ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

ragtag乐队如何制作维基百科 – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

ragtag乐队如何制作维基百科

Jimmy Wales: How a ragtag band created Wikipedia

1962年 查尔斯·范·多伦 后来成为不列颠百科全书的一名高级编辑
Charles Van Doren, who was later a senior editor of Britannica,
说: 理想的百科全书应该是激进的 —
said the ideal encyclopedia should be radical —
应该不再是安全的
it should stop being safe.
但是如果你对1962年以后的不列颠百科全书的历史有所了解的话
But if you know anything about the history of Britannica since 1962,
它是一切基本的东西:
it was anything but radical:
仍然是一个完全安全 乏味的百科全书
still a very completely safe, stodgy type of encyclopedia.
Wikipedia 另一方面 从一个非常激进的创意开始
Wikipedia, on the other hand, begins with a very radical idea,
那是我们所有人去想象
and that’s for all of us to imagine a world
的一个世界 在这里地球上的每个人
in which every single person on the planet
都能自由访问所有人类
is given free access to the sum of all human knowledge.
知识的汇总
And that’s what we’re doing.
那就是我们正在做的 所以Wikipedia
So Wikipedia —
–你看到的是它的一些示范–
you just saw the little demonstration of it —
它是一个免费授权的百科全书
it’s a freely licensed encyclopedia.
由全世界成千上万的志愿者
It’s written by thousands of volunteers
用很多很多语言填写的
all over the world in many, many languages.
它使用Wiki软件填写 —
It’s written using wiki software —
是他刚才示范过的那种软件–
which is the type of software he just demonstrated —
任何人可以快速的编辑并保存
so anyone can quickly edit and save,
然后它能迅速的在互联网
and it goes live on the Internet immediately.
上呈现出来 Wikipedia的一切实际上都是由志愿者来管理的
And everything about Wikipedia is managed by virtually an all-volunteer staff.
所以当Yochai Benkler在谈论关于组织的新方法
So when Yochai is talking about new methods of organization,
他实际上是在指Wikipedia
he’s exactly describing Wikipedia.
我今天要做的
And what I’m going to do today
就是告诉你们一些更多的关于它内部真正是
is tell you a little bit more about how it really works on the inside.
怎样工作的 Wikipedia由维基媒体基金会拥有
So Wikipedia’s owned by the Wikimedia Foundation,
这个基金会是我创立的
which I founded,
一个非盈利
a nonprofit organization.
性质的组织 我们的目标 维基媒体基金会的核心目标
And our goal, the core aim of the Wikimedia Foundation,
是为地球上的每个人提供一个自由免费的百科全书
is to get a free encyclopedia to every single person on the planet.
如果你在想那是什么意思
And so, if you think about what that means,
意思就是比建立一个很酷的网站更多
it means a lot more than just building a cool website.
我们真正对所有关于数字鸿沟
We’re really interested in all the issues of the digital divide,
全世界贫困等问题感兴趣
poverty worldwide,
是每个地方的人们能得到他们想要的信息
empowering people everywhere to have the information that they need
来做出正确的决定
to make good decisions.
所以我们将不得不做远超过仅仅
And so we’re going to have to do a lot of work
是互联网的工作
that goes beyond just the Internet.
那也是我们要选择自由授权的使用协议的原因
And so that’s a big part of why we’ve chosen the free licensing model,
因为那样允许当地企业家 — 或者任何人想要
because that empowers local entrepreneurs or anyone who wants to —
并且能获得我们的内容 并且做任何他们想对它做的事–
they can take our content and do anything they like with it —
你可以复制它
you can copy it, redistribute it —
重新发布它 你还可以将它商业化或非商业化
and you can do it commercially or non-commercially.
所以从Wikipedia这里可以为世界创造出
So there’s a lot of opportunities that are going to arise around Wikipedia
许多
all over the world.
新的机会 我们从公众捐赠得到资助
We’re funded by donations from the public,
关于这个更有趣的事情
and one of the more interesting things about that
是实际上运行Wikipedia只需要多么少的钱
is how little money it actually takes to run Wikipedia.
所以Yochai Benkler刚才给你们看了关于一台印刷机的花费是什么的图
So Yochai showed you the graph of what the cost of a printing press was.
我会告诉你们Wikipedia的
And I’m going to tell you what the cost of Wikipedia is.
花费是什么
But first, I’ll show you how big it is.
但首先我会给大家看看他有多大 我们有超过600
So we’ve got over 600,000 articles in English.
000篇英文文章 我们有包含很多很多不同语言的总计两百万篇文章
We’ve got two million total articles across many, many different languages.
