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水母蛰刺

Jellyfish Stinging in MICROSCOPIC SLOW MOTION - Smarter Every Day 120

嗨 是我 Destin 欢迎回到Smarter Every Day
Hey it’s me Destin and welcome back to Smarter Every Day.
如果你曾被水母蛰过 就会知道那感觉真是糟糕
If you’ve ever been stung by a jellyfish you know that it’s awful,
我来向你演示一下
lemme show you.
动物能通过2种化学途径来伤害人类 对吧?
So there’s two ways that an animal can harm a human chemically right?
第一种就是毒物 大家都懂的
The first one is poison. We know what that is,
就像我吃了这个水母 它有毒 于是我就生病了
like if I were to eat this jellyfish and it was poisonous and I were to get sick
因为那是种有毒的生物 不是吗?
it’s because it is a poisonous animal right?
现在所说的毒液则不同 这种毒液能被注入体内 所以 有点像注射针
Now venom is different. Venom is injected into your body. So it’s kind of like these hypodermic needles.
如果你将它们装满毒液 注入手臂
If you fill them up with venom and then you were to take that and inject that into your arm,
将会以中毒的方式对身体造成伤害 不是吗?
that would be a venomous way of causing pain to your body right?
所以 如果有类似的射针长在它们的触手上
So wouldn’t it be crazy if there was like hypodermic needles built into their tentacles
且接近你时就用射针扎你 这难道不够疯狂吗
and they could just stab you with them as soon as they rubbed up against you.
因为这就是实际发生的情况
Because that’s exactly what happens.
水母的触手内有一种叫做刺丝囊的细胞器
Jellyfish tentacles have organelles in them called nematocysts.
它们像是小型的注射针
They’re like little hypodermic needles,
当你在水中游泳时 这些射针就会触及你的身体
and when you’re swimming, and those hypodermic needles brush up against your body,
扎进去并注射毒液 真是太疯狂了
they stab into you and inject venom. It’s insane.
大家都没看到过这样的情景
People have never seen these
是因为它们太小了 你得用上显微镜
because they’re so small you have to have a microscope
而且它们动作太快 要用高速摄影机(拍摄)
and they’re so fast that you have to use a high speed camera.
现在 我们集齐了这两样东西 去哪儿找水母呢?
So now that we’ve rounded these two things up, where do we find our jellyfish?
来看看吧 我现在澳洲凯恩斯的詹姆斯库克大学
Check it out. I’m at James Cook University in Australia, in Cairns,
总的来说就是这样
and here’s the deal.
我找到一位博士 研究动物毒液领域的世界级专家
I’ve got the doctor here that’s the world expert in animal venom.
真是太酷了 我们一起来看看吧
It’s pretty cool, let’s go check it out.
他是Jamie Seymour 博士
His name is Dr Jamie Seymour.
我们这儿有一架高速摄影机
So we have a high speed camera here,
接着运行HD-SDI视频
and we’re running HD-SDI video out,
然后由Richard实时记录
and then Richard is recording it realtime,
接下来Seymour博士就要触发刺丝囊 对吗 —是的
and then Dr Seymour here is gonna try to trigger a nematocyst, correct? – Correct.
—一旦你触发 我们就要设法以高速捕捉它
– And then once you trigger it we’re gonna try to catch it on high speed.
—是的 你看着这个海葵 我们刚把它从一颗海葵里取出来 如果我们刺激它的一侧……
– Yep. If you look at an anemone, we’ve just taken this out of an anemone, and if you poke it in the side..
—所以说这不是水母咯
(Destin) So this isn’t a jellyfish.
—唔 它和水母差不多
– Well it’s related to jellyfish.
—差不多 好吧 我跟大家说错了 我说过我们要来看看水母蛰……
– Close enough. OK. I told everybody wrong, I said we’re gonna look at a jellyfish sting..
—是一回事!过程都一样!
– It’s the same thing! It’s the same process!
