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适宜步行的城市 – 译学馆
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适宜步行的城市

Jeff Speck: The walkable city

我想在这里讲一下可步行的城市
So I’m here to talk to youabout the walkable city.
什么是可步行城市?
What is the walkable city?
一个更好的解释是
Well, for want of a better definition,
对于这个城市而言 车是一个选择性的代步工具
it’s a city in which the caris an optional instrument of freedom,
而不是一个必不可少的辅助设备
rather than a prosthetic device.
我想要探讨一下为什么我们需要一个可步行城市
And I’d like to talk aboutwhy we need the walkable city,
然后我想讲一下如何去实现一个可步行城市
and I’d like to talk abouthow to do the walkable city.
最近我的大部分演讲都是关于为什么我们需要它
Most of the talks I give these daysare about why we need it,
但是你们都很聪明
but you guys are smart.
(一定能猜到答案) 并且我在一个月前做过一次类似的演讲
And also I gave that talkexactly a month ago,
你们可以在TED.COM上观看
and you can see it at TED.com.
那么今天我想讲讲如何实现它
So today I want to talkabout how to do it.
在很长一段时间的冥思苦想之后
In a lot of time thinking about this,
我总结出了一套“可步行性的基本理论”
I’ve come up with what I callthe general theory of walkability.
这是个稍有点狂妄的术语 还有点开玩笑的意味
A bit of a pretentious term,it’s a little tongue-in-cheek,
但这是个我想了很久的理论
but it’s somethingI’ve thought about for a long time,
我很想跟大家分享下我的心得
and I’d like to sharewhat I think I’ve figured out.
在典型的美国城市——
In the American city,the typical American city —
不是指华盛顿特区
the typical American cityis not Washington, DC,
亦不是纽约或旧金山;
or New York, or San Francisco;
而是大急流城(密歇根州) 锡达拉皮兹市(爱荷华州) 或孟菲斯市(田纳西州)
it’s Grand Rapids or CedarRapids or Memphis —
在典型的美国城市中 大部分人拥有车
in the typical American cityin which most people own cars
并且倾向于凡事都开车
and the temptationis to drive them all the time,
如果你想要让他们步行 那你需要让步行体验
if you’re going to get them to walk,then you have to offer a walk
和驾驶一样好
that’s as good as a drive or better.
或更好这意味着什么?
What does that mean?
这意味着你需要同时满足4件事:
It means you need to offerfour things simultaneously:
一个合适的理由去步行
there needs to be a proper reason to walk,
本身要安全 也让人有安全感
the walk has to be safe and feel safe,
要是舒适的
the walk has to be comfortable
还要让人乐在其中
and the walk has to be interesting.
你需要同时做到这四点
You need to do all fourof these things simultaneously,
这就是我今天演讲的概要
and that’s the structure of my talk today,
我会逐一介绍
to take you through each of those.
步行的原因来自我从我的导师那里听来的故事 Andres
The reason to walkis a story I learned from my mentors,
Duany 和Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk
Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk,
新城市化运动的创始人
the founders of the New Urbanism movement.
我应该说今天一半的演示稿
And I should say half the slidesand half of my talk today
一半的演讲也是从他们那学来的
I learned from them.
这是一个关于规划的故事
It’s the story of planning,
关于规划专业诞生的故事
the story of the formationof the planning profession.
在19世纪 人们在如地狱般
When in the 19th centurypeople were choking
黑暗的磨坊的煤烟中苟延残喘
from the soot of the dark, satanic mills,
于是规划者们说:嘿 我们把居住区搬离磨坊吧
the planners said, hey, let’s movethe housing away from the mills.
居民的平均寿命瞬间激增
And lifespans increasedimmediately, dramatically,
我们通常会说
and we like to say
规划者们一直试图重复当初的经验
the planners have been trying to repeatthat experience ever since.
于是就出现了我们称为欧几里得的分区
So there’s the onsetof what we call Euclidian zoning,
大面积独立使用的分离地标景观
the separation of the landscapeinto large areas of single use.
通常当我到达一个城市去做规划的时候
And typically when I arrivein a city to do a plan,
这样的规划往往已经在那里等着我了
a plan like this already awaits meon the property that I’m looking at.
