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汉字的故事:日本如何使汉字“过载” – 译学馆
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汉字的故事:日本如何使汉字“过载”

Kanji Story - How Japan Overloaded Chinese Characters

在我上次
In my last rant
关于“历经荒谬就为了用日语写一个简单句子”的激情演说中
about all the ridiculousness it takes just to write a simple sentence in Japanese,
记着复杂难题的清单不断增加 增加 增加
the list of complications kept growing and growing and growing,
直到我们像一个“书写体系忍者”一样
until we threw that kanji bomb
把“日本汉字炸弹”扔进一团杂乱之中
into the mix like a writing systemsninja.
但我甚至还没有提到
But I didn’t get into the stuff that
把它们带向巅峰 变得极其棘手的东西
really takes Japanese kanji over the top,making them seriously awkward.
别忘记 不许忘记
Don’t forget, don’t you dare forget that
日本是从中国那儿借来了汉字
Japan borrowed its characters from China.
这很重要 因为这解释了接下来的发展
That’s important, because it explains what happens next.
当汉字上了船 漂洋过海
When a Kanji came on the boat across the sea,
它带来了属于中国的发音
it brought its Chinese pronunciation along with it.
但中文和日语是迥然不同的两种语言
But Chinese and Japanese are two very different languages
有着天差地别的发音系统
with two very different pronunciation systems.
所以每个日本汉字的音
So each character didn’t get pronounced the way
并不是中国人发出的样子
somebody from China would say it,
却是日本人听到的样子
but the way somebody from Japan would hear it.
这是我想象中的历史
Here’s how I imaginethat history.
—“嘿你好 你是谁呀?“
– “Well, hello! Who might you be?”
—“Han”—“好的 Kan”
– “Han.”- “Ok, Kan.”
—“不 我是说 HAN!”
– “No, HAN!”
—“好的 Kan 很高兴认识你 Kan”
– “Yes, Kan. Nice to meet you, Kan.”
而这只是札幌冰雕尖端上的一点儿
And that is just the tip of the Sapporo ice sculpture.
使这令人疑惑的“文化错配”变得更妙了的
What makes this confusing cultural mismatch
是这场“声学上的交换”
even better is that the acoustic exchange
它发生在多年以前
happened a long time ago,
所以是来自古代中国汉字的发音
so it’s the way characters from old China
进入了古代日本人的耳朵里
sounded to people in old Japan.
而就像我上次解释的那样
And since, like I explained last time,
因为大多数汉字都像是糟糕的猜字谜游戏
most characters are a bad game of charades with
字的一部分告诉你它“听起来”是怎样的
one part of the character telling you whatthe word”sounds like”,
这种音韵学的“电话游戏”使人产生的疑惑
the confusion coming out of this phonological telephone game
使原本就很模糊的“听起来”暗示
makes that vague”sounds like” hint
在日语中变得更为模糊
even more vague in Japanese.
这场关于汉字发音的文化错配
The fancy term for this cultural mishmash
有一个奇特术语
of kanji pronunciation is the Sino-Japanese reading.
在日语中 人们叫它“Oh’yomi”!
In Japanese, they call it the On’yomi!
字面意思是 “按声阅读” 这很有道理
Literally”sound reading”, which make sense,
因为你在按汉字的中文发音阅读
since you’re reading the kanji with its Chinese sound.
当然了 有不止一种方式
And of course, there’s more than one way
可以剖析一个“Oh’yomi”
to skin an on’yomi.
有一种叫“gō”
There’s gō.
这是经典的汉字的“吴”语发音
That’s the classical Wu pronunciation of the characters
来自于五世纪
from the 5th century.
接着是“kō” 它是来自唐朝的发音
Then came the kō,which are T’ang dynasty pronunciations
从七世纪开始存在
starting in the 7th century.
“an”发音在之后的朝代来到日本
Tou-on pronunciationsmade their way to Japan from later dynasties.
最后一种“Oh’yomi”是gyō
The final on’yomi is gyō.
异端发音 甚至可以说它是一个
outlier pronunciations and even mistakes that became
成了惯例 赖了几个世纪不走的错误
conventional and stuck around over the centuries.
所以不要感到到惊讶 (当你发现)
So yeah, don’t be surprised when the on’yomi
你正在学的汉字的“Oh’yomi”其实是
for a kanji you’re learning is actually a bunch
一堆不同的中日发音
of different Sino-Japanese pronunciations.
这带来了有趣的结果
This has amusing consequences.
如果你去听禅 (就会发现)他们在用
If you go toZen ceremonies, they recite this passage
文言文背诵被称为《心经》的文段
in Classical Chinese that’s called the HeartSutra.
但这是在日本 而这些都是日式汉字
But this is Japan, and these are all kanji.
所以你觉得《心经》会怎么发音呢?
So how do you think the sutra getspronounced?
用文言文?
In Classical Chinese?

