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焕然一新的纽约街头

Janette Sadik-Khan: New York's streets? Not so mean any more

一名交通专员的工作
The work of a transportation commissioner
不仅限于停车标志和交通信号灯
isn’t just about stop signs and traffic signals.
它也涉及城市的设计
It involves the design of cities
以及城市道路的设计
and the design of city streets.
街道可以称得上是
Streets are some of the most valuable resources
一个城市最为宝贵的资源了
that a city has, and yet it’s an asset
虽然这笔资产不那么显而易见
that’s largely hidden in plain sight.
过去六年的纽约
And the lesson from New York
教会我们
over the past six years
如何不断更新这笔资产
is that you can update this asset.
你可以以迅速和经济的方式改造你的街道
You can remake your streets quickly, inexpensively,
得到立竿见影的效果,
it can provide immediate benefits,
并且倍受欢迎
and it can be quite popular.
而你只需要转变一点点角度去看待它们就好了
You just need to look at them a little differently.
这对生活在城市时代的我们非常重要
This is important because we live in an urban age.
历史上从未有过像今天这样
For the first time in history,
大多数人生活在城市里
most people live in cities,
据联合国估计
and the U.N. estimates that over the next 40 years,
全球人口在未来40年将会翻一翻
the population is going to double on the planet.
因此城市设计在未来也会非常重要
So the design of cities is a key issue for our future.
2007年PlaNYC(规划纽约)项目启动的时候
Mayor Bloomberg recognized this
市长彭博就意识到了这一点
when he launched PlaNYC in 2007.
这个项目认为城市
The plan recognized that cities
是处于一个全球市场中
are in a global marketplace,
如果我们继续发展壮大
and that if we’re going to continue to grow and thrive
吸引上百万的潜在人口
and to attract the million more people
迁移到这里来
that are expected to move here,
我们就必须关注这里的生活质量
we need to focus on the quality of life
以及基础设施的有效性
and the efficiency of our infrastructure.
我们很多城市的道路
For many cities, our streets have been
很多年都处于一种有点停滞不前的状态
in a kind of suspended animation for generations.
这是一幅五十年代泰晤士广场的图片
This is a picture of Times Square in the ’50s,
经历了这么多年的科技进步
and despite all of the technological innovation,
文化变迁和政治变革后
cultural changes, political changes,
2008年的泰晤士广场是这样的
this is Times Square in 2008.
在这50年没有什么太大的变化
Not much has changed in those 50 years.
所以我们非常努力的调整计划
So we worked hard to refocus our agenda,
最大化移动效率
to maximize efficient mobility,
为公交车和自行车提供更多的空间
providing more room for buses, more room for bikes,
为人们提供享受城市生活的空间
more room for people to enjoy the city,
让这个城市对每个人所在的人
and to make our streets as safe as they can be
都提供尽可能的安全
for everybody that uses them.
我们制定了有明确目标和路标的
We set out a clear action plan
行动计划
with goals and benchmarks.
目标是非常重要的
Having goals is important,
如果想要掌控并改变
because if you want to change and steer the ship
一个大都市的发展方向
of a big city in a new direction,
你需要知道你要往哪里走?你的目的是什么?
you need to know where you’re going and why.
道路的设计就可以告诉你
The design of a street can tell you everything
所有这些最初期望的
about what’s expected on it.
这样,我们有望能安居在适宜的地方
In this case, it’s expected that you shelter in place.
街道的设计的确是为了
The design of this street is really
使车辆在两点之间
to maximize the movement of cars
移动的速度
moving as quickly as possible
尽可能迅速
from point A to point B,
而这个忽略了
and it misses all the other ways
街道的其他用途
that a street is used.
一开始我们做了调研
When we started out, we did some early surveys
有关早些年道路是如何被利用的
about how our streets were used,
我们发现纽约其实是一个
and we found that New York City was largely
完全没有椅子的城市
a city without seats.
看看这些图片,人们竟然坐在消防栓上
Pictures like this, people perched
这完全不是一个世界级的城市该有的样子
on a fire hydrant, not the mark of a world-class city.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
这对带小孩的父母
It’s not great for parents with kids.