所有的规划都千篇一律
And all a plan like this guarantees
就使得你无法拥有一个可步行的城市
is that you will not have a walkable city,
因为没有任何一个地点是彼此相邻的相反的
because nothing is locatednear anything else.
当然就是最适宜步行的城市我想说
The alternative, of course,is our most walkable city,
这是一个罗斯科(抽象表现主义风格)
and I like to say, you know,this is a Rothko,
这是一个秀拉(点彩风格)
and this is a Seurat.
只是方式不同——秀拉是一个点彩画派的艺术家——
It’s just a different way –he was the pointilist —
使用了不同的打造用地的方式
it’s a different way of making places.
即使是这张曼哈顿的地图 也有一点误导性
And even this map of Manhattanis a bit misleading
因为红色代表着纵向混合用地
because the red coloris uses that are mixed vertically.
那么这是一个关于新城市化的故事——
So this is the big storyof the New Urbanists —
去确认新城市化只有两种方式
to acknowledge that thereare only two ways
已经在世界历史上
that have been tested by the thousands
被无数人尝试了很多次
to build communities,in the world and throughout history.
第一是传统的街区
One is the traditional neighborhood.
这里是马萨诸塞州纽伯里波特的几个街区
You see here several neighborhoodsof Newburyport, Massachusetts,
这里被认定为紧凑和多样的地方——
which is defined as being compactand being diverse —
人们在这生活 工作 购物 娱乐 接受教育——
places to live, work, shop,recreate, get educated —
都是在步行的距离内
all within walking distance.
这里被认定为可步行的
And it’s defined as being walkable.
这里有很多的小街道
There are lots of small streets.
每一个都让散步者感到舒适
Each one is comfortable to walk on.
我们将其与另一种方式进行对比
And we contrast that to the other way,
一个在二战后产生的创意
an invention that happenedafter the Second World War,
郊区扩张
suburban sprawl,
明显的不紧凑 明显的不多样 并且不适宜步行
clearly not compact, clearly not diverse,and it’s not walkable,
因为只有几条街区相互连接
because so few of the streets connect,
相连的街区变得负担过重
that those streets that do connectbecome overburdened,
并且你不会让你的孩子在这样的街区玩耍
and you wouldn’t let your kid out on them.
我想要感谢空中摄影师艾利克斯.麦克林
And I want to thank Alex Maclean,the aerial photographer,
提供了今天我呈现给你们的这么多美丽的照片
for many of these beautiful picturesthat I’m showing you today.
其实将大片区域分解成多个部分很有趣
So it’s fun to break sprawl downinto its constituent parts.
这很好理解
It’s so easy to understand,
你只用来生活的地方
the places where you only live,the places where you only work,
只用来工作的地方 只用来购物的地方
the places where you only shop,
和我们的大型公共机构
and our super-sized public institutions.
学校越来越大
Schools get bigger and bigger,
所以 彼此距离就越来越远
and therefore, furtherand further from each other.
还有停车场的大小
And the ratio of the sizeof the parking lot
和学校面积的比率
to the size of the school
会让你一目了然
tells you all you need to know,
那就是没有孩子是步行去学校的
which is that no childhas ever walked to this school,
没有孩子将会走着去学校
no child will ever walk to this school.
高年级学生开着车带着低年级的学生
The seniors and juniors are drivingthe freshmen and the sophomores,
当然我们有事故统计能证明这一点
and of course we havethe crash statistics to prove it.
然后是我们另外的巨型民众机构
And then the super-sizingof our other civic institutions
比如运动场所——
like playing fields —
很赞的是劳德代尔堡的威斯汀(佛罗里达州)
it’s wonderful that Westinin the Ft. Lauderdale area
有八个足球场
has eight soccer fieldsand eight baseball diamonds
八个棒球场和20个网球馆
and 20 tennis courts,
但是看看带你到达这些地点的路
but look at the roadthat takes you to that location,
你会让你的孩子骑自行车去吗?
and would you let your child bike on it?
这就是为什么现在我们有足球妈妈
And this is why we havethe soccer mom now.
在我小的时候 附近有一个足球场
When I was young, I had one soccer field,
一个棒球场和一个网球场
one baseball diamond and one tennis court,
但是我可以走着去 因为它们就在附近
but I could walk to it,because it was in my neighborhood.