No.
普通话?
In Standard Chinese?

No.
日语?
In Japanese?
不!
No!
它只是被颂唱成一长串“Oh‘yomi”
It’s just chanted as a long string of on’yomi,
基本上成为两种语言混合的胡言乱语
basically resulting in gibberish in both languages.
但日本汉字不只有“Oh‘yomi”
Kanji don’t just have on’yomi though.
它们还有“Kun’yomi”
Theyalso have Kun’yomi.
就像我之前说的那样 日语和中文
Like I said before, Japanese and Chinese
是两种迥然不同的语言
are two very different languages,
这意味着这些一个接一个世纪
which means that all these on’yomi getting
被借过来的“Oh‘yomi”从根本上说是外来词汇
borrowed century after century are basicallyforeign vocabulary words.
那么你认为本土日语词汇
But do you think the native Japanese words
就这么让到了一边
just stepped aside
为所有新来的闪耀的中文词组挪窝吗?
and made room for all the shiny new Chinese terms?

No.
新来的汉字也必须适应日语
The incoming kanji had to fit Japanese,too.
所以日语词汇与当时看起来
So Japanese words got matched to Chinese characters
能适应得不错的中国汉字搭配
that seemed like a good fit atthe time.
这是推车或是交通工具的汉字
Here’s the character for cart or vehicle.
它有一些中日“Oh‘yomi”
It has a few Sino-Japanese on’yomi,
但最基础的是“sha”
but the basic one is sha.
所以这个汉字可以代表这些发音中的任意一个
So this character can represent any of these pronunciations.
但这并不是精确的科学
It wasn’t an exact science though.
就像汉字能有很多中文发音
Just like you can have multiple Chinese pronunciations for each kanji,
为什么就不能有很多日语意思解读呢?
why not have multiple Japanesemeaning readings, too?
甚至还有一种解读方式要加进这个清单
There’s even one more bunch of readings to add to this list.
“Nanori”
Nanori!
它为了正式称呼而存在
It’s for proper names
它是另一种常用的汉字日语本土发音
and is usually yet another native Japanese pronunciation for the character.
而令人兴奋的地方并没有到此结束 朋友!
And the excitement doesn’t stop here, tomodachi!
因为是时候忘记阅读的乐趣
Because it’s time to forget the reading fun
来想想你能从(汉字)中
and think about all the writing fun
得到的书写的乐趣了!
you can have with these.
这就是你真正跟 那有体系套着的体系所存在的
That is where you really get to play
疯狂之处打交道的地方了
with this systems within systems madness…
我是说 呃 神奇之处!那就是汉字
I mean, uh, amazingness!… thatis the kanji.
如果你想要快速地玩玩
If you want to play fast and loose
并对关于汉字的历史和含义的部分放松的话
with the history and meaning of the characters, you
你可以换些Ateji
can switch in some Ateji!
这些是音义一致的汉字
Those are kanjicharacters used just for the way they sound.
当你看到“寿司(sushi)”这么写的时候
When you see”sushi” written this way,
那是一些即兴“ateji”在发挥效用
that’s some improv ateji stuff going on.
这两个汉字
Neither of those characters
都跟这个词的意思没有任何关系
has anything to do with the meaning of that word.
有时日本会根据中国汉字
Sometimes Japan just builds its own characters
的构成逻辑创造自己的字
following the logic of Chinese character composition.
就是(直接)把字给造出来
Just makes characters up.
因为你能让这个猜字谜游戏更有成效
Because you canbe productive with this charades game.