对老年人、零售商
It’s not great for seniors. It’s not great for retailers.
甚至消防栓都不怎么好
It’s probably not good for the fire hydrants.
当然对警察局也不是什么好事儿
Certainly not good for the police department.
所以我们努力想打破这种平衡
So we worked hard to change that balance,
也许我们关于泰晤士广场的新方案
and probably the best example of our new approach
是一个再好不过的例子
is in Times Square.
每天有35万的人
Three hundred and fifty thousand people a day
穿过泰晤士广场
walk through Times Square,
很多年来人们都在尝试各种努力
and people had tried for years to make changes.
能使泰晤士广场更适合步行
They changed signals, they changed lanes,
例如像改进信号灯、改变道路等
everything they could do to make Times Square work better.
但是改进之后过马路还是很危险
It was dangerous, hard to cross the street.
还是很混乱.
It was chaotic.
那些方法都没有起作用
And so, none of those approaches worked,
所以我们选择换一种方式看待我们的街道
so we took a different approach, a bigger approach,
选择对它进行完全不同的、巨大的改变
looked at our street differently.
我们先做了六个月的试点
And so we did a six-month pilot.
关闭了百老汇的42到47街
We closed Broadway from 42nd Street to 47th Street
建造了2.5英亩的
and created two and a half acres
全新的徒步区
of new pedestrian space.
临时材料是这个工程最为重要的部分
And the temporary materials are an important part
因为我们要用它
of the program, because we were able to show
来证明我们方案的效果
how it worked.
也许你知道我们的市长是需要拿数据说话的
And I work for a data-driven mayor, as you probably know.
所以这些都取决于最终的数据
So it was all about the data.
如果它能对交通、对车辆移动性有效
So if it worked better for traffic, if it was better for mobility,
能够更安全并且有助于商业的发展,那么就保留它
if it was safer, better for business, we would keep it,
否则即便它没什么效果,也是完全无妨害的
and if it didn’t work, no harm, no foul,
我们完全可以把它恢复成最初的样子
we could put it back the way that it was,
这都取决于我们所用的临时材料
because these were temporary materials.
这是一批相当巨大的投入
And that was a very big part of the buy-in,
更别提一想起要恢复它们时
much less anxiety when you think that something
心里的那种焦虑
can be put back.
最终的结果是相当有说服力的
But the results were overwhelming.
交通变得更加便捷和安全
Traffic moved better. It was much safer.
五家新的旗舰店开业了
Five new flagship stores opened.
我们胜利完成任务
It’s been a total home run.
现在泰晤士广场已经是
Times Square is now one of the top 10
全球排名前十的零售商区
retail locations on the planet.
这给我们上了重要的一课
And this is an important lesson,
交通和公共空间
because it doesn’t need to be a zero-sum game
其实可以不是一场零和博弈
between moving traffic and creating public space.
每项工程都能有不可思议的地方
Every project has its surprises,
泰晤士广场让人最惊奇的地方之一
and one of the big surprises with Times Square
就是人们能多么迅速的聚集在一起
was how quickly people flocked to the space.
我们放置了橙色圆椎筒
We put out the orange barrels,
人们就立刻突然出现在街道上
and people just materialized immediately into the street.
就像星际迷航中的片段,对吧?
It was like a Star Trek episode, you know?
他们之前并不在那儿,而一眨眼的功夫
They weren’t there before, and then zzzzzt!
所有人都冒了出来.
All the people arrived.
他们之前在那儿?我不知道,反正他们冒了出来
Where they’d been, I don’t know, but they were there.
因为街道上的公共设施还没有安置
And this actually posed an immediate challenge for us,
所以这也马上带给我们一个新的挑战
because the street furniture had not yet arrived.
我们去五金店
So we went to a hardware store
买了数百个草坪躺椅
and bought hundreds of lawn chairs,
放置在街道上
and we put those lawn chairs out on the street.
这些躺椅于是就变成了热门话题
And the lawn chairs became the talk of the town.
