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日本家庭礼仪介绍

Japanese House Manners

今天,我们将重温日本平常家庭的礼仪
Today we’re going to go over common household manners and expectations in Japan.
然而非常不幸的是,我们没有得到允许进到一个真正的日本人家里拍摄
Now unfortunately we weren’t able to get permission to use an actual Japanese home,
所以,在这里我将尽全力解释。
so I’ll have to do my best to explain it from here.
首先 日本的传统住宅是会有一个
To start out with, many traditional Japanese homes have walls with a gate
连着外门的围墙的
surrounding their entire property.
门口会有一个门铃 如果你要拜访这户人家
At the front of the gate should be a doorbell, and if you go to visit you
你要在进门前按门铃
should use that doorbell instead of going through to the front door, even if
即便大门口也有门铃 你也得按外门的门铃
that front door has a doorbell as well.
外门处可能有个对讲电话
The doorbell at the gate might have a speaker phone on it, so don’t be
所以当有人和你讲话的时候也不必惊讶!
surprised if someone starts talking to you!
进门后是玄关 在这里你要脱掉鞋子
Immediately inside is the genkan, which is where you take off your shoes.
把鞋放到墙边 鞋跟朝向墙面是种礼貌
It’s polite to move your shoes off to the side, heels to the wall
这样也不会挡路
so that they’re out of the way.
抬脚而上是地板 这里通常会放个毯子
One step up is the regular floor and there should be a rug there.
你要在这里穿上拖鞋
That’s where you put on your slippers.
如果你没穿袜子 那么也就没必要穿拖鞋了
You don’t have to wear slippers, and you don’t have to wear socks, either,
虽然别人都穿着拖鞋但你却没有穿看起来有些奇怪
although if everyone else is wearing them it’s kind of strange if you’re not.
日本人大多数都会在冬天穿袜子和拖鞋 因为实在是冷
Typically Japanese people will wear socks and slippers in the winter because
然而在夏天 人们都是光脚的
it’s cold, although in the summer many people go barefoot.
如果只穿袜子 那你就要小心了
If you choose just to wear socks, be careful
因为大多数日本人家里会给地板打蜡
because many traditional Japanese homes have polished hardwood
这会很滑的
floors, which are really slippery.
当你进到一个你拜访的日本人家里
When you enter a Japanese home, if you’re visiting you should greet your hosts with the
一开始就要用合适的问候语问候主人
proper verbage for the time of the day.
比如中午前你要说’ohayou gozaimasu’
So: ‘ohayou gozaimasu’ if it’s before noon,
日常用语就说“早上好”晚上就说“晚上好”
‘konnichiwa’ during the day, and ‘konbanwa’ during the evening.
然后他们说“不好意思打扰了”是用来表示
And then say ‘ojamashimasu’ which is an acknowledgement of
你打扰了别人或是给别人惹麻烦了
your being in the way or causing trouble.
如果你在家的时候 一个比你年长的家庭成员
If you are already in the home and another family member who is older than
或者主人回来了
you or is the host returns,
你要看时间段问候 然后说”打扰啦”
you should greet them with the time of the day and then say ‘ojamashiteimasu’.
当你要走的时候 你要说”不好意思打扰啦”
when you leave you should say ‘ojamashimashita’
如果傍晚了 你要说”晚安(有尊敬的意味,比较正式)”
and if it’s in the evening, ‘oyasumi nasai’.
如果你寄宿在别人家里 当你回来的时候只要说”我回来了”
If you’re homestaying, when you return home simply say ‘tadaima’
走的时候说”我出门了”
and when you leave ‘ittekimasu’.
当另一个家庭成员回来的时候
When another family member returns home
他们说”我回来啦” 你要回答”欢迎回来”
reply to their ‘tadaima’ with ‘okaeri nasai’
和他们说”我出门了” 就用”一路顺风”来回应
and their ‘ittekimasu’ with ‘itterashai’.
大多数的日本人家里有一个或多个有榻榻米地板的房间
Almost all Japanese homes have one or more rooms where the flooring is tatami mats.
榻榻米价格昂贵而且保养清洗起来有些困难
Tatami mats can be very expensive and they’re difficult to take care of and
所以一些家庭不会经常用榻榻米 他们会把榻榻米收起来
clean, so in some families they’re not often used or are used only a storage
只有在招待客人的时候才拿出来
or entertaining guests.
一般来说 进入一个榻榻米的房间前 你要先脱下拖鞋
Traditional rules say to take off your slippers before entering a tatami room,
但这主要看这家人的习惯
but this depends on the family and the house.
拜访某个人的时候 你可以
If you’re visiting someone, you can
跟着他们做或者问他们你该怎么做
either follow their example or ask them what you should do.
如果你寄宿在日本人家里 你的寄宿家庭会带你熟悉他们的家庭规则
If you’re homestaying in Japan, your family should go over their house rules with you
当你到他们家时
when you arrive.
日本的客厅和别的地方的客厅是一样的
A Japanese living room is similar to a living room anywhere,
可能有沙发 椅子 电视 电脑等等
and may have couches, chairs, a TV, a family computer, etc.
除此之外 可能还有咖啡桌 这可能是个被炉
In addition they will probably also have a coffee table, which may be a kotatsu,
被炉下面有多层的毯子 其中一个毯子可能是通电的
