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洛克菲勒自传

JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER Autobiography (Richest person in modern history)

关于一些人和事的回忆录洛克菲勒自传
Random Reminiscences of Men and Events. The Autobiography of John D. Rockefeller
洛克菲勒被大多数人公认为现代历史上最富有的人
Seen by many as the richest person in modern history, John D. Rockefeller made his fortune
他通过石油贸易积累了自己的财富 还用这些财富开创了庞大的慈善事业
in the oil business and used his wealth to fund numerous philanthropic causes. His autobiography
他生活中一系列的事件和经历构成了他的自传
is a collection of various events and experiences from his life.
洛克菲勒从他的父亲那学到了如何经营商业的方式和原则
Rockefeller learnt the methods and principles of business from his father and he started
然后他在七八岁时 在母亲的帮助下开始了他第一次的商业冒险——
his first business venture aged 7 or 8 with the help of his mother, looking after turkeys
在火鸡被卖出去之前照顾它们 他又在16岁时
before selling them for profit. He worked from the age of 16, starting as
在克利夫兰当起了簿记员 那时候审计账目还不是他的责任
a bookkeeper in Cleveland before adding auditing accounts to his list of duties. Working for
为他人工作的经历和他所受过的训练成为了他人生中一笔宝贵的财富
somebody else and the training received as a result, was of great value to him. In his
在他早期的商业经历中 他借了一大笔钱 而这笔钱
early days in business, he was a large borrower of money which allowed for his business to
也让他的商业成长地更为迅速 他很看重友谊的价值 他的很多朋友都
grow fast. He exalts the value of friendship, as many of his friends either directly lent
能直接借给他钱用于扩张 还有的是银行的董事 坚持
him money to expand or as some of them were directors of banks, insisted on their bank
让他们的银行毫不犹豫地给他借钱的优先权 在洛克菲勒20岁的时候
advancing him the money without hesitation. At the age of 20, Rockefeller established
他和一个英国绅士莫里斯·B·克拉克一起创办了自己的商业事业
a business with an English gentleman called Maurice B. Clark. Rockefeller was given a
洛克菲勒从他的父亲那得到了一笔贷款(利息是10%) 从而他能出资2000美金
loan from his father (with an interest rate of 10%) which allowed him to contribute $2,000
在生产领域做起了新的生意 成为了克拉克-洛克菲勒公司的合伙人
and become an equal partner in the new business dealing with produce, called Clark & Rockefeller.
他们的贸易数量迅速增长
The amount of trade they were performing soon increased and more money from the bank was
所以需要从银行借更多的钱 在早期的商业融资经营后
required. After initially looking after the business
洛克菲勒外出尝试并开创新的事业
finances, Rockefeller went out to try and solicit new business. He travelled across
他途径两个洲 亲自去和他认识的商品托运领域的每个人交涉
two states speaking personally to every person he knew was involved in the same industry
他的策略并不是要求有短期内的合作
of produce consignments. His tactic of not asking for immediate work but just introducing
而只是介绍他公司的惊人成就 从而帮助他们获得了一系列新的单子
his company worked wonders and resulted in a pile of new business which helped them achieve
在第一年就达到了销售五十万美金的销售量
sales of half a million dollars in their first year.
在19世纪60年代 洛克菲勒开始进入石油炼制领域
In the 1860s, Rockefeller began to deal in and refine oil. In 1867 Rockefeller’s newly
1867年 洛克菲勒新创立的公司联合了其他公司 使得他们可以将
established firm joined with several other firms, allowing them to unite their skills
自己的专精和资金结合起来 在更高的水平上维持他们的事业 同时还能有效率地增长
and finances to maintain their business but at a greater scale, whilst improving efficiency.
在更多的合伙人加入之后 洛克菲勒成立了标准石油公司
After yet more partners joined, Rockefeller formed the Standard Oil Company. He acknowledges
他将公司成功的原因归于不断地扩大公司业务
the success of the company down to constantly expanding the company’s operations and consistently
以及在如何更廉价 更便利地存储运输石油方面投资
investing in cheaper and more efficient methods of storing and delivering oil.
利用规模效应使得他的公司获得了极大的优势
Utilising economies of scale provided a real advantage over other firms. For example, one
比如 对石油贸易来说 最大的风险就是火灾
of the main risks in the oil business was fire. By having oil plants and refineries
洛克菲勒通过在全国各地分散地设置石油工厂和精炼厂 将火灾的风险和潜在损失降到最低
distributed across the country, the risk and potential loss from fire was minimised, as
这样就没有一场火灾可以摧毁这个公司 标准石油公司
no one fire could wipe out and ruin the company. The Standard Oil Company also negotiated a
还向铁路部门获得了本公司运输石油的折扣
rebate from the railroads that it used to transport its oil. Each company that used
每一家使用铁路的公司都要被收取一定费用 所以 这一项协商并不为人知
the railroads was charged and then negotiated a rebate in secret. The Standard Oil Company’s
美孚石油公司的交涉能力是很强的 他们保证有不断的大量的运输量
bargaining power was strong as it promised large quantities of freight to be transported
从而为铁路部门提供稳定的收入来源
consistently, providing the railroads with a consistent source of income. This allowed
这就使得他们能大量减少石油运输费用 这部分费用
them to significantly reduce their oil transportation costs. The cost of transporting oil was reduced
后来还因管道建设而再次缩减 洛克菲勒在
further still with the construction of pipelines. Rockefeller retired from the hands-on management
19世纪90年代中旬从商业经营一线退休 在他离开公司的直接经营
of the company’s business in the mid-1890s. After disengaging from directly running the
职位后(但仍然是主要的股东) 洛克菲勒
company (but still always remaining the majority shareholder), Rockefeller changed his focus
将他的重心转移到慈善事业上 他相信我们应该教育人们去互相帮助
to philanthropy. He believed that people should be educated to help themselves and that man
一个人也应该竭尽所能地做出自己的贡献 无论是金钱或是服务
should contribute whatever he can, whether it be money or service, to human progress
从而去推动人类进步和文明的发展 洛克菲勒将文明定义为
and the advancement of civilisation. Rockefeller defined civilisation as being
由以下几个要素组成的 1.生存能力的进步
made up of the following elements: 1. Progress in subsistence
2.在政体和法律上的进步3.在文学和语言上的进步
2. Progress in government and law 3. Progress in literature and language
4.在科学和哲学上的进步5.在艺术和高雅上的进步
4. Progress in science and philosophy 5. Progress in art and refinement
6.在道德和宗教上的进步 除了第一项和最后一项 其他的要素都可以
6. Progress in morality and religion. All but the first and the last elements can
通过更高层次的教育来达到 所以洛克菲勒在美国和海外都创办了大学
be achieved through higher education and Rockefeller founded universities both in America and abroad.
他还用他的巨额财富创立了影响教育、科学、医学领域的基金会
He also used his large fortune to create foundations which affected the fields of education, science
帮助根除了一些疾病的发生
and medicine, including eradicating certain diseases.
约翰·D·洛克菲勒用的他在商业上的冷静和智慧
John D. Rockefeller used ruthlessness and intelligence in business which helped generate
积累了他的个人财富 巅峰时达到3-4千亿美元
a personal wealth at its peak of an estimated $300-400 billion, after being adjusted for
他的慈善事业让他1937年去世之前总共捐掉了5.4亿美元
inflation. His philanthropy resulted in him giving away in total over $540 million prior
这些金额让他被认为是现代历史上最富有的人
to his death in 1937. These figures have seen him considered as the richest person in modern
也是历来美国最伟大的慈善家
history and the greatest philanthropist in America of all-time.

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