最大的语言是德语 日语
The biggest languages are German, Japanese, French —
法语 所有西欧语言都很大
all the Western-European languages are quite big.
但是只有大约三分之一的我们网站的全部流量
But only around one-third of all of our traffic to our web
来自英文Wikipedia
clusters to the English Wikipedia,
这让很多人吃惊
which is surprising to a lot of people.
很多人在互联网上用一个英文为中心
A lot of people think in a very English-centric way on the Internet,
的方式思考 但对我们来说我们
but for us, we’re truly global.
是真正的全球化的 我们有很多很多语言
We’re in many, many languages.
我们已经有多流行 —
How popular we’ve gotten to be — we’re a top-50 website
我们是一个排名前50的网站 我们比纽约时报更流行
and we’re more popular than the New York Times.
这是Yochai Benkler刚才谈到的地方
So this is where we get to Yochai’s discussion.
这展示了Wikipedia的成长 —
This shows the growth of Wikipedia — we’re the blue line there —
我们是蓝色的线 — 那儿是纽约时报的
and this is the New York Times over there.
关于这个有趣
And what’s interesting about this
的地方是纽约时报网站是由一个巨大的 拥有我不知道多少
is the New York Times website is a huge, enormous corporate operation
成百上千的职员的企业在经营
with I have no idea how many hundreds of employees.
我们只有一名雇员
We have exactly one employee,
那名雇员是我们的软件开发组长
and that employee is our lead software developer.
他也是从2005年1月以来仅有的我们的雇员
And he’s only been our employee since January 2005,
其他所有的一切成长都
all the other growth before that …
在那之前 所以服务器由一群普通的志愿者在管理
So the servers are managed by a ragtag band of volunteers.
所有的编辑工作也都是由志愿者完成
All the editing is done by volunteers.
我们组织的方式
And the way that we’re organized
不是像你们能想象到的任何传统的
is not like any traditional organization you can imagine.
组织那样 人们常常会问 “那么
People are always asking, “Well, who’s in charge of this?”
谁负责这个?” 或者”谁做的?
or “Who does that?”
“答案是:
And the answer is: anybody who wants to pitch in.
任何想要出一分力的人 这是一件非常不寻常和混乱的事情
It’s a very unusual and chaotic thing.
我们现在在三个地方共有超过
We’ve got over 90 servers now in three locations.
90台服务器 这些服务器由一些在线的系统管理员志愿者管理
These are managed by volunteer system administrators who are online.
我能在白天或者夜晚的任何
I can go online any time of the day or night
时间上线 看到8到10个人等着我
and see eight to 10 people waiting for me
问我问题或者关于服务器的任何事情
to ask a question or something, anything about the servers.
你绝不可能在一个公司里面做到这一点
You could never afford to do this in a company.
你绝不可能
You could never afford
有一群一天24小时随时待命的人
to have a standby crew of people 24 hours a day
做我们在Wikipedia
and do what we’re doing at Wikipedia.
做的事情 我们每个月有大约14亿次页面浏览
So we’re doing around 1.4 billion page views monthly,
它真的成为一个巨大的东西
so it’s really gotten to be a huge thing.
一切都由志愿者管理
And everything is managed by the volunteers.
我们每个月总带宽的花费是大约5
And the total monthly cost for our bandwidth is about 5,000 dollars.
000美元 那是我们实际上
And that’s essentially our main cost.
的主要花费 我们实际上可以不用雇人来做
We could actually do without the employee.
我们实际上 — 我们雇佣了布莱恩因为他已经兼职和全职
We hired Brian because he was working part-time for two years
在Wikipedia
and full-time at Wikipedia,
工作了两年
so we actually hired him,
所以我们实际上雇佣他 那样他可以过一个更为充实或更有趣的生活
so he could get a life and go to the movies sometimes.
有时还能去看看电影 所以当你知道这个真正混乱的组织是什么样以后最大
So the big question when you’ve got this really chaotic organization is,
的问题是
why isn’t it all rubbish?
为什么它不是全是垃圾?
Why is the website as good as it is?
为什么这个网站还是那么好? 首先
First of all, how good is it?
它有多好?嗯 它真的非常好
Well, it’s pretty good.
它不是完美的
It isn’t perfect,
但是它远比你想象的好的多
but it’s much better than you would expect,
给我们完全混乱的模型
given our completely chaotic model.
所以当你看见他对关于我的页面进行
So when you saw him make a ridiculous edit to the page about me,
了荒谬的编辑 你认为 哦 这显然是将要退化为垃圾
you think, “Oh, this is obviously just going to degenerate into rubbish.”
