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声音到大脑的旅程 – 译学馆
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声音到大脑的旅程

Journey of Sound to the Brain

Have you ever wondered how sounds make their way from the source,
你是否曾好奇过声音是如何从外界
[Trumpet playing] all the way to your brain?
[小号演奏中]到达你的大脑中的?
Take a trumpet, for instance.
例如 拿起一个小号
When it’s played, it makes sound waves in the air.
当它演奏时 空气中产生了声波
The outer ear catches the waves,
外耳捕捉到声波
which then travel through a narrow passageway called the ear canal.
接着 声波穿过狭窄的耳道
The sound waves reach the eardrum,
声波到达鼓膜
which is a membrane roughly half the size of a dime.
这片薄膜犹如一枚硬币一半大小
They make the eardrum vibrate,
声波使鼓膜振动
which in turn vibrates three tiny bones
然后依次使锤骨 砧骨 镫骨
called the malleus, incus, and stapes.
这三块听小骨振动
These bones amplify, or increase, the sound vibrations
这些骨头增强声音的振动
and send them to the cochlea.
并把振动传送到耳蜗
The cochlea is shaped like a snail and is the size of a garden pea.
耳蜗形似蜗牛 一颗豌豆大小
It is filled with fluid and the sound vibrations make this fluid ripple,
耳蜗充满液体 声波让这些液体泛起涟漪
which creates waves.
形成波浪
Hair-like structures, called stereocilia, sit on top of hair cells
长在听毛细胞表面 看似毛发的结构为静纤毛
and are grouped together as hair cell bundles inside the cochlea.
它们以纤毛束的形态聚集在耳蜗中
The hair cells inside the cochlea ride these waves
耳蜗中的听毛细胞接收到声波
and the hair bundles are moved.
纤毛随之摆动
The hair bundle on top of the hair cell
听毛细胞表面的纤毛
turns these movements into electrical signals.
将这些摆动转化为电信号
As the hair bundles are moved, ions rush into the top of the hair cells,
当纤毛摆动时 离子从听毛细胞顶部进入
causing the release of chemicals at the bottom of the hair cells.
使听毛细胞底部的化学物质释放出来
The chemicals bind to the auditory nerve cells and create an electrical signal,
化学物质与听觉神经细胞结合产生电信号
which travels along the auditory nerve to the brain.
该信号通过听觉神经传输到大脑
Different hair cells respond to different frequencies of sound.
不同的听觉细胞辨别不同频率的声音
The hair cells at the base of the cochlea detect higher pitched sounds,
位于耳蜗底部的听毛细胞识别高音
such as a piccolo or flute.
如短笛或长笛的声音
[Piccolo playing]
[短笛演奏中]
The hair cells toward the top of the spiral detect progressively
位于螺旋顶部的听毛细胞
lower pitched sounds, such as a trumpet or trombone.
识别中音 如小号或长号的声音
[Trumpet playing]
[小号演奏中]
At the very top, or apex, of the spiral,
位于螺旋最顶端的听毛细胞
the hair cells detect the lowest pitched sounds, such as a tuba.
识别低音 如大号的声音
[Tuba playing]
[大号演奏中]
The auditory nerve carries the electrical signal to the brain,
听觉神经将电信号传输给大脑
which interprets the messages as sounds that we recognize and understand.
大脑将这些信息处理成我们所熟悉的声音
[Trumpet playing]
[小号演奏中]

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视频概述

讲述声音是如何从外界到达大脑并被大脑识别。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eQEaiZ2j9oc

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