扩张的最后一部分 所有人都忘记考虑了:
Then the final part of sprawlthat everyone forgot to count:
如果你将所有的场地彼此分离 然后仅仅通过交通工具
if you’re going to separate everythingfrom everything else
彼此连接 那么你的景观就
and reconnect itonly with automotive infrastructure,
开始变成这样 所以我在这里主要
then this is what your landscapebegins to look like.
想传达的信息是:
The main message here is:
如果你想拥有一个可步行的城市 你不能以扩长的模式开始
if you want to have a walkable city,you can’t start with the sprawl model.
你需要一个城市模式的骨架
you need the bones of an urban model.
这是这种设计构架的产物
This is the outcomeof that form of design,
还有这个
as is this.
这正是大多美国人向往的
And this is somethingthat a lot of Americans want.
但是我们要知道这是两部分的美国梦
But we have to understandit’s a two-part American dream.
如果你的梦想是这样
If you’re dreaming for this,
同时你也得想象这样的场景 通常比较滑稽的极端情况会发生在
you’re also going to be dreaming of this,often to absurd extremes,
我们的景观设计优先考虑交通状况的时候
when we build our landscapeto accommodate cars first.
在这种环境中的体验——
And the experienceof being in these places —
(笑声)这照片没有PS
(Laughter)

This is not Photoshopped.
沃特·库拉斯(交通工程师)做了这张换灯片
Walter Kulash took this slide.
这是在巴拿马城
It’s in Panama City.
这是一个真实的地方
This is a real place.
在这些地方 作为司机会有些懊恼
And being a drivercan be a bit of a nuisance,
而作为行人也是
and being a pedestriancan be a bit of a nuisance
不胜其烦
in these places.
这是流行病学家展示过一段时间的幻灯片
This is a slide that epidemiologistshave been showing for some time now,
(笑声)
(Laughter)
事实上 我们有这样一个社会 你开着车去停车场
The fact that we have a societywhere you drive to the parking lot
搭着扶梯去跑步机上锻炼
to take the escalator to the treadmill
这表明我们的做法不太对
shows that we’re doing something wrong.
但是我们知道如何做得更好
But we know how to do it better.
这里有两个对比的模式
Here are the two models contrasted.
我展示的这张幻灯片
I show this slide,
已经成为现在新城市化的成型文档
which has been a formative documentof the New Urbanism now
有将近30年了
for almost 30 years,
它为我们展现了扩张后的和传统的街区包含同样的东西
to show that sprawl and the traditionalneighborhood contain the same things.
那就是它们的面积有多大
It’s just how big are they,
彼此间的距离有多远
how close are they to each other,
如何交错在一起
how are they interspersed together
呈现的是一个网状的街道
and do you have a street network,rather than a cul-de-sac
还是死胡同 还是一组街道系统?
or a collector system of streets?
那么当我们观察市中心的时候
So when we look at a downtown area,
在某处仍存在着步行的可能性
at a place that has a hopeof being walkable,
通常就是我们美国城市
and mostly that’s our downtownsin America’s cities
城镇和村庄的繁华地带
and towns and villages,
我们看到后就想要实现合理的使用
we look at them and saywe want the proper balance of uses.
那么什么东西缺失了 或不具代表性呢?
So what is missing or underrepresented?
在美国人生活的典型美国城市
And again, in the typical American citiesin which most Americans live,
出现短缺的是住房
it is housing that is lacking.
就业和住房比例不均衡
The jobs-to-housing balance is off.
然后你发现当你把住房带回来的时候
And you find that whenyou bring housing back,
这些其他的事物也会跟着回来
these other things start to come back too,
住房往往是这些事情中首要的
and housing is usually firstamong those things.
当然 最终出现的
And, of course, the thingthat shows up last and eventually
是学校
is the schools,
因为人们需要搬进来
because the people have to move in,
年轻的开拓者们需要搬入 成长 有自己的孩子
the young pioneers have to move in,get older, have kids
然后奋斗 学校最终会变得很不错
and fight, and then the schoolsget pretty good eventually.