但当我们
But when we’ve seen quality tests —
看见质量测试 —
and there haven’t been enough of these yet
还没有足够的这样的测试 我非常鼓励人们
and I’m really encouraging people to do more,
做的更多 拿Wikipedia
comparing Wikipedia to traditional things —
和传统的东西比较 —
we win hands down.
我们轻易获胜了 所以一家德国杂志拿德文Wikipedia
So a German magazine compared German Wikipedia,
它比英文维基要小很多很多
which is much, much smaller than English,
跟Microsoft Encarta和跟Brockhaus Multimedia比较
to Microsoft Encarta and to Brockhaus multimedial,
我们全面胜利
and we won across the board.
他们雇佣了一些专家来看文章并且比较文章的质量
They hired experts to come and look at articles and compare the quality,
我们很高兴看到结果
and we were very pleased with that result.
所以有很多人听说过Wikipedia布什与克里的争议
So a lot of people have heard about the Wikipedia Bush-Kerry controversy.
这是一个– 媒体已经有些广泛的报道了这个
The media has covered this somewhat extensively.
它由在《红鲱鱼》的一片文章开始
It started out with an article in Red Herring.
记者们给我打电话然后他们–
The reporters called me up and they —
我的意思是 我不得不说 他们拼写对了
I mean, I have to say they spelled my name right,
我的名字 但是他们他们真正想说的是 布什和克里的选举太有争议了
but they really wanted to say the Bush-Kerry election is so contentious,
它在分裂Wikipedia社区
it’s tearing apart the Wikipedia community.
所以他们引用
And so they quote me as saying,
了我说的话 “他们是Wikipedia历史上
“They’re the most contentious in the history of Wikipedia.”
最有争议的 ” 我实际上说的是 他们一点争议也没有
What I actually said is they’re not contentious at all.
所以这是一个细微的误引
So it’s a slight misquote.
文章
(Laughter)
编辑的太过沉重
The articles were edited quite heavily.
这确实是我们不得不在一些场合锁定
And it is true that we did have to lock the articles
这些文章
on a couple of occasions.
时代周刊最近报道说
Time magazine recently reported that
“极端的手段有时不得不采取
“Extreme action sometimes has to be taken,
威尔斯锁定了2004年大多数的关于克里和布什的文章
and Wales locked the entries on Kerry and Bush for most of 2004.”
” 这发生在我告诉记者我们不得不偶尔在
This came after I told the reporter that we had to lock it for —
这儿和那儿 锁定它一点点
occasionally a little bit here and there.
所以一般的真相是争议的类型
So the truth in general is that the kinds of controversies
那些你也许认为在我们Wikipedia
that you would probably think we have within the Wikipedia community
团队中有的争议 实际上真的一点都不存在
are not really controversies at all.
关于有争议话题的文章被编辑了很多
Articles on controversial topics are edited a lot,
但是他们不会在社区内引发
but they don’t cause much controversy within the community.
太多争议 之所以会这样的原因是绝大多数
And the reason for this is that most people understand the need for neutrality.
人理解中立的需要 真正的分歧不是左右之争–
The real struggle is not between the right and the left —
那是很多人以为的
that’s where most people assume —
— 而实际上是在一群深思熟虑
but it’s between the party of the thoughtful
的人和一群愚蠢的
and the party of the jerks.
人之间的 在任意那些品质的
And no side of the political spectrum
一边都没有政治色彩占据垄断地位
has a monopoly on either of those qualities.
关于布什和克里事件
The actual truth about the specific Bush-Kerry incident
的事实真相 是布什和克里的文章
is that the Bush-Kerry articles
在2004年不到百分之一的时间被锁定了
were locked less than one percent of the time in 2004,
并且它不是因为他们是有争议的;
and it wasn’t because they were contentious;
只是因为有一些平常的破坏
it was just because there was routine vandalism —
— 有时甚至在线上发生人们
which happens sometimes even on stage …

(Laughter)
有时甚至记者们也跟我说他们破坏了Wikipedia
Sometimes even reporters have reported to me that they vandalized Wikipedia
并且很惊异它很快就被修复了
and were amazed that it was fixed so quickly.
我说 — 你知道 我总是说
And I said — you know, I always say, please don’t do that.
请不要那样做 那不是一件好事
That’s not a good thing.
所以我们怎样做到这个的?
So how do we do this?
我们怎样管理质量控制?
How do we manage the quality control?
怎样使 —
How does it work?
它如何工作的?
So there’s a few elements,
有一些要素 主要是社会政策和软件的一些元素
mostly social policies and some elements of the software.
所以最大也是最重要的事情
So the biggest and the most important thing
是我们对待政策的中立观点
is our neutral point of view policy.