—噢 是吗?
– Oh is it?
—这就像是说 “好吧 今天我们要弄懂子弹是如何起作用的
– That’s like saying “OK we’re gonna work out how a bullet works today,
这有把AK-47″ 结果我拿了个Glock过来 过程都一样的
here’s an AK-47″ and then if I walk in with a Glock, it’s the same process.
—你说的我听得懂 澳洲小伙![笑]
– You are speaking my language Australia man! [laugh]
—瞧 你明白喽
– See there you go.
我们还不确定是什么让刺丝囊开始集火注射
(Destin) So we’re still not exactly sure what causes the nematocyst to fire,
但知道的是 如果我们用9伏的电池两端触碰触手就能看到它胡乱地喷射
but what we do know is if we touch two leads from a 9 volt battery to the tentacle itself we can get some of them to randomly fire,
这个我们用虚位高速摄影机记录下来了
which allows us to record it with a phantom high speed camera.
—触发吧 触发 触发 触发!
– Trigger it, trigger, trigger, trigger!
—开始啦!
– Here it goes!
[音乐]
[music]
触发时间 290ms 302ms进攻时间 300ms 314ms
总时间 10ms 12ms
平均进攻时间=11ms (很快!!)
—你尝试捕捉这个画面有多久了
(Destin) How long have you been trying to capture that?
—哦 我们研究这个很多年了 但之前还没有如此水准的摄像技术能做到这一点
– Oh we could do it for a fair number of years but we never had the camera technology to actually do it at this level before.
刺丝囊是一种细胞器 所以它是在细胞内的
The nematocyst, which is a cell organelle, so it’s inside a cell,
是一个球状体 内含射针
which is a ball with a wound-up hypodermic needle in it.
我们看到它基本上都在喷射 所以……
And we saw it basically discharge, so..
—而且针刺并不都是直的
(Destin) And the needle was not rigid necessarily.
—正确 像是花园里没有水压的水管
– That’s correct. Think of it like a garden hose under no pressure,
当你加压的时候 水管才会挺直
and then when you apply pressure to it, the whole thing straightens out.
—了解了
– Got it.
—所以 我们在这里看到的 是它整个儿都在喷射
– So what we saw there, it’s the whole thing fired off.
你大概了解了这个过程发生得有多快
You got some sort of idea of how quick that was,
但让我感到震惊的是 从开始喷射到我们看到毒液 会有个时间差
but the thing that blew me away was the time lag from when the thing discharged, till when we saw the venom.
—是的 像是三分之一秒
– Yeah it was like a third of a second.
是的 之前我们都没看到过这样的情况
– Yeah. We’ve never seen that before.
我是说 我们之前见过毒液释放的情况 我们从未见过这样的延迟 但也从未探得缘由
I mean we’ve seen venom come out the end of these things, we’ve never seen that delay, but we’ve never looked for it.
—你正在寻找原因 对吗
– You’re digging this aren’t you?
—哦 太酷了 这才像……真正的科学
– Oh this is cool. This is like.. real science.
我早起就是为了这些东西
This is the sort of stuff I get up in the morning for.
—你是不是讽刺我不懂真正的科学?
– Are you implying that I don’t do real science?
—哦 不是 你也做着同样的事
– Oh but no, you do the same thing.
我肯定 有很多次 你早上起来后就过来了 “今天我想工作 因为会有新的发现”—对
There are times you get up in the morning, I’m sure, and you just go “I so want to go to work today because I’m gonna find out something new”. – Right.
—这难道不是你做实验的原因?—是的 确实
-Isn’t that why you do it?- Right, it is.
—我的意思是 真的 我想免费做这件事
– I mean, seriously I.. I would do this stuff for free.
这是一种付出与收获的乐趣 “我刚刚瞧见了此前世界上没人见过的东西”
It’s the joy of actually coming in and going “I just saw something that nobody else in the world has ever seen before”.
—那有点自私哎
– That’s kind of selfish.
—是的 但是……但是之后你可以教别人嘛