大家谈论的不是我们如何为车辆关闭了百老汇
It wasn’t about that we’d closed Broadway to cars.
而是这些躺椅
It was about those lawn chairs.
“你觉得这些躺椅怎么样?”
“What did you think about the lawn chairs?”
“你喜欢它们的颜色吗?”
“Do you like the color of the lawn chairs?”
所以,当你在进行一项具有争议的大工程时
So if you’ve got a big, controversial project,
想想这些躺椅吧!
think about lawn chairs.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
这是泰晤士广场的最终设计
This is the final design for Times Square,
人行道之间的
and it will create a level surface,
水平地面
sidewalk to sidewalk,
采用了漂亮的铺路材料
beautiful pavers that have studs in them
嵌入了反光路钉,于是可以反射广告牌上的光
to reflect the light from the billboards,
让整个街道都放射出新的能量
creating a great new energy on the street,
我们觉得它会成为一个很棒的地方
and we think it’s going to really create
一个全新的名符其实的
a great place, a new crossroads of the world
“世界之十字路口”
that is worthy of its name.
今年十二月
And we will be cutting the ribbon on this,
我们将举行首期的剪彩仪式
the first phase, this December.
在所有的城市空间项目中
With all of our projects, our public space projects,
我们与本地商业界
we work closely with local businesses
以及商业组织实现了紧密的合作
and local merchant groups
他们进行空间维护、设施安置
who maintain the spaces, move the furniture,
还种植花花草草
take care of the plants.
这是梅西百货店前
This is in front of Macy’s, and they were
这是我们这个方案的有力支持者
a big supporter of this new approach,
他们深知更多的步行者将会带来
because they understood that more people on foot
更好的生意
is better for business.
我们在全城各种各样的社区
And we’ve done these projects all across the city
都做了这三个工程
in all kinds of neighborhoods.
这是在布鲁克林的贝德福德-斯泰森特
This is in Bed-Stuy, Brooklyn,
你可以看见这些留给车用的短小区域
and you can see the short leg that was there,
其实这个并不是必需的
used for cars, that’s not really needed.
于是我们装饰了整个街道
So what we did is we painted over the street,
铺上了环氧砾石,将这个三角地带与
put down epoxy gravel, and connected the triangle
Grand Avenue 的店面连接起来
to the storefronts on Grand Avenue,
建造了一片新的很棒的公共空间
created a great new public space,
这对Grand Avenue一带的生意
and it’s been great for businesses
也非常有好处
along Grand Avenue.
我们在布鲁克林的也做了同样的事情
We did the same thing in DUMBO, in Brooklyn,
这是我们早期的工程之一
and this is one of our first projects that we did,
我们选择了一个没有被充分利用的
and we took an underutilized,
脏乱的停车场
pretty dingy-looking parking lot
用涂料和植物
and used some paint and planters
和一个周末的时间就使它焕然一新
to transform it over a weekend.
这项工程之后的三年里
And in the three years since we’ve implemented the project,
这里的零售销量增加了172%
retail sales have increased 172 percent.
是周围相同街区的两倍
And that’s twice that of adjacent areas in the same neighborhood.
我们借助这些涂料和临时材料
We’ve moved very, very quickly
进展速度可以非常快
with paint and temporary materials.
我们没有花很多年去等待
Instead of waiting
规划研究或者是计算机模型分析
through years of planning studies
搞定这些
and computer models to get something done,
而是用装饰和临时材料解决了问题
we’ve done it with paint and temporary materials.
这些都是计算机模型没法去证明的
And the proof is not in a computer model.
而是在现实生活街道的效果中
It is in the real-world performance of the street.
你真的可以享受于这些装饰
You can have fun with paint.
我们创建了这个城市五个区的
All told, we’ve created over 50 pedestrian plazas
超过五十个购物广场
in all five boroughs across the city.
我们将26英亩的在用车行道
We’ve repurposed 26 acres of active car lanes
改造为新的步行广场
and turned them into new pedestrian space.