这是我从刚开始就制定下来的
This is something that I set down, from the very beginning,
作为一个社区的核心原则是完全不可动摇的
as a core principle of the community that’s completely not debatable.
这是合作的一个社会化概念
It’s a social concept of cooperation,
所以我们不过多讨论真相和客观
so we don’t talk a lot about truth and objectivity.
这样做的原因是
The reason for this is if we say
如果我们说我们只会对一些话题报道真相
we’re only going to write the “truth” about some topic,
那样对我们搞清楚要写什么没有一点好处
that doesn’t do us a damn bit of good of figuring out what to write,
因为我不同意你关于真相是什么的说法
because I don’t agree with you about what’s the truth.
但我们有这个中立的专业条款
But we have this jargon term of neutrality,
在社区里有属于它自己的很长的历史
which has its own long history within the community,
它的基本原则是 当有争议问题出现的时候
which basically says, any time there’s a controversial issue,
Wikipedia本身不应该对其
Wikipedia itself should not take a stand on the issue.
采取立场 我们只能报道那些著名的政党说了些什么
We should merely report on what reputable parties have said about it.
所以这个中立的政策对我们来说真的很重要
So this neutrality policy is really important for us
因为它使得一个非常不同的团队
because it empowers a community that is very diverse
走到一起并真正完成
to come together and actually get some work done.
一些工作 所以我们有很多在政治
So we have very diverse contributors
宗教 文化背景上非常不同的贡献者
in terms of political, religious, cultural backgrounds.
有了这个坚定的中立政策
By having this firm neutrality policy,
从刚开始就是不可置疑的
which is non-negotiable from the beginning,
我们确保了人们能一起工作
we ensure that people can work together
文章不会成为简单的一场战争
and that the entries don’t become simply a war
在左和右之间反反复复
back and forth between the left and the right.
如果你有那样的行为
If you engage in that type of behavior, you’ll be asked to leave the community.
你会被要求离开这个团队
So, real-time peer review.
所以实时同事审查 网站每一个简单的改变都会在最近
Every single change on the site goes to the “Recent changes” page.
改变的页面里面 所以当他作了修改 该页面就会进入到最近修改
So as soon as he made his change, it went to the “Recent changes” page.
的页面中 那个最近修改的页面同样会进入到IRC频道
That recent changes page was also fed into an IRC channel,
一个互联网
which is an Internet chat channel
聊天频道 那里人们监控着各种各样的软件工具
that people are monitoring with various software tools.
人们可以获取RSS源进行订阅
And people can get RSS feeds —
— 他们能收到关于修改的邮件提醒
they can get email notifications of changes.
然后用户能设定他们自己的个人关注列表
And then users can set up their own personal watch list.
我的页面在很多志愿者的关注列表中
So my page is on quite a few volunteers’ watch lists,
因为它时常被破坏
because it is sometimes vandalized.
所以 经常发生的情况是有人能很快发现页面的变化
And therefore, what happens is someone will notice the change very quickly,
然后他们只需要简单的恢复
and then they’ll just simply revert the change.
那个页面 举例来说
There’s a “new pages feed,” for example,
有一个新的页面源 你能访问Wikipedia
so you can go to a certain page of Wikipedia
的某个页面 然后看到每个
and see every new page as it’s created.
新创建的页面
This is really important
这是非常重要的 因为很多新创建的页面 只是一些垃圾 比如ASDFASDF等
because a lot of new pages are just garbage that has to be deleted,
我们必须
you know, “ASDFASDF.”
删除它们 但这同样也是Wikipedia上的一些最有趣的事情
But also, that’s some of the most interesting and fun things,
一些新文章
some of the new articles.
人们会新建一篇关于一些有趣
People will start an article on some interesting topic,
话题的文章 其他人会觉得有意思
other people will find that intriguing
然后加入并帮助把它变得好得多
and jump in and help and make it much better.
所以我们有匿名用户的编辑工作
So we do have edits by anonymous users,
这是关于Wikipedia的一个最有争议也是最有趣的事情
which is one of the most controversial and intriguing things about Wikipedia.
所以克里斯能做出他的修改 —
So, Chris was able to do his change — he didn’t have to log in or anything;
他不用登陆或者什么的 他就直接访问网站然后
he just went on the website and made a change.
做出修改 但结果是网站上
But it turns out that only about 18 percent
只有大概18%的所有的
of all the edits to the website
编辑工作
are done by anonymous users.
是由匿名用户完成的 另外 需要理解的很
And that’s a really important thing to understand:
重要的一件事 就是在网站上看到的绝大多数的编辑和修改
the vast majority of the edits that go on on the website
是来自于一个大约600到1 000人的非常紧密配合的团队
are from a very close-knit community of maybe 600 to 1,000 people
他们在不断的沟通
who are in constant communication.