– Yeah but… But then you can teach people about it.
—没错 就是这样
– That’s right, yeah.
—那是……啊 看 我看了这些全身都起鸡皮疙瘩了太棒了 这正是我做这些事的理由
– And that’s.. ah. Look I’ve got goose bumps all over me just from that sort of thing. It’s just.. It’s great. It’s exactly why I do this sort of stuff.
—好吧 非常感谢
– Alright, well thank you very much.
那是Seymour博士 是毒液学家?
That’s Dr Seymour. Venomologist?
—是毒物学家! —好吧 毒物学家[笑]
– Toxinologist! – Toxinologist. [laugh]
—哦 小伙子! —我之前好像就没说对过
– Oh man! – I’m never gonna get it right.
所以 从现在开始 当想到水母时 我希望你不要以为水母只是用黏滑的触手把毒液擦到你的皮肤上
So from now on when you think about jellyfish I hope you don’t think about just slimy tentacles dragging poison on your skin.
它实际上是一种内含可喷射的毒液 被称做刺丝囊的细胞器
It’s actually an organelle called a nematocyst containing the venom that takes it and actually shoves it. Oohoo.
扎入你的身体里 然后注射毒液……
Into your body, and then injects the venom..
开玩笑的 我不会真的扎进去的 但…… 那太刺激了
I’m just kidding. I didn’t actually squirt that in me, but.. That’s pretty intense.
我希望我不会毁了你的海滩
I hope I didn’t ruin the beach for you.
詹姆斯库克大学的人问我是否会通知你 他们要找本科生和研究生
The people at James Cook University asked me if I would inform you that they are looking for undergrad and grad students.
他们需要人手帮助他们解决箱型水母毒液的奥秘
They need people to help them figure out how to solve the box jelly venom mystery.
它是一种心脏毒素 能够损害心脏 但他们并不知道其原理及起因
It’s a cardiotoxin. It kills the heart but they don’t really know how or why.
所以你若对此有兴趣的话 就去詹姆斯库克大学吧
So if you’re interested in studying, go to James Cook University.
我认为他们的箴言就像是”热带的探索者” 太酷了
I think their motto is like “The explorers of the tropics”, which is pretty cool.
总之 我是Destin
Anyway, I’m Destin.
来看看吧 过的愉快
Go check em out. Have a good one.
—箱型水母每平方厘米就有800000的刺丝囊
– Big box jellyfish things have got 800,000 of those things per square centimeter.
—真的吗? —它们就那么点儿大
– Really? – That’s how small they are.
—你不仅学习了动物相关知识
– Not only do you get to learn about the animals
而且还去了实验室 看了毒液 还去了”这有响尾蛇毒液或箱型水母毒液或其他毒液”的地方
but we physically put you in the lab and give you venom, and go “Here, here’s some rattlesnake venom or some box jellyfish venom or some other venom”
而且你可以将它用于心脏细胞或血液或类似性质的东西 事实上 你能看到毒液的活动
and you get to use it on heart cells or blood and things of that nature, and actually physically see the venom doing its thing there and then.
由于各种原因 允许你那样做的课题并不多
Not too many other subjects allow you to do that, for a whole variety of reasons.
—所以说 这次的实验对詹姆斯库克大学来说是不是很特别啊? —当然
– So is this unique to James Cook University? – Absolutely.
—是啊 而且是由你启动的项目 —对的
– Yeah, did you.. and you started it. – Yeah.
—太酷了 —正是如此
– That’s pretty cool. – It is.
—对此感到有一点小骄傲啊?—只是……不止一点[笑]
– A little pride in that huh? – Just.. A lot. [laugh]

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视频概述

揭露水母怎么将毒液弄入人体的奥秘(中间的bgm真的很燃!)

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

毫无干劲的鱿鱼

审核员

审核团V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7WJCnC5ebf4

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