这方面的另一个部分
The other part of this part,
有用的城市部分是
the useful city part,
运输
is transit,
即便没有它你也可以拥有一个完美的可步行街区
and you can have a perfectlywalkable neighborhood without it.
但是完美的可步行街区要求运输
But perfectly walkable citiesrequire transit,
因为你不能通过步行踏遍整个城市
because if you don’t have accessto the whole city as a pedestrian,
你就要有车
then you get a car,
如果你有了一辆车
and if you get a car,
城市就开始重新格局去满足你的需要
the city begins to reshape itselfaround your needs,
街道开始变宽 接着停车场变大
and the streets get widerand the parking lots get bigger
最后你就不再拥有一个可步行的城市了 所以运输是必不可少的
and you no longer have a walkable city.
但是每一次
So transit is essential.
通行的经历 每一次运送的旅行
But every transit experience,every transit trip,
都开始或终于步行
begins or ends as a walk,
那么我们需要记得围绕运输枢纽打造可步行性
and so we have to remember to buildwalkability around our transit stations.
下一个要点 也是最重要的 是安全的步行
Next category, the biggest one,is the safe walk.
这是可步行性专家谈论最多的
It’s what most walkabilityexperts talk about.
安全是必不可少的 但是只有安全是不足以激励人们去步行的
It is essential, but alone not enoughto get people to walk.
可步行城市还包含很多移动部分
And there are so many moving partsthat add up to a walkable city.
第一部分是街区的宽窄
The first is block size.
这是波特兰
This is Portland, Oregon,
俄勒冈州著名的60米街道 出名的可步行
famously 200-foot blocks,famously walkable.
这是盐湖城
This is Salt Lake City,
著名的180米街区
famously 600-foot blocks,
出名的不可步行
famously unwalkable.
如果你看这两个地方 像在两个不一样的星球 但是这些地方
If you look at the two,it’s almost like two different planets,
都是人造的
but these places were both built by humans
然而事实上当你拥有60米宽的街区城市
and in fact, the story is that whenyou have a 200-foot block city,
你就可以有双车道城市
you can have a two-lane city,
或者一个双车或四车道城市
or a two-to-four lane city,
同时一个有180米宽街道的城市 可以是六车道的 那这就有问题了
and a 600-foot block cityis a six-lane city, and that’s a problem.
这里有事故统计
These are the crash statistics.
当你将街道拓宽一倍——
When you double the block size —
这是一个关于24个加利福尼亚城市的研究——
this was a studyof 24 California cities —
当你将街道拓宽两倍
when you double the block size,
你在非高速路上几乎增加了三倍的
you almost quadruplethe number of fatal accidents
死亡事故数量
on non-highway streets.
那么我们现在有多少车道?
So how many lanes do we have?
正如同我讲给每一位听众那样 我还要同样
This is where I’m going to tell youwhat I tell every audience I meet,
提醒你们“诱导需求”这个概念
which is to remind youabout induced demand.
诱导需求适用于高速和城市街道
Induced demand appliesboth to highways and to city streets.
同时诱导需求告诉我们要在什么时候拓宽街道
And induced demand tells usthat when we widen the streets
去接受我们所预期的堵塞
to accept the congestionthat we’re anticipating,
或者需要多绕行的路
or the additional tripsthat we’re anticipating
原则上说 在拥堵的系统中
in congested systems,it is principally that congestion
拥堵限制着需求
that is constraining demand,
所以我们需要拓宽道路
and so that the widening comes,
很多潜在的线路开始浮现了
and there are all of these latent tripsthat are ready to happen.
人们从工作的地点搬得更远
People move further from work
并且在通勤的时候做出其他的选择
and make other choicesabout when they commute,
同时这些车道很快就会开始拥堵
and those lanes fill upvery quickly with traffic,
我们再次拓宽街道 然而很快又堵塞了
so we widen the street again,and they fill up again.
我们已经意识到 在堵塞的系统里
And we’ve learned thatin congested systems,
我们无法保证机动车行驶通畅
we cannot satisfy the automobile.
著名的《新闻周刊》杂志有这么一段文字:
This is from Newsweek Magazine –hardly an esoteric publication:
“现今的工程师承认
“Today’s engineers acknowledge
建设新公路往往会加剧交通堵塞 ”
that building new roadsusually makes traffic worse.”