我觉得其中一个成功之处在于它的被效仿
I think one of the successes is in its emulation.
从泰晤士广场被装饰之后
You’re seeing this kind of approach,
你可以在波士顿、芝加哥
since we’ve painted Times Square,
看到这种类型的方案
you’ve seen this approach in Boston, in Chicago,
旧金山、墨西哥城
in San Francisco, in Mexico City,
布宜诺斯艾利斯,很多很多城市
Buenos Aires, you name it.
这是在洛杉矶
This is actually in Los Angeles,
甚至连我们在街道上涂的绿圈圈
and they actually copied even the green dots
也被模仿了
that we had on the streets.
我没法描述它使我们
But I can’t underscore enough
多么迅速地跨越了
how much more quickly this enables you to move
传统的建筑方法
over traditional construction methods.
我们也把这种速效的方法
We also brought this quick-acting approach
用到了我们的自行车项目中
to our cycling program,
用了六年时间就让自行车
and in six years turned cycling
成为纽约的一种交通工具
into a real transportation option in New York.
我想可以毫不夸张的说――
I think it’s fair to say —
(掌声)
(Applause) —
之前纽约是一个骑自行车很危险的地方
it used to be a fairly scary place to ride a bike,
而现在它已经成为
and now New York has become
美国的几大自行车城之一
one of the cycling capitals in the United States.
我们已非常快的速度建造了
And we moved quickly to create an interconnected
互联的车道网络
network of lanes.
你可以看看2007年的地图
You can see the map in 2007.
这是2013年
This is how it looked in 2013
我们建了超过350英里的自行车道之后的样子
after we built out 350 miles of on-street bike lanes.
我喜欢这种简单方式
I love this because it looks so easy.
只需要点击一下鼠标就可以了
You just click it, and they’re there.
我们也引入了一些新的设计
We also brought new designs to the street.
建造了美国第一个
We created the first parking-protected bike lane
汽车不能占用停靠的自行车道
in the United States.
(掌声)
(Applause)
我们利用流动停车车道保护骑车的人
We protected bikers by floating parking lanes,
效果很棒
and it’s been great.
自行车数目迅速攀升
Bike volumes have spiked.
而对所有人的伤害,包括行人、骑行者以及司机
Injuries to all users, pedestrians, cyclists, drivers,
降到了50%
are all down 50 percent.
我们当时建造了30英里这样的保护车道
And we’ve built 30 miles of these protected bike lanes,
而现在在整个国家
and now you’re seeing them pop up
已经随处可见
all over the country.
你可以看到这种方法的确是奏效的
And you can see here that this strategy has worked.
这条蓝线是迅速增长的
The blue line is the number of cyclists,
骑行者数目
soaring.
绿线是自行车道数目
The green line is the number of bike lanes.
蓝色是受伤者
And the yellow line is the number of injuries,
可以看出基本没什么变化
which has remained essentially flat.
在自行车急剧扩张后
After this big expansion, you’ve seen
受伤者数目几乎没有增长
no net increase in injuries,
用一句格言
and so there is something to that axiom
“数据是安全的”
that there is safety in numbers.
但是,并不是所有人都喜欢这个新的自行车道
Not everybody liked the new bike lanes,
几年前有这样一个诉讼案件
and there was a lawsuit and somewhat
当时还引起过媒体的骚动
of a media frenzy a couple years ago.
布鲁克林的一个报纸把我们
One Brooklyn paper called this bike lane
在展望公园西街的自行车道
that we have on Prospect Park West
“加沙地带外的
“the most contested piece of land
最有争议之地”
outside of the Gaza Strip.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
这正是我们所做的
And this is what we had done.
如果你读读标题下面的文字
So if you dig below the headlines, though,
你会发现热衷民众多于
you’ll see that the people were far ahead of the press,
那些媒体以及政治人物
far ahead of the politicians.
事实上,我想大多数的政治人物将对
In fact, I think most politicians would be happy
这样的投票数目非常满意
to have those kind of poll numbers.
64%的纽约市民都支持我们的自行车车道
Sixty-four percent of New Yorkers support these bike lanes.