并且我们有超过40个IRC频道
And we have over 40 IRC channels, 40 mailing lists.
40个邮件列表 所有的这些人都
All these people know each other.
互相认识 他们沟通交流
They communicate. We have off-line meetings.
我们有线下会议 这些是完成网站大部分工作的人
These are the people who are doing the bulk of the site,
他们 在某种意义上来说 在他们做的事情上是半专业的
and they are, in a sense, semi-professionals at what they’re doing.
我们为自己设立
The standards we set for ourselves
的标准是与 专业的质量标准持平或者更高
are equal to or higher than professional standards of quality.
我们并不总是能达到这些标准 但那是我们一直
We don’t always meet those standards, but that’s what we’re striving for.
在争取达到的 所以这个紧密团队是真正关心
And so that tight community is who really cares for the site,
这个网站的人 这些是我见过的一些最聪明的人
and these are some of the smartest people I’ve ever met.
当然 这么说是我的工作 但是这绝对是事实
It’s my job to say that, but it’s actually true.
这种为撰写百科全书的乐趣所吸引的人
The type of people who were drawn to writing an encyclopedia for fun
往往都是相当聪明的人
tend to be pretty smart people.
工具和软件: 有很多工具可以让我们
The tools and the software: there’s lots of tools that allow us —
–让我们 我的意思是我们团队–
allow us, meaning the community —
去自我监控和监控所有工作
to self-monitor and to monitor all the work.
这是一个关于平面地球的一页历史的例子
This is an example of a page history on “flat Earth,”
你能看到一些做过的改动
and you can see some changes that were made.
这个页面的好处在于你可以迅速的看一眼这个
What’s nice about this page is you can immediately take a look at this
然后发现 哦 OK
and see, “OK, I understand now.”
我现在理解了 当有人来看到–
When somebody goes and looks at —
他们看到有人
they see that someone, an anonymous IP number,
一个匿名的IP 对我的页面作了编辑–
made an edit to my page.
这听起来很可疑 —
That sounds suspicious. Who is this person?
这个人是谁?有人查看页面时
Somebody looks at it —
他们能迅速看到发生了改变的地方
they can immediately see highlighted in red
用红色突出显示了出来
all of the changes that took place —
然后发现 OK 好吧 这些字被改了 类似于这样的事情
to see, OK, well, these words have changed, things like this.
所有那是我们能用来
So that’s one tool that we can use
非常快速的监控每个页面历史
to very quickly monitor the history of a page.
的一个工具 我们团队里面做的
Another thing that we do within the community
另外一件事 就是我们保持所有的一切都是可扩展的
is we leave everything very open-ended.
大多数社会规则和
Most of the social rules and the methods of work
工作方法 在软件里都保持
are left completely open-ended in the software.
完全可扩展 所有的那些素材都在Wiki页面上
All of that stuff is just on Wiki pages.
软件里没有任何东西是执行了这些规则的
And so there’s nothing in the software that enforces the rules.
我在这里举出的例子是关于删除页面的投票所以
The example I’ve got up here is the Votes for Deletion page.
我之前提到的 人们输入ASDFASDF–
So, I mentioned earlier, people type “ASDFASDF” —

it needs to be deleted.
需要删掉 像那样的情况 管理员直接删除
Cases like that, the administrators just delete it.
对于这样的情况不会存在大的争议
There’s no reason to have a big argument about it.
但是你可以想象在很多其他有问题的地方
But you can imagine there’s a lot of other areas where the question is,
这足够著名值得在百科全书中记录吗?
is this notable enough to go in an encyclopedia?
这信息是证实了的吗?它是个恶作剧吗?它是真的吗?
Is the information verifiable? Is it a hoax? Is it true? Is it what?
它是怎样怎样? 所以我们需要一个社会化的方法来验证这个的答案
So we needed a social method for figuring out the answer to this.
所以在社区内就相应出现了
And so the method that arose organically within the community
一种方法 那就是为要删除
is the Votes For Deletion page.
的页面进行投票 并且我们这里拿出来的特例
And in the particular example we have here,
它是一部电影 “Twisted
it’s a film, “Twisted Issues,”
Issues “
and the first person says,
第一个人说 “现在这应该是一部电影 它在Google测试上惨败
“Now this is supposedly a film. It fails the Google test miserably.”
” Google测试是 你在Google上查看看是否
The Google test is you look in Google and see if it’s there,
它在上面 因为如果有些东西在Google上都没有的话 它很可能完全不存在
because if something’s not even in Google, it probably doesn’t exist at all.
