未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

约翰·洛克:培养清晰思考的头脑

John Locke: Educating Clearly Thinking Minds

[Music]
[音乐]
During the time when the church controlled what people could believe,
在教会控制世人信仰
and the kings ruled over what people ought to own,
国王支配国民财产的时代
John Locke, an English doctor,
英国的约翰·洛克医生
popularized three ideas that changed society and parenting forever.
宣扬了深刻改变了社会和育儿的三大观点
First, people keep fighting over their beliefs,
首先 人们一直为信仰争论不休
because nobody can actually know which one is true.
因为没有人能真正知道哪一个才是真理
To solve this problem,
为了解决这一难题
everyone should have freedom of thought and the right to choose their own religion.
人人都应有思想自由 宗教信仰自由的权利
Second, kings can’t just do as they please,
第二 国王不能随心所欲
because people have natural rights to liberty, property and life,
因为人人生而享有人身自由 财产权和生命权
and hence need to be asked for permission.
因此 国王行事也要征求许可
Third, parents should avoid punishing their children,
第三 父母应当避免惩罚孩子
since the use of emotions to make them behave well
因为利用情绪迫使孩子举止规矩
can make them sensationalist.
会让他们陷入感觉主义
Instead, they should allow their children to be guided by thoughts.
相反 父母应该让孩子被思想所引导
Locke’s idea on religion and democracy
洛克关于宗教和民主的观点
became the foundation of most liberal societies.
成为了大多数政治开明的社会的基础
His thoughts on education, however,
然而 他的教育思想
may have been even more influential.
或许更具影响力
Locke understood that most people doubt new ideas,
洛克明白 大多数人对新观点持有怀疑态度
without any other apparent reason than them being uncommon.
除了新观点不同寻常之外 没有任何其他理由
However, teaching children how to think rationally and all for themselves works.
但是 教育孩子如何理性思考 如何为自己思考 是有用的
Education is therefore the key
因此 教育是
to freeing society from political and psychological tyranny.
让社会摆脱政治和精神专制的关键
And his book, Some Thoughts Concerning Education,
他的书《教育漫话》
became a parenting guide to that world.
在那时成了全世界的育儿指南
The book was originally written to help his friends
他写作这本书最初是为了帮助他的朋友
to raise their son Edward to become a virtuous adult,
培养儿子Edward成为一个品行端正的人
the ultimate goal of education.
即教育的最终目标
Locke defined virtue as a combination of self-denial and rationality,
洛克将美德定义为自我否定和理性思维的结合
because we need to control our desires to think clearly.
因为我们需要克制欲望才能清晰地思考
He proposes four main ideas to help Edward.
他提出了能够帮助Edward的4个重要观点:
First, newborn babies’ minds are like a blank slate,
第一 新生儿的心灵就像一块白板
also known as “tabula rasa.”
也称作“tabula rasa”
All knowledge comes from our perception
所有的知识都源于我们的那些认知
which then leaves imprints on that blank slate.
那些在其心灵白板留下了印记的认知
Because a child is highly sensitive to new experiences,
因为儿童对新体验高度敏感
even the smallest association of ideas can have lasting consequences.
所以 即使是最细微的联想也会产生深远的影响
If you let a foolish maid convince Edward the goblins came out at night,
洛克告诫说 要是让愚蠢的女仆告诉Edward晚上会有小妖精出没
darkness shall forever frighten the boy, Locke warns.
那么这个男孩会一直害怕黑暗
Second, body and mind develop together,
第二 身体和心灵共同发展
which is why Locke advises
因此 洛克建议
to nurture Edward’s physical needs as much as his mental ones.
对Edward心灵和身体方面的培养要同样对待
He recommends a plain and simple diet,
他还建议 男孩要强壮身体 就要吃清淡的饮食
such as fry bread and a small non-alcoholic beer, to make the boy strong.
比如干面包和少量无酒精啤酒
Rich or spiced foods should be avoided,
不要吃油腻或调味过重的食物
as they are too tempting for the boy’s delicate mind.
因为它们对于男孩娇嫩的心灵来说太诱人了
To toughen the young body,
为了让他年轻的身体变得强壮
abundant sleep on a hard bed is ideal.
理想选择是 睡硬板床和保证睡眠充足
Exposing Edward to harsh conditions such as cold baths