我读它时的反应是 请让我见一见这些工程师
My response to reading this was,may I please meet some of these engineers,
因为这些不是我日常共事过的——
because these are not the ones that I —
当然他们其中不排除很有远见的—— 但这些不是在城市
there are great exceptionsthat I’m working with now —
能遇到的典型的工程师 通常那些人会说
but these are not the engineersone typically meets working in a city,
“哦 路太挤了 我们需要加一个车道”
where they say, “Oh, that roadis too crowded, we need to add a lane.”
于是加了一个车道后 车流就涌上来了
So you add a lane, and the traffic comes,
然后他们会说 “看吧 我说过我们需要加车道 ”
and they say, “See, I told youwe needed that lane.”
这同时适用于拥堵的高速和城市道路
This applies both to highwaysand to city streets if they’re congested.
但奇妙的是 大多数我工作过的美国城市
But the amazing thingabout most American cities that I work in,
大部分典型的城市
the more typical cities,
对于他们现在面临的拥挤情况
is that they have a lot of streetsthat are actually oversized
其原因是有很多街道都过宽了 这是俄克拉荷马
for the congestionthey’re currently experiencing.
市的实例
This was the case in Oklahoma City,
市长曾非常沮丧的来找我
when the mayor came runningto me, very upset,
因为他们在《预防杂志》中被命名为
because they were namedin Prevention Magazine
全国对行人最不友好的城市
the worst city for pedestriansin the entire country.
这多半有些夸张
Now that can’t possibly be true,
但是足够让市长决定采取行动了
but it certainly is enoughto make a mayor do something about it.
我们做了可步行性的研究
We did a walkability study,
然后我们发现 统计一下街道上的车辆
and what we found, lookingat the car counts on the street —
大概有3000 4000 7000辆车
these are 3,000-, 4,000-, 7,000-car counts
我们知道双车道每天可以承载一万辆车
and we know that two lanescan handle 10,000 cars per day.
比较一下这些数字——全都几乎接近或低于一万辆车
Look at these numbers –they’re all near or under 10,000 cars,
而且这些街道全都在新城市计划中
and these were the streetsthat were designated
被指定要建成为
in the new downtown plan
四到六车道宽
to be four lanes to six lanes wide.
那么车道数量和使用车道的
So you had a fundamental disconnectbetween the number of lanes
车的数量有一个明显的脱节
and the number of carsthat wanted to use them.
那么我的工作就是去重新设计市区的每一个街道
So it was my job to redesignevery street in the downtown
从路面到路面
from curb face to curb face,
包括了50个街区的街道
and we did it for 50 blocks of streets,
现在正在重建中
and we’re rebuilding it now.
一个典型的方向不明确的过宽街道
So a typical oversized street to nowhere
变窄了 目前正在施工中
is being narrowed, and nowunder construction,
已经完成了一半
and the project is half done.
像这样的典型街道
The typical street like this, you know,
大家都见过把它们变窄后 就为隔离带腾出了空间
when you do that,you find room for medians.
你也为自行车道找到了空间
You find room for bike lanes.
街边停车位的数量加倍了
We’ve doubled the amountof on-street parking.
我们还增加了之前并不存在的自行车道网络
We’ve added a full bike networkwhere one didn’t exist before.
但不是所有的城市都能像俄克拉荷马市有足够的资金
But not everyone has the moneythat Oklahoma City has,
因为他们有一个运作良好的提取经济
because they have an extractioneconomy that’s doing quite well.
典型的城市更像锡达拉皮兹市
The typical city is morelike Cedar Rapids,
那里他们有四车道的系统 半单向车道系统
where they have an all four-lanesystem, half one-way system.
可能很难发现
And it’s a little hard to see,
但是我们已经重新规划过的——还有一些在建项目
but what we’ve done — what we’re doing;it’s in process right now,
目前正在施工——
it’s in engineering right now —
是将全部的四车道和半单向系统
is turning an all four-lanesystem, half one-way
转变为双车道
into an all two-lane system, all two-way,
全双向系统在建设的过程中 我们增加了70%的街边停车位
and in so doing, we’re adding70 percent more on-street parking,
很受商家的欢迎
which the merchants love,
还能保护人行道
and it protects the sidewalk.