这不是一条完美的规则
It’s not a perfect rule,
但这是快速搜索的一个很好的起点
but it’s a nice starting point for quick research.
所以有人说 “请删除它 删除它 — 它不值得注意
So somebody says, “Delete it, please. Delete it — it’s not notable.”
” 然后有人说 “等等 等等 我找到它了 我在一本书上
And then somebody says, “Wait, I found it. I found it in a book,
找到它了 ‘电影恐怖视频指南: 你必须看的20部地下电影”
‘Film Threat Video Guide: the 20 Underground Films You Must See.'”
哦 好吧 所以又有另一个人说 “把它清理掉吧
So the next persons says, “Clean it up.”
” 有人说 “我在IMDB上找到它了 保留 保留 保留 “(注: IMDB是世界上最大的
Somebody says, “I’ve found it on IMDB. Keep, keep, keep.”
电影数据资料库网站) 对这种情况有意思的是软件就是
And what’s interesting about this is that the software is —
— 这些投票只是 — 他们只是作为文本键入到一个页面
these votes are just text typed into a page.
与其是它是一个真正的投票不弱说它是
This is not really a vote so much as it is a dialogue.
一个对话 事实是当一天结束的时候
Now it is true that at the end of the day,
一名管理员可以来到这个页面看一下然后说
an administrator can go through here and take a look at this and say,
好吧 18个删除 2个保留
“OK, 18 deletes, two keeps: we’ll delete it.”
我们会删除它 但在其他情况下 这个可能是18个删除和2个保留
But in other cases, this could be 18 deletes and two keeps,
并且我们可能会保留它 因为如果那两个认为要
and we would keep it, because if those last two keeps say,
保留的人说 “等一下 等一下 其他人没看到这个但是我在一本书上找到了它
“Wait a minute. Nobody else saw this but I found it in a book,
并且我找到了一个描述它的链接页面
and I found a link to a page that describes it,
我明天会清理它 所以请不要删除它
and I’m going to clean it up tomorrow, so please don’t delete it,”
“那么它会保留下来
then it would survive.
它也跟这些人是谁和谁在投票有关
And it also matters who the people are who are voting.
就像我说的 这是一个紧密结合的组织
Like I say, it’s a tight-knit community.
这儿往下 最底部 “保留 真的电影 “里克·凯
Down here at the bottom, “Keep, real movie,” RickK.
里克·凯是一名很有名的维基人士 他对故意搞破坏
RickK is a very famous Wikipedian who does an enormous amount of work
和恶作剧的情况做了大量的工作
with vandalism, hoaxes and votes for deletion.
并且投票删除 他的话在社区
His voice carries a lot of weight within the community
里很有份量
because he knows what he’s doing.
因为他知道他在做什么 所以这些全部是怎样管理的?
So how is all this governed?
人们真的很想知道 好吧
People really want to know about administrators, things like that.
管理员 类似那样的 所以Wikipedia的管理模式
So the Wikipedia governance model, the governance of the community,
社区的管理 是一个非常令人困惑 但是却是一个协商一致的可行
is a very confusing, but workable mix of consensus —
的组合体 — 意味着我们尝试不对文章的内容
meaning we try not to vote on the content of articles,
进行投票 因为主流观点不一定是中立的
because the majority view is not necessarily neutral —
一定程度的民主
some amount of democracy —
所有的管理员
all of the administrators —
–这些是能删除页面的人
these are the people who have the ability to delete pages.
那并不代表他们有权力删除页面 他们仍然需要遵守
That doesn’t mean that they have the right to delete pages.
所有的规则 — 但是他们是被选出来的 他们由社区推选出来
They still have to follow all the rules — but they’re elected by the community.
有时人们– 那些在互联网上随机转悠的人
Sometimes people — random trolls on the Internet —
–喜欢通过指责我说我自己指定管理员
like to accuse me of handpicking the administrators
来表达对百科全书内容的偏见
to bias the content of the encyclopedia.
我往往嘲笑它 因为实际上我并不知道他们是怎样选出来的
I always laugh at this, because I have no idea how they’re elected, actually.
有大量的高级知识分子
There’s a certain amount of aristocracy.
所以当我提到的时候你能得到一点提示
You got a hint of that when I mentioned, like,
比如 里克·凯的话能比一个我们
RickK’s voice would carry a lot more weight
不知道的人更有份量
than someone we don’t know.
我有时跟安吉拉这么讲
I give this talk sometimes with Angela,
她刚重新当选 从社区被推选到董事会–
who was just re-elected to the board from the community —
到基金会的董事会
to the Board of the Foundation,
通过超过反对派两倍的票数
with more than twice the votes of the person who didn’t make it.