让Edward接触艰苦的环境 比如洗冷水澡
protects him from the common cold.
可以让他免受普通感冒的困扰
Third, learning should be pleasant.
第三 学习应当是快乐的
If children find academic education exciting
如果孩子觉得学术教育令人兴奋
and can choose what they like for themselves,
而且可以自己选择喜欢的事物
they would then apply themselves to it industriously.
那么 他们便会孜孜不倦沉浸其中
To learn reading, Locke suggests games.
洛克建议通过做游戏来学习阅读
This self-directed approach to learning
这种自主学习方法
allows the parent to discover and nurture their child’s natural talents.
能让父母发掘孩子的天赋并加以培养
Punishment should be avoided,
应该避免惩罚
as it can break a child’s spirit,
因为惩罚不仅会伤害孩子的心灵
and it teaches the wrong values.
还会教给孩子错误的价值观
To secure the best education,
为了确保接受最好的教育
he urges the parents to hire a tutor
他敦促Edward的父母雇一名家庭教师
rather than send Edward to school.
而不是将Edward送到学校去
Fourth, habits always trump rules.
第四 习惯总是胜过规矩
So parents should help their children establish clear routines,
所以 父母应该帮助孩子建立明确的常规
and aim to become role models of rational thinking.
以培养孩子成为理性思考的模范为目标
This will help Edward to learn how to control his desires
这能帮助Edward学习如何克制欲望
and think rationally to become virtuous.
理性思考 成为品行端正的人
Locke believed the good habits of thought prevail,
洛克坚信 良好的思维习惯会胜出
while rules which speak to the heart fail.
而指挥内心的规矩会失败
However, habits are important not only because they trump rules,
然而 习惯之所以重要 不仅因为习惯胜过规矩
but because rules consequently lead to rewards and punishments,
而且因为 规矩的结果是奖惩
sensations that arouse feelings instead of reason.
是引发情感的感性而非理性
To become a free thinker, a rationalist,
孩子要成为一个自由思考者 一个理性主义者
a child shouldn’t be driven by rules or incentives,
不应受规矩或激励的驱使
but by esteem and fear of disgracing oneself.
而应出于自尊和害怕丢脸
Locke’s thoughts on education were published in 1694,
洛克的教育思想于1694年出版成书
and became an international best seller.
畅销国际市场
Along with Ruosseau’s Émile,
与卢梭的《爱弥儿》一起
his book became one of the most influential texts on educational theory,
成为了最有影响力的教育理论著作之一
and perhaps history’s most important guide to parenting.
或许也是历史上最重要的育儿指南
John Locke once said that
约翰·洛克曾说
reading furnishes the mind only with materials of knowledge,
阅读不过是为头脑提供知识材料
it is thinking that makes what we read ours.
只有经过思考 我们读到的知识才能成为我们自己的
Since the same is true for videos,
看视频也是如此
we recommend creating the habit of short thinking breaks after watching something.
因此 我们建议大家养成观看视频后稍加思考的习惯
Afterwards, share your thoughts with others,
然后与他人分享自己的想法
and in the same way, make new ideas forever yours.
同样地 吸纳新观点 使之永远成为自己的
Try that right now, and tell us what you think of Locke’s ideas.
现在就试试吧 说出你对洛克思想的看法
[Music]
[音乐]
This and all other Sprouts videos are licensed under Creative Commons.
本视频及其他Sprouts视频均由Creative Commons授权
That means teachers from all around the world
所以 世界各地的教师
can use them in classrooms, online courses or to start projects.
都可以在教室 线上课程或项目中使用Sprouts视频
And today thousands already do.
现在已有成千上万的人使用
To learn how it works and download this video without ads or background music,
想了解更多 下载无广告无背景音乐的视频
check out our website or read the description below.
就请访问我们的网址 或点击下方评论
If you want to support our mission
想支持我们的工作
and help change education, visit our Patreon.
帮助改变教育 就请访问我们的Patreon
That’s patreon.com/sprouts.
即patreon.com/sprouts

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

约翰 ·洛克(John Locke 1632-1704)是英国著名的哲学家和教育思想家。他的教育专著《教育漫话》是绅士教育思想的代表作。在这部作品中,洛克不仅提出了著名的“白板论”,而且第一次提出了建立“德、智、体”三育体系的构想。

听录译者

yuriooooo

翻译译者

蓝畑

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ycS4AUIPtiQ

相关推荐