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约翰·杜威的教育四原则

John Dewey’s 4 Principles of Education

There are only a few ideas that had as much of an impact on education
约翰·杜威的教育思想影响深远
as those of John Dewey.
能与之媲美的寥寥无几
To understand his ideas, let’s imagine
为了理解他的思想 我们不妨想象
Dewey reappears in the modern world
杜威重现于现代世界
with the mission to implement his theories in a conservative school.
肩负着在一所传统学校实施其教育理论的任务
Dewey championed learning by doing, also known as experiential learning.
杜威倡导在实践中学习 也叫做体验式学习
He observed that children learn better when they are actively engaged,
他观察到 孩子们在积极参与时学习效果更好
because they are immersed in the present
因为他们沉浸在当下
and not a distant future, such as final exams.
而不是像期末考试这样遥远的未来
In biology students don’t read books,
学生们不通过读课本来学生物
but instead grow plants, harvest fruits
而是种植植物 收获果实
and then feed them to snails to see what happens.
然后喂给蜗牛 看看会发生什么
Sometimes things work out, sometimes accidents happen —
有时一切顺利 有时也会发生意外
whatever the outcome,
但无论结果如何
the students take notes of their observations
学生们都会把他们的观察记录下来
and form rich memorable experiences.
形成丰富难忘的经历
At the end of each class they summarize their learning and turn to discussions.
每门课程结束时 学生们总结学习情况 并相互讨论
The discussions prepare the students for life in a democratic society
讨论能帮助学生做好准备 适应民主社会的生活
where decisions ought to be based on reasonable arguments.
因为民主社会中的决策都应建立在合理论证之上
Through the debates the children learn to formulate their own ideas,
通过辩论 孩子们学会提出自己的想法
convince others, and learn to see the world from a different point of view.
以理服人 并学会从不同的角度看待世界
In one discussion some started to argue
在一次讨论中 一些学生开始争论
that school uniforms limit self expression, and that they should be abolished.
他们认为校服限制了自我表达 所以应当废除
Dewey, who believed that schools should prepare children for life itself
杜威认为 学校应该帮助孩子们适应生活
and serve society as a force for innovation and reform
为培养孩子成为改革创新的力量 服务社会做好准备
encouraged those students to start a petition
因此 他鼓励这些学生发起请愿活动
to find out for themselves if real social change is possible.
亲自了解能否实现真正的社会变革
Classes are interactive because Dewey believes that
课堂是互动的 因为杜威认为
interaction with the environment is essential for the learning process
与环境的互动是学习过程中必不可少的
since education is an experience that is subject to constant change.
因为教育这种体验 易受到环境不断变化的影响
Passive recipients of knowledge on the other hand,
另一方面 被动接受知识的学生
learn very little if anything at all.
就能学到的也很少
The group who started the petition present their ideas to the teacher,
发起请愿的小组向老师提出他们的想法
and start a dialogue
并相互交流
that expands their understanding and underlines their learning.
交流使彼此加深理解 且强调了学习过程
Learning is interdisciplinary.
学习是跨学科的
Dewey believed that continuity is critical to comprehension
杜威认为 关联学习对理解力至关重要
and that an interdisciplinary education allows students to build on what they already know —
跨学科的教育使学生能够在已有的知识基础上更上一层楼
which strengthens their understanding.
这可以加强他们的理解
What they observed in biology is being calculated in math,
他们在生物课上观察到的东西 用数学计算
written about in English and put into images through the arts.
用英语书写 并通过绘画呈现
This provides the students the opportunity to learn
这让学生们有机会学习
how things are connected.
事物之间的联系
To the brain this process is more effective
对大脑来说 这个过程更有效
because it can link new knowledge with previous experiences,
因为它可以将新知识与以前的经验联系起来
and build stronger mental models.
并建立更强大的思维模型
Dewey believed that when societies calculate the price of education,
杜威认为 当社会计算教育成本的时候
they shouldn’t only look at the cost of school buildings,
人们不应该只看学校建筑
teachers salaries and other resources.
教师工资和其他资源的成本
They should also consider the costs of all the hours input by the children.
人们还应该考虑孩子们投入的所有时间成本
Because the children are the future of our society and human progress,
因为孩子们是我们社会和人类进步的未来
their time in class ought not be wasted.
他们在课堂上的时间不应该被浪费掉
It is thus the school’s responsibility to be a playground to practice a future we wish to see,
因此 学校有责任让孩子们去践行我们希望看到的未来
so when the kids grow up, they can go and create it.
这样 当孩子们长大后 他们才能创造理想的未来
About education, Dewey famously said,
关于教育 杜威有句名言
“it’s not a preparation for life, education is life itself.”
“教育不是为生活做准备 教育就是生活”
The group that sought dress-code reform
寻求着装改革的小组
gained a deeper knowledge about the topic
对他们的议题有了更深的认识
and were able to develop good arguments.
并能进一步提出良好的论据
They printed their demands on banners and tracts
他们把自己的要求印在横幅和小册子上
and discussed their ideas with everyone
并与大家讨论他们的想法
until the day the majority of students and teachers had signed their petition.
直到有一天大多数学生和老师都在请愿书上签名支持
Eventually the petition was presented to the principal
最终 请愿书提交至校长
and a new school rule was passed.
一项新的校规得到通过
Dewey’s ideas were not always popular during his time
杜威的思想在他的时代并不总是受到人们的欢迎
and while we made some progress in education over the last hundred years,
虽然在过去的一百年里 我们在教育方面取得了一些进步
is the situation really any better today?
但当今的教育情况真的变好了吗?
What do you think?
你怎么看呢?
Did you experience learning by doing in your school?
你在学校里体验过在实践中学习吗?
And does your school encourage you and your friends to engage in social reform
而你的学校是否鼓励你和你的朋友参与社会改革
and create the future we wish to see?
并创造我们希望看到的未来?
Please share your thoughts in the comments below!
请在下面的评论中分享你的想法!

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视频概述

约翰·杜威的教育思想影响深远,能与之媲美的寥寥无几。约翰·杜威是美国哲学家、心理学家和教育家,他认为,儿童应该是学习的积极贡献者和推动者,而不仅仅是上一代知识的被动接受者;要想成功获得知识,就应当把学习作为一种体验。他的体验式学习方法基于四个核心原则。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

蓝畑

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y3fm6wNzK70

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