technology already works.
这不是科幻小说 这项技术已经起作用了
NTFs are already being used by the next generation of internet pioneers
下一代互联网先驱已经开始使用NFT了
And in the coming decade,
在未来的十年里
NFTs will reshape the internet as we know it,
NFT将重塑我们所知的互联网
with property rights baked into its code.
将产权融入其代码中
So what does the internet of the future look like
那么 以NFT为构建模块的
with NFTs as its building blocks?
未来互联网会是什么样子呢?
An internet where economic control
那将是一个经济控制权
rests in the hands of creators, not platforms.
掌握在创造者而非平台手中的互联网
An internet where our ideas and creativity can be directly supported.
一个我们的想法和创意可以直接得到支持的互联网
An internet where information can be free,
一个信息自由
but where we get paid for the work we do with our minds.
但我们脑力创作的作品可以获得报酬的互联网
Thank you.
谢谢大家
(Applause)
(掌声)

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视频概述

为什么NFTs是一种技术突破?该演讲探讨了NFTs如何将权力和经济控制权交回数字创作者的手中,并推动互联网的下一步发展。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Winnie

审核员

审核员CF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=22O6a87-GcQ

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