我总是让她尴尬因为我说
And I always embarrass her because I say,
好吧
“Well, Angela, for example,
安吉拉比如说 可以因为在Wikipedia做任何事而离开
could get away with doing absolutely anything within Wikipedia,
因为她是那样受仰慕和那样权威
because she’s so admired and so powerful.”
但讽刺的是 当然 安吉拉能这么做是因为她是一个
But the irony is, of course, that Angela can do this because she’s the one person
你知道绝对不会破坏Wikipedia任何规则的人
who you know would never, ever break any rules of Wikipedia.
我也喜欢说她是
And I also like to say she’s the only person
唯一的一个 真正了解Wikipedia
who actually knows all the rules of Wikipedia, so …
的所有规则的人
And then there’s monarchy,
知道我在社区里充当着
and that’s my role on the community, so …
一个君王的角色
(Laughter)
我曾经在柏林描述过
I was describing this in Berlin once,
这个然后第二天报纸的
and the next day in the newspaper the headline said,
头条说 “我是英格兰的女王
“I am the Queen of England.”

(Laughter)
那并不是我真正说的
And that’s not exactly what I said, but —
但是–
(Laughter)
关键点是我在社区的角色–
the point is my role in the community —
在免费软件世界里有很长的 —
Within the free software world, there’s been a long-standing tradition
有一个存在时间很长的仁慈的独裁者模型的传统
of the “benevolent dictator” model.
所以如果你看看大多数主要的免费软件项目
So if you look at most of the major free software projects,
他们有一个
they have one single person in charge
人来负责 这个大家都认同的人就是那个仁慈的独裁者
who everyone agrees is the benevolent dictator.
嗯 我不喜欢仁慈的独裁者的任期
Well, I don’t like the term “benevolent dictator,”
而且我认为这不是我在理想世界里的工作或者角色
and I don’t think that it’s my job or my role in the world of ideas
去成为由世界编辑汇总的全部人类知识
to be the dictator of the future of all human knowledge
的未来的独裁者
compiled by the world.
它是不合适的
It just isn’t appropriate.
但是仍然有一个需求需要一定
But there is a need still for a certain amount of monarchy,
程度的君主制
a certain amount of —
一定程度的– 有时我们不得不做出
sometimes we have to make a decision
一个决定 我们不想过多
and we don’t want to get bogged down too heavily
的陷入困境 在正式决策过程中
in formal decision-making processes.
所以作为为什么会这样的例子 —
So as an example of how this can be important:
或者这怎样能很重要 我们最近遇到一个情况 一个新纳粹网站发现了Wikipedia
we recently had a situation where a neo-Nazi website discovered Wikipedia,
他们说 “哦好吧
and they said, “Oh, well, this is horrible,
这很可怕 这是犹太人阴谋的
this Jewish conspiracy of a website,
一个网站 我们想要那些我们不喜欢的文章删除掉
and we’re going to get certain articles deleted that we don’t like.
我们看见他们发起了一个投票进程 所以我们将发送 —
And we see they have a voting process, so we’re going to send —
我们有40 000会员而且我们将把这个投票
we have 40,000 members and we’re going to send them over
发给他们 他们将通过一起投票来删除这些页面
and they’re all going to vote and get these pages deleted.”
“那么 他们设法让18个人出面
Well, they managed to get 18 people to show up.
那是给你的新纳粹数学
That’s neo-Nazi math for you.
他们总是认为他们有40 000会员但实际上他们只有18个
They always think they’ve got 40,000 members when they’ve got 18.
但是他们设法让18个人以一个相当荒谬的
But they managed to get 18 people to come and vote in a fairly absurd way
方式来投票 去删除一个完全
to delete a perfectly valid article.
有效的文章 显然 投票以85票对
Of course, the vote ended up being about 85 to 18,
18票结束 所以对我们的民主处理流程来说没有
so there was no real danger to our democratic processes.
真正的危险 另一方面 有人说 “但是我们将要做什么?
On the other hand, people said, “But what are we going to do?
我的意思是
I mean, this could happen.
这可能会发生并且如果一些真正
What if some group gets really seriously organized
有组织的群体 参与进来并想要投票怎么办?
and comes in and wants to vote?”
” 我说 “那么去他的
Then I said, “Well, fuck it, we’ll just change the rules.”
我们就改变规则 ” 那是我在社区的工作:
That’s my job in the community:
去声明我们不会允许我们的开放
to say we won’t allow our openness and freedom
和自由区降低了内容的质量
to undermine the quality of the content.
所以只要人们相信我在我的角色发回的作用
And so, as long as people trust me in my role,
那么就有我的一个位置
then that’s a valid place for me.