sitting atop one or several layers of rugs, one of which may be electric.
你可以坐在这些毯子上 有些人家可能会要求你
There rugs are for sitting, and some families may request or expect that you
脱掉拖鞋再坐到毯子上
take off your slippers before stepping onto them.
除非你住在小宿舍或者公寓
Unless you’re in a small dorm or apartment, Japanese bathrooms are
日本客厅是划区的
usually compartmentalized.
马桶是在自己房间里的
The toilet will be in its own room.
当你冲马桶的时候 马桶后面可能会有个流水的水龙头
On the back of the toilet may be a faucet that turns on when you flush.
除臭剂和清洁剂会随着水流进入马桶
This is for washing deodorizers and cleaners into the bowl
但你也可以用来洗手
but you can also use it to rinse your hands.
然后你要在有水槽和镜子的洗手间里
To wash your hands with soap you’ll have to find a washroom that has a sink and a
用肥皂洗手
mirror in it.
一些人家里 洗手间和厕所间是联通的
In some homes this is immediately attached to the toilet room,
但是也有些人家里 是要经过几个房间才能到的
but in others you may have to pass through several rooms to get to it, especially if
特别是位于二楼的厕所间
the toilet is on the second floor.
浴室间和洗手间是相连的
The bathing room is usually connected through one of the washrooms.
浴室间里会有个带盖的浴缸和安在浴缸外的淋浴头
Inside you will find a tub with a lid and a shower head outside of the tub.
洗澡的方式每个家庭都是不一样的 但是在大多数家庭
Bathing rituals differ from family to family, but in many families all family
每个人都是至少每天洗一次澡的
members will bathe at least once a day,
通常是在睡前 用同一缸水
usually at night before bed, sharing the same water.
如果你要在日本家庭过夜或者你是家庭寄宿的
If you’re staying overnight in a Japanese home, or of course if you’re homestaying,
他们可能会让你第一个用浴缸(这是一种尊重 日本人一般都是先淋浴 然后进浴缸 所以会共用一缸水)
they’ll probably insist that you use the tub first since that’s when it’s
因为这时候水最干净的
at its cleanest.
对于每天洗澡的日本人
For Japanese people who do take daily baths, this is an important time of
洗澡是件放松自己的事情
relaxation for them.
如果你选择淋浴 这也不是冒犯
If you choose not to take a bath and shower instead, it’s not offensive,
但他们可能会疑惑你为什么放弃这个让自己放松的
but they may be confused as to why you don’t want to take the opportunity to
机会
relax.
洗手间会有个垃圾桶放掉落的头发
There should be a trash can in the washroom for you to throw away your hair.
如果洗手间没有垃圾桶 那么去厨房看看有没有
If not, most Japanese homes usually keep their trash area somewhere in the
垃圾桶
kitchen.
日本的垃圾会被回收或者焚烧 所以他们会给你
Most trash in Japan is either recycled or burned, so they have quite a few
准备一些袋子装不同的垃圾 从塑料到玻璃瓶 易拉罐
bags for you to sort your trash into, from plastics to pet bottles, glass, cans,
易燃物还有别的种类
burnables and sometimes more.
女孩子的女性卫生用品是可燃物
Ladies, your feminine hygiene products are going to go in the burnables–
你不能把它扔进马桶里
you can’t flush any of it down the toilets here.
你居住的家庭会告诉你这些 但他们也会给你报纸
The home you stay in should talk to you about it, but they’ll either have newspapers
包女性卫生物品 或者问你要不要厕纸
for you to wrap it in, or they’ll ask you to use tissues or toilet paper.
通常来说 这是礼貌常识
In general, common sense about being polite applies here as well.
如果你寄宿在日本人家里 你需要遵守这些规则
If you’re homestaying your family should go over their rules with you,
但是你要记住 在没有经过主人同意的情况下 不要邀请别人来家里
but for example don’t invite people over without asking them,
使用他们的电话前要问问可不可以使用 如果你有宵禁 那你要在那之前回来
ask permission to use their phone and return by curfew if you have one.
不时地帮助他们做些家务很有必要
And it would also be nice to offer to help out with chores every now and then.
在日本文化里 即使没人要你帮忙 他们心里还是希望你做些什么的
In Japanese culture it’s often expected that you help out, even if no one asks.
只要你住在别人家里 你就是这个家的一份子
And since you’re homestaying you’re now a family member, which means that some
家里的其他人也是这么觉得的
people may expect that of you, too.
如果你犯了错 也不要担心!
But if you make a mistake don’t worry!
人无完人 我们每个人都会在日本有
No one’s expecting you to be perfect and we all have our really embarrassing
令人尴尬的时刻的
moments in Japan.
我会在下个视频中讲述一些餐桌礼仪
I have a lot to say about table manners so I’ll go over that in the next video.
但如果你对日本家庭有什么问题或者想知道
But for now if you have any questions or comments about what to expect in a
这是礼貌的还是冒犯的 在下方留下评论让我知道!
Japanese home, or if something is polite or rude, leave it in the comments below!

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