停车位让人行道变的安全
That parking makes the sidewalk safe,
我们还增加了很多经久耐用的自行车道网络
and we’re adding a much morerobust bicycle network.
然后车道本身
Then the lanes themselves.How wide are they?
是多宽呢?
That’s really important.
这非常重要标准已经改变 正如安德烈斯杜安尼所说
The standards have changedsuch that, as Andrés Duany says,
通往美国城区的典型道路
the typical roadto a subdivision in America
可以让你看到地球的曲线
allows you to seethe curvature of the Earth.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
这是一个1960年代华盛顿的外城区
This is a subdivisionoutside of Washington from the 1960s.
仔细观察这个街道的宽窄
Look very carefullyat the width of the streets.
这是一个1980年代的城区
This is a subdivision from the 1980s.
1960s 1980s
1960s, 1980s.
标准变化到了这么一个程度
The standards have changedto such a degree
导致我的南海岸的旧邻
that my old neighborhood of South Beach,
要去维修道路排水系统的时候
when it was time to fix the streetthat wasn’t draining properly,
他们需要拓宽并拿掉一半的人行道
they had to widen itand take away half our sidewalk,
因为标准变宽了
because the standards were wider.
人们在更宽的路上可以移动得更快
People go faster on wider streets.
人们知道这一点
People know this.
工程师们否认它 但是市民们知道
The engineers deny it,but the citizens know it,
所以在伯明翰 密西根 他们力争窄的街道
so that in Birmingham, Michigan,they fight for narrower streets.
波特兰 俄勒冈 有名的可步行
Portland, Oregon, famously walkable,
在居民社区创立了“街道瘦身”项目
instituted its “Skinny Streets” programin its residential neighborhood.
我们知道窄型的街道更安全
We know that skinny streets are safer.
开发人文斯-格雷厄姆 在他的项目
The developer Vince Graham,in his project I’On,
I’On中也是我们在南卡从事的项目
which we worked on in South Carolina,
他前往大会并展示了他的完美的6.7米路宽
he goes to conferences and he showshis amazing 22-foot roads.
它们是双向车道 两边都很窄
These are two-way roads,very narrow rights of way,
他还展示了著名的哲人
and he shows this well-known philosopher,
曾说的:“广阔是走向破坏的道路……
who said, “Broad is the roadthat leads to destruction …
狭窄是通往生活的
narrow is the road that leads to life.”
道路”
(Laughter)
(笑声)
(Applause)
(掌声)这在南部取得的效果非常好现在:
This plays very well in the South.
说说自行车
Now: bicycles.
自行车和骑自行车现在都只在部分美国城市
Bicycles and bicyclingare the current revolution underway
面临着革命
in only some American cities.
但是你在哪建造自行车道
But where you build it, they come.
它们就到哪 作为一个规划人 我不想承认这一点 但是有一件事我可以确定
As a planner, I hate to say that,but the one thing I can say
骑自行车的人口数是自行车建设的基础
is that bicycle populationis a function of bicycle infrastructure.
我曾让我在波特兰的纳尔逊尼格公司的朋友汤姆博南
I asked my friend Tom Brennanfrom Nelson\Nygaard in Portland
发给我一些波特兰自行车通勤的照片
to send me some picturesof the Portland bike commute.
他发给我这个 我问“这是骑车上班日”吗?
He sent me this. I said,”Was that bike to work day?”
他说:“不是 这是一个普通的周二”
He said, “No, that was Tuesday.”
当你像波特兰那样花费资金在自行车道建设上——
When you do what Portland did and spendmoney on bicycle infrastructure —
纽约市通过画这些亮绿色的自行车道
New York City has doubled the numberof bikers in it several times now
多次让骑车的人数翻倍
by painting these bright green lanes.
甚至机动车主导的城市 像加州的长滩:
Even automotive citieslike Long Beach, California:
也出现了基于基础设施的大量骑车人数上升
vast uptick in the number of bikersbased on the infrastructure.
