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公平世界假设

Just-world hypothesis

Hey everyone! Hope all is well!
大家好 望一切安好
First, a quick story When the Second World War came to an end,
首先 讲个小故事 当二战结束时
the British took some German civilians around the Belsen concentration camp.
英国人把一些德国市民带到贝尔森集中营
But why they do this ?
但是他们为什么这样做呢?
To show them what their own soldiers
这是为展示他们自己的士兵
had done during the war.
在战时的暴行
It was reported that one of the civilians had said what
据报道 当时有位民众说
” What terrible criminals these prisoners must have been to receive such treatment.”
“这些囚犯必定是做了坏事才要受到如此的惩罚”
Not uttered by a guard, but by a civilian.
这并非警卫人员所说 而是位普通民众说的
The just-world hypothesis is a cognitive bias in which we as human beings
公平世界假设 其实就是我们人类
try to make sense of a world that is unfortunately unjust.
在试着弄懂这个不幸地不公正世界时 所存在的认知偏见
We like to believe noble acts lead to reward,
我们愿意相信善有善报
and bad actions result in punishment.
恶有恶报
so when we see bad things happen to good people,
所以当我们看到好人遭遇不幸
and good to bad, there is a tendency to view such situations
坏人却被善待时 我们往往会用减少内心愧疚不安
in a way that reduces this sense of guilt or discomfort.
的观念来看待这个现象
I have been fascinated by this concept for a long time,
这是我感兴趣已久的概念
because when it comes to activism
因为当涉及行动主义
and political discourse, you see this process play out quite often.
和政治演说时 你常常会看到这样的处理方式
I mean, here are a few examples
我是说 举几个例子
poverty:
比如贫穷
“ Well if they just worked harder,
“如果他们工作更努力
the system would reward them accordingly”
相应的他们拿到的薪水一定会更多”
Obesity:
比如肥胖
“They clearly need to take better care of their eating habits”
“显然他们需要多注意一下自己的饮食习惯”
The refugee crisis:
比如难民危机
“ These families are so irresponsible taking their young children on rafts
“这些父母照看自己的小孩也太不负责了
and putting their lives in danger like that.”
将他们的孩子置身于危险之中”
Sexual assault: “ She had been drinking,
再比如性侵 “她喝酒了
and well, she may have not made it clear enough
而且她可能也没讲明白
that she didn’t want to have sex.”
她不想性交”
Police brutality: “If he had just stayed
或者警察暴力
out of trouble, it would have never of come to this.”
“如果不是自己不注意 一个巴掌是拍不响的”
It is unfortunate to have this mental starting point
不幸的是 在这样心理下
in which you approach any news of tragedy
当你看到任何悲惨的事情时
as being something that was self-created by the victim.
你会认为所有悲剧都是受害者自作自受
But it happens with many of us,
而恰恰我们大多数人都是这样的
because by convincing yourself that a victim gets what
通过说服自己那是受害者
they deserve, it helps you solidify this belief that, well,
自作自受 这让你坚信一点
it could never happen to you.
即那些悲剧绝对不会发生在自己身上
And to for this mentality
在这种心理下
reduces the likelihood that you would sympathise with a victim
你同情受害者的可能性减小了
You become less likely therefore to help them as well.
你去帮助他们的可能性也变得更小
The just-world hypothesis means it’s likely there are large sums
公平世界假设意味着 世界上有很多
of people who are apathetic,
的人是冷漠无情的
and this can be a real challenge to
这可能是个巨大的挑战
anyone who is trying to fight for societal or systemic change
对于那些想参与社会变革和制度改良的人来说
Take the battle against mass-surveillance for example.
以反对大规模监控的斗争为例
There are many people out there
总是有许多人认为
who think,” Well, if you have nothing to hide,
你如果没什么隐瞒的话
you have nothing to worry about.”
你也不用担心这些
But as NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden has points out,
但是 正如NSA泄密者斯诺登所指出的那样
that is no different from saying
这么想其实就是在说
that you don’t care about freedom of speech because you have nothing to say.
“你不在意言论自由是因为自己无话可说”
Or consider Occupy Wall Street.
或者提及占领华尔街运动的事件
When that was happening there was some condemnation
在这运动发生时出现了一些谴责的声音
coming from other working & middle class people saying things like,
这些谴责来自工薪阶级和中产阶级的人们 他们说
“ I work two jobs.
“我干着2份工作
just about get by.
只为养家糊口
But you don’t hear me complaining. ” –
但是你听不到我的抱怨”
when I’m there thinking, but they should
但我想 他们应该要抱怨
be complaining. They’re on the same team.
而且他们所处的立场是一致的
In that moment in time they’re actually defending
那时他们是在抗议一个
an unjust system which is serving them poorly.
对他们很恶劣不公平的环境
You may be thinking of examples right now of times
你可能现在会想到一些例子
where you have personally experienced this mindset.
你自己亲身体验过这种公平世界假设心理的例子
I mean, I think we are all guilty of it.
我认为我们应该对此感到羞愧
So it’s a question of, what can be
那么问题来了
done about it? What are the solutions?
我们能做些什么呢?有什么解决办法吗?
Well firstly I think it’s about being aware
首先 我认为我们应该先意识到有这个假设
of it, and hopefully this video has helped
也希望这个视频能够帮助你们
do that. Secondly,
意识到这点 第二点
accepting reality for what it is. Yes,
认清现实
sometimes good things happen to good people,
是的 有时善有善报
but sometimes they happen to bad people as well.
但是恶人不一定有恶果
And what does ‘good’ and’bad’
那么“好”和“坏”如何界定呢?
even mean? A complicated world requires nuanced interpretation wherever possible.
这个复杂的世界需要更细致的解释
And thirdly, take action.
第三点 行动起来
Organise.
组织起来
Do whatever you can to help us move towards having an actual just-world
尽你所能 来帮助我们走向一个真正的公平世界
That can be done by identifying the root causes to the problems we face,
只要找到我们现在所面临问题的根源 就可以做到这一点
or by bringing awareness and helping develop the necessary solutions.
或者引起重视 并多想想可行的解决方案
Because it’s not just about the way we think
因为这不仅仅是关于我们如何思考
about these injustices in the world; it’s
公正对于这个世界的意义的方式
about the actions we can take in response to these things as well.
它也是关于应对这些事情时 我们将采取的实际行动
So thank you for watching this video.
感谢您收看本期视频
Please do comment with your thoughts – i’d be really
你可以和我分享你们的想法
interested to read them.
我很乐意看你们的评论
And please like & share the video as well if you’d be so kind.
如果可以的话 请点赞分享此视频
This is the start of me making weekly videos again.
以后我将周更视频
Last week I launched a’Patreon’ account
上周我在“Patreon”(一个众筹网站)注册了一个账号
and we’re almost half way to my goal.
而且我们的目标差不多要完成一半了
So thank you so much to everyone who has supported me.
非常感谢大家的支持
If you haven’t seen it already, goto Patreon.com/MylesDyer –
如果你还没看到这个视频 请搜索Patreon.com/Mylesdyer
there is a video there explaining exactly
那里有个视频详细解释
why I am doing it.
我做这个视频的原因
And yeah, it just feels good to be back.
回来的感觉真好
So thank you for watching, and adios’til next time!
感谢你的收看 我们下期再见

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视频概述

什么才是正义?当别人遇到危机时我们该如何思考与行动

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收集自网络

翻译译者

瑜瑛

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审核员JO

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L1nbDHd-iB0

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