这个夏天我们启动了Citi Bike项目
This summer, we launched Citi Bike,
这是美国规模最大的公共自行车计划
the largest bike share program in the United States,
有6000辆自行车和
with 6,000 bikes
位置邻近的330个车站参与其中
and 330 stations located next to one another.
自从我们启动这个项目以来
Since we’ve launched the program,
已经有过多达三百万次
three million trips have been taken.
七百万英里的骑行
People have ridden seven million miles.
这相当于环绕地球280圈
That’s 280 times around the globe.
有了这把蓝色小钥匙
And so with this little blue key,
你就可以开启通向这个城市的钥匙
you can unlock the keys to the city
并拥有这个全新的交通选择
and this brand new transportation option.
日均使用量持续在攀升
And daily usage just continues to soar.
纽约每天利用公共交通工具的
What has happened is the average daily ridership
乘车人数有36,000
on the streets of New York is 36,000 people.
截至目前我们达到的峰值是八月份的44,000
The high that we’ve had so far is 44,000 in August.
昨天整个纽约有40,000的人用了Citi Bike
Yesterday, 40,000 people used Citi Bike in New York City.
这些自行车每天要用大约6次
The bikes are being used six times a day.
我想你可以在街上看到
And I think you also see it in the kinds of riders
各种各样的骑行者
that are on the streets.
过去他们就像左边这张照片里的人一样
In the past, it looked like the guy on the left,
打扮成忍者的自行车信差
ninja-clad bike messenger.
而今天骑自行车的人
And today, cyclists look
就像纽约城一样多样化
like New York City looks.
年轻人老人,黑人白人
It’s diverse — young, old, black, white,
妇女儿童都在骑自行车
women, kids, all getting on a bike.
这的确是一种经济、安全并且便捷的交通方式
It’s an affordable, safe, convenient way to get around.
最原本的方式
Quite radical.
我们把这个方法也用到了公交车上
We’ve also brought this approach to our buses,
我们知道美国拥有北美最庞大
and New York City has the largest bus fleet in North America,
速度最慢的公交车流
the slowest bus speeds.
谁都知道
As everybody knows,
你在这个地方走路
you can walk across town faster
都要比巴士快
than you can take the bus.
我们的主要精力集中在
And so we focused on the most congested areas
纽约最拥塞的地区
of New York City,
新建了六条长达57英里的
built out six bus rapid transit lines,
巴士捷运路线
57 miles of new speedy bus lanes.
上车前只需要在自助服务厅买票
You pay at a kiosk before you get on the bus.
我们有巴士专用线路
We’ve got dedicated lanes that keep cars out
因为有摄像罚单
because they get ticketed by a camera
有效的阻止了非公交机动车的进入
if they use that lane,
这是一个巨大成功
and it’s been a huge success.
作为一名交通专员
I think one of my very favorite moments
我觉得自己最享受的时刻就是在
as transportation commissioner was the day
我们启动Citi Bike项目的那天
that we launched Citi Bike,
我骑着Citi Bike到了第一大道
and I was riding Citi Bike up First Avenue
上了我设计的自行车专用车道
in my protected bike lane,
我四处看看,看到许多行人
and I looked over and I saw pedestrians
安全的站在安全岛
standing safely on the pedestrian islands,
车流不息
and the traffic was flowing,
鸟儿高歌
birds were singing —
(笑声) —
(Laughter) —
巴士在专用车道上加速
the buses were speeding up their dedicated lanes.
这简直太不可思议了
It was just fantastic.
而六年前它是这个样子
And this is how it looked six years ago.
我想纽约的例子
And so, I think that the lesson that we have
告诉我们
from New York is that it’s possible
迅速改造我们的街道是完全可能的
to change your streets quickly,
造价不高而且可以带来即期利益
it’s not expensive, it can provide immediate benefits,
深受大家喜欢
and it can be quite popular.
你只需要重新想象你的街道
You just need to reimagine your streets.
他们就会在眼前
They’re hidden in plain sight.
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LujWrkYsl64

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