当然 其背后真正的原因
And of course, what really does it,
如果你知道华盛顿特区的第15大道——
if you know 15th Streethere in Washington, DC —
请看在芝加哥的拉姆·伊曼纽尔的新自行车道
please meet Rahm Emanuel’snew bike lanes in Chicago,
缓冲通道 平行停车的路缘
the buffered lane, the parallel parkingpulled off the curb,
自行车介于停靠的车和路缘之间——
the bikes between the parkedcars and the curb —
这些友好的骑车者
these mint cyclists.
然而如果在(南加州的)帕萨迪纳市 每一条道路都是自行车道
If, however, as in Pasadena,every lane is a bike lane,
那么也就等于没有自行车道了
then no lane is a bike lane.
这是唯一一个我在帕萨迪纳遇到的骑自行车的人
And this is the only bicyclistthat I met in Pasadena, so …
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我提到的平行泊车——
The parallel parking I mentioned —
是针对那些铁家伙的重要保护屏障
it’s an essential barrier of steel
它保护路缘和行人免于移动车辆的伤害
that protects the curb and pedestriansfrom moving vehicles.
这是劳德代尔堡 街道的一侧 你可以泊车
This is Ft. Lauderdale;one side of the street, you can park,
另一侧则不可以
the other side of the street, you can’t.
这是商家优惠时段的停车侧
This is happy hour on the parking side.
这是淡季时段里的另一侧
This is sad hour on the other side.
这些树木本身也可以让车慢下来
And then the trees themselvesslow cars down.
当路边有树木时行车会比较慢当然
They move slower when treesare next to the road,
有时候他们减速非常快(撞树了)
and, of course, sometimesthey slow down very quickly.
还要考虑所有的小细节——比如路缘的曲度
All the little details –the curb return radius.
它是0.3米的还是12米?
Is it one foot or is it 40 feet?
需要多么尖锐的路缘来决定车可以开多快
How swoopy is that curb to determinehow fast the car goes
(转弯)需要占用多少空间?
and how much room you have to cross.
我很喜欢这一段内容 因为这是客观的报道
And then I love this, because thisis objective journalism.
“有人说市中心的入口并不欢迎路人 ”
“Some say the entrance to CityCenteris not inviting to pedestrians.”
当处处景观都很炫酷
When every aspectof the landscape is swoopy,
呈现空气动力的 流线型几何构造
is aerodynamic, is stream-form geometrics,
它要表达的是:“这里是车的天下 ”
it says: “This is a vehicular place.”
没有一个细节 没有一种特色能够为行人友好化铺路
So no one detail, no one speciality,can be allowed to set the stage.
虽然这条街:
And here, you know, this street:
是的 它可以在一分钟内排泄百年洪水
yes, it will drain within a minuteof the hundred-year storm,
但是这个可怜的女人每天过马路都需要爬路缘
but this poor womanhas to mount the curb every day.
于是很快的 舒适的行走需要面临一个事实
So then quickly, the comfortable walkhas to do with the fact
那就是所有的动物都要寻找 期待
that all animals seek, simultaneously,prospect and refuge.
和躲藏 我们希望能够看清路况 但同时也想要感到
We want to be able to see our predators,
道路两边的建筑能提供一定的遮掩
but we also want to feelthat our flanks are covered.
于是我们被有人性化设计的路缘的城市吸引了
And so we’re drawn to placesthat have good edges,
而且如果你不提供路缘 人们就不会想去哪里
and if you don’t supply the edges,people won’t want to be there.
什么样的(楼)高(路)宽比
What’s the proper ratioof height to width?
是合适的呢?是2比1
Is it one to one? Three to one?
3比1?如果超过一比六 你就不会觉得舒服了
If you get beyond one to six,you’re not very comfortable anymore.
你不再有安全感
You don’t feel enclosed.
6比1在萨尔茨堡可以非常赏心悦目的
Now, six to one in Salzburgcan be perfectly delightful.
和萨尔茨堡相反的是休斯敦
The opposite of Salzburg is Houston.
这里的首要问题是停车场然而
The point being the parking lotis the principal problem here.
少了一栋楼 那些空旷的位置也可能成为问题
However, missing teeth, those empty lotscan be issues as well,
如果因为过期的区域码导致了一块缺角
and if you have a missing cornerbecause of an outdated zoning code,
那么可能在你社区一条路的中间位置出现一个缺口
then you could have a missing nosein your neighborhood.