这些叫做“kokuji” 国字
These are called Kokuji! Country characters.
有时 有更新和更古老的两种方式书写同一个字
Sometimes there are newer ways and older ways of writing the exact same character.
旧字体
Kyuujitai!
有时一个字太过复杂或是
Sometimes a character gets way too complicated or
你感到充满创造力
you’re just feeling creative
而你需要以这样或那样的方式简化它
and you need to abbreviate it in one way or another.
关于“简化” 我的意思是把它(汉字)变成
And by abbreviate, I mean turn it into a completely
一个完全认不出的东西 而我会坐在这儿看着它
unrecognizable thing that I’ll sit there trying to look up,
想着 这是什么东西?
like WHAT IS THAT?
这不在我的官方汉字列表里!
IT WASN’T ON MY OFFICIAL KANJI LIST!
“略字(ryakuji)”
Ryakuji!
掌握一个汉字只是一场大战的一个部分
And mastering one character is only a fractionof the battle.
经常的 汉字的意思并不是你以为的那样
Often characters don’t mean what you think they mean,
或者它们本身并没有多少含义
or they really don’t mean much on their own.
日本人喜欢把汉字组合成词汇
Japanese loves to combine characters to make a word.
上啊 日本!
You go, Japan!
把这些汉字堆积起来!
Stack those characters!
接着 当你适应了多字词汇时
And then, once you’re comfortable with multi-kanji words,
再次升级 (你要)挑战这些精炼的
level up again to tackle those terse little
小个的三字或是四字格言
three-character or four-character proverbs
它们把深刻的含义装在了零星几个音节里
that pack some deep meaning in just a very few syllables.

(“Yame!”)
这甚至还不到事情脱离掌控的地方
This not even where things get out of hand.
我向你保证
I promise you.
你看 这不是上次的那种古怪音节
You see, it’s not the quirky syllables from last time.
你也没有陷入
It’s not the quagmire that you get into
当你开始记忆所有的汉字
that you get into when you start memorizing all the kanji
以及它们的“按声解读“ 它们的“按意解读”
with their sound readings, their meaning readings,
它们的替代词和简化体的那种困境
their substitutions and abbreviations.
这是一只无法被驯服的野兽
It’s the untamed beast
它只出现在 你第一次将墨水用在
that only rears its head when you first put ink
一张全新的日式宣纸上的时候
to that fresh sheet of Japanese paper.
这纸看起来非常像普通纸张
Whichlooks a lot like regular paper.
呃 停下想想这些汉字变得多么错综复杂
Uh, stop and think about how super intricate the characters get
就是因为它们的细小线条 笔画和点
with all their little lines and strokes and dabs…
就在这个时刻 让我非常严肃地告诉你
While I tell you in all seriousness that
有官方的正确和错误的两种方式
there’s officially a right way and a wrong way
来书写这些东西(汉字)里的每一划
to write each and every single mark in these things.
你撑了这么久
You made it this far,
但我还是需要你在下次帮我撑过这个
but I need you next time to help me through this.
留下 为了语言而订阅
Stick around and subscribe for language.

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视频概述

日本汉字源自中国。但在发展的过程中,为了适应日本本土文化,汉字衍生出了不一样的版本。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Connoisseur

审核员

审核员 AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CF3MRMBjd20

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