当然
Of course, because of the free licensing,
因为免费授权 如果我做的不好 志愿者会很乐意参与
if I do a bad job, the volunteers are more than happy to take and leave —
然后离开 —
I can’t tell anyone what to do.
我不会告诉任何人要做什么 所以这里最终关键的地方是理解Wikipedia是怎样工作的
So the final point here is that to understand how Wikipedia works,
理解我们的Wiki模型是我们工作的方式
it’s important to understand that our wiki model is the way we work,
是很重要的 但我们不是狂热的网站无政府主义者
but we are not fanatical web anarchists.
事实上 我们的 — 我们关于社会方法论是非常灵活的
In fact, we’re very flexible about the social methodology,
因为社区最终的激情
because ultimately, the passion of the community
动力就是追求工作的质量
is for the quality of the work,
而不一定是我们用来产生
not necessarily for the process that we use to generate it.
内容的流程
Thank you.
谢谢大家
(Applause)
(掌声) 本·桑德斯:
Ben Saunders: Yeah, hi, Ben Saunders.
是的 你好 我是本·桑德斯 吉米 您刚才提到公正是Wikipedia成功
Jimmy, you mentioned impartiality being a key to Wikipedia’s success.
的一个关键 它震撼了我 因为很多
It strikes me that much of the textbooks that are used to educate our children
用来教育我们小孩的教科书都存在
are inherently biased.
固有偏见 您发现有老师在使用Wikipedia吗?
Have you found Wikipedia being used by teachers
另外 您怎样看待Wikipedia
and how do you see Wikipedia changing education?
在改变教育? 吉米·威尔斯: 是的 所以很多老师现在开始使用Wikipedia了
Jimmy Wales: Yeah, so, a lot of teachers are beginning to use Wikipedia.
另外 — 有一个关于Wikipedia的媒体故事
There’s a media storyline about Wikipedia, which I think is false.
我认为是错误的 它建立在博客对阵报纸的故事基础上
It builds on the storyline of bloggers versus newspapers.
故事是 有这样疯狂的事情 Wikipedia
And the storyline is, there’s this crazy thing, Wikipedia,
但是大学生们讨厌它老师
but academics hate it and teachers hate it.
们也讨厌它 那最终被证明
And that turns out to not be true.
不是真的 我最后一次收到一个记者的Email说
The last time I got an email from a journalist saying,
“为什么大学生们讨厌Wikipedia?
“Why do academics hate Wikipedia?”
” 我用我的哈弗大学的电子邮件
I sent it from my Harvard email address
地址发送给他 因为我最近在那里任命了
because I was recently appointed a fellow there.
一名同事 我说 “其实
And I said, “Well, they don’t all hate it.”
不是所有大学生都讨厌它
(Laughter)
” 但是我认为会有很大的冲击
But I think there’s going to be huge impacts.
并且我们实际上有一个项目 一个我个人真的
And we actually have a project that I’m personally really excited about,
很兴奋的项目
which is the Wikibooks project,
就是Wiki书籍的项目 它是一个用所有语言创造教科书的尝试
which is an effort to create textbooks in all the languages.
那是一个大得多的项目;
And that’s a much bigger project.
它将需要用20年左右的时间去实现
It’s going to take 20 years or so to come to fruition.
但是那个项目的一部分是去完成我们的使命
But part of that is to fulfill our mission
就是给地球上的每个人提供一本百科全书
of giving an encyclopedia to every single person on the planet.
我们不是要用美国在线式光盘来给他们发垃圾信息
We don’t mean we’re going to Spam them with AOL-style CDs.
我们的意思是我们要给他们一个他们能使用的工具
We mean we’re going to give them a tool that they can use.
并且对于世界上的很多人来说
And for a lot of people in the world,
如果我给你们一本大学级别的百科全书
if I give you an encyclopedia that’s written at a university level,
它不会给你带来任何好处 没有一整套的很多的扫盲材料
it doesn’t do you any good without a whole host of literacy materials
来帮你建立起你真正能使用它的观点 所以Wiki
to build you up to the point where you can actually use it.
书籍项目就是那样做的一个尝试并且
The Wikibooks project is an effort to do that.
我认为我们将真正看到一个巨大的 — 它可能甚至不是来自我们
And I think that we’re going to see — it may not even come from us;
但不断的有各种各样的创新在进行
there’s all kinds of innovation going on.
但是免费授权的教科书是教育业里将要发生的下一个
But freely licensed textbooks are the next big thing in education.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述
听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

收集自网络

审核员

自动通过审核

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WQR0gx0QBZ4

相关推荐