这是我住的社区
That’s what we had in my neighborhood.
这是区码 上面写着这里不可以施工建设
This was the zoning code that saidI couldn’t build on that site.
你们都知道 华盛顿特区正在对社区进行改造
As you may know, Washington, DCis now changing its zoning
让街道的一侧从这样变成这样的
to allow sites like thisto become sites like this.
我们需要很多的变动
We needed a lot of variances to do that.
建造三角房屋很有趣
Triangular housescan be interesting to build,
但是如果你建一个 人们通常会很喜欢
but if you get one built,people generally like it.
所有你要想办法去填补这些缺失的空间
So you’ve got to fill those missing noses.
那么最后一个要点 良好的步行体验:
And then, finally, the interesting walk:
人性的标志
signs of humanity.
我们是社会的首要成员
We are among the social primates.
没什么能比其他人更让我们感兴趣了
Nothing interests us morethan other people.
我们想要人的踪迹
We want signs of people.
那么完美的1比1 是好事
So the perfect one-to-one ratio,it’s a great thing.
这是大急流城 一个标志性的步行城市
This is Grand Rapids,a very walkable city,
但是没人在连接着
but nobody walks on this street
两个最好的宾馆之间的街道上走
that connects the twobest hotels together,
因为如果在左边 有一个暴露的停车楼
because if on the left,you have an exposed parking deck,
然后在右边有一个会议中心
and on the right,you have a conference facility
这就是一个明显迁就于停车楼的设计
that was apparently designedin admiration for that parking deck,
那么你就不能吸引很多的人了
then you don’t attract that many people.
市长乔·莱利 在他作为南卡罗来纳州查尔斯顿市市长的第10个任期
Mayor Joe Riley, in his 10th term,Mayor of Charleston, South Carolina,
告诉了我们只用7.6米的建筑就可以
taught us it only takes25 feet of building
掩盖一个76米的停车场
to hide 250 feet of garage.
这一个被我叫做奇亚宠物车库 它在南海滩
This one I call the Chia Pet Garage.It’s in South Beach.
地面上的那层还能正常运作
That active ground floor.
我想要以这个项目结束我的演讲
I want to end with this projectthat I love to show.
它属于马莱卡建筑师公司 在俄亥俄州的哥伦布市
It’s by Meleca Architects.It’s in Columbus, Ohio.
左边是会议中心区 全部是行人
To the left is the convention centerneighborhood, full of pedestrians.
右边是短北街道社区——少数民族聚集区
To the right is the Short Northneighborhood — ethnic,
很棒的餐厅 很棒的消费区 但却濒临倒闭
great restaurants,great shops, struggling.
这块区域运行的不是很好 因为这曾经有一座桥
It wasn’t doing very wellbecause this was the bridge,
没人愿意从会议区走路到
and no one was walkingfrom the convention center
这边的街区那么
into that neighborhood.
当他们重新建高速的时候 他们为这个桥加宽了25米
Well, when they rebuilt the highway,they added an extra 80 feet to the bridge.
很抱歉——他们是在高速路上面重建了这个桥
Sorry — they rebuilt the bridgeover the highway.
市政府花了190万美金
The city paid 1.9 million dollars,
他们把这块区域交给开发者
they gave the site to a developer,
然后开发者打造了这个设计
the developer built this
然后现在短北区又充满生机了
and now the Short Northhas come back to life.
每个人都在谈论 报纸 不包括规划杂志
And everyone says, the newspapers,not the planning magazines,
报纸新闻说是因为那个桥 大概就是这样
the newspapers sayit’s because of that bridge.
这就是可步行性的基本理论
So that’s it. That’s the generaltheory of walkability.
想想你们自己的城市
Think about your own cities.
想想你能如何使用这个理论
Think about how you can apply it.
你需要同时做四件事
You’ve got to do all four things at once.
那么找到可以满足多数条件的地方
So find those places where youhave most of them
然后改进你能做的
and fix what you can,
完善那些始终需要完善的
fix what still needs fixingin those places.
很感谢大家耐心听我的演讲
I really appreciate your attention,
感谢大家的到来
and thank you for coming today.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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