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如何摆脱玩世不恭的陷阱

Jamil Zaki: How to escape the cynicism trap | TED

This is it.
好的
Here we all are, together at last,
我们终于相聚在此
to talk about optimism.
来谈谈乐观主义
If this isn’t nice, I don’t know what is.
这实在是太好了
Here’s the problem: it’s 2021.
不过问题是:现在是2021年
We are living through a global plague,
我们正身处一场全球性的瘟疫
one that revealed our worst instincts at the worst times.
它让我们在最糟的时刻展现了最黑暗的本性
We are so divided
我们的分歧是如此巨大
that public health has become a power struggle.
致使公共卫生问题演变成了一场权利斗争
We pioneered a vaccine, a moon-landing level innovation,
我们领先研制出一种疫苗 这是登月级别的创新
and then kept it among wealthy countries
但却只提供给富裕国家
while poor ones suffered.
而贫穷国家依旧在挣扎
Against this backdrop, isn’t talking about optimism,
在这样的背景下 我们谈乐观主义是不是
like discussing pagers or horse-drawn carriages?
像谈BP机或者马拉车一样不合时宜?
Isn’t optimism obsolete,
想到我们经历了那么多
backwards and naive, given all we’ve been through?
乐观难道不是过时的 落后的 天真的吗
Shouldn’t it be replaced with a more up-to-date cognitive technology?
难道不应该用更新的认知技术替代它吗?
Well, lots of people have replaced it with cynicism:
很多人的态度已被玩世不恭所取代:
the notion that humanity is greedy, selfish and dishonest.
觉得人类是贪婪的 自私的 虚伪的
In 1972, 45 percent of Americans thought that most people can be trusted.
1972年 45%的美国人认为大多数人是可以信任的
By 2018, that had dropped to about 30 percent.
到了2018年 这个比例降至大约30%
We are living through a cynicism epidemic.
我们生活在“玩世不恭症”流行的时代
I should know —
我该知道的
last year, it infected me, and I’m supposed to be immune.
去年 我就被“感染”了 我应该是有免疫力的
I’m a psychologist and neuroscientist,
我可是个心理学家 神经科学家
and my whole career, I’ve studied the sunny side of human nature.
我整个职业生涯都在研究人性阳光的一面
My lab and I have found that giving away money
我们实验室发现捐送钱款
activates similar parts of your brain as eating chocolate,
能激活类似吃完巧克力后那部分大脑的反应
and that helping other people through their stress calms our own.
帮助他人应对压力能让我们自己获得平静
Our punch line is clear:
清晰明了 概括成一句就是:
there is good in us, and it does good for us.
心存善念 助益身心
Now, people love hearing this,
人们愿意听这话
but in 2020, I started to hate saying it.
但是到了2020年时 我开始讨厌说这句话了
I was building hope in others while losing my own.
当时我在助他人建立希望时 自己的却遗失了
I was evangelizing for human kindness all day
我白天为人性善良美好传福音
and then doomscrolling at night.
到了晚上就大量浏览负面信息
I was peddling something that I would never want to buy anymore.
我在宣扬一些我自己都不愿意相信的东西
I felt like a fraud,
我觉得自己像个骗子
or, at best, maybe a fax-machine salesman.
好听一点 可能像个传真机推销员
[Laughter]
[笑声]
But here’s the thing.
但是事情是这样的
You might think that cynicism is a system upgrade
你可能觉得玩世不恭是一种“系统升级”
that allows us to see who we really are.
这让我们看清真实的自我
It’s not.
但并不是这样
It traps us in a version of the world we don’t want to live in,
它把我们困在一个我们不想生活于其中
and one we don’t have to.
也不必生活于其中的世界
One of my favorite studies of all time
我一直以来最喜欢的一个研究
occurred in southeastern Brazil.
是在巴西东南部做的
Two fishing villages there are separated by just 30 miles.
那里有两个渔村 相距仅30英里
One sits by the ocean,
一个渔村坐落在海边
where fishing requires large boats and heavy equipment.
在那里捕鱼得用大型船只和重型设备
To make a living there, fishermen must work together.
在那里谋生 渔民们必须通力合作
The other sits by a lake,
另一个渔村坐落在湖边
where fishermen strike out alone on small boats
渔民们独自乘坐小船捕鱼
and compete with one another.
互相竞争
Years ago,
多年前
researchers tested how people in each of these villages
研究者测试了两个村子里的人们
responded to a set of social experiments.
对一系列社会实验的反应
Ocean fishermen trusted strangers and cooperated with their neighbors.
海洋村渔民信任陌生人 并与邻居合作
Lake fishermen competed and mistrusted instead.
湖村渔民却互相竞争 彼此不信任
But here’s the crazy part.
但奇怪的是
These folks didn’t start out any different from each other,
这些人一开始并没什么不同
but the longer fishermen worked on the lake,
可是随着渔民在湖面上工作越久
the more they competed.
竞争就越厉害
The longer they worked on the ocean, the less they did.
海边的渔民工作越久 竞争越小
Some families, schools and companies are like ocean villages.
有些家庭 学校以及公司就像海洋村
People trust, because they know others will earn it.
人们互相信任 因为他们知道他人值得信任
Some are like lake towns —
有些呢 就像湖边小镇
people look out for themselves, because no one else will.
人们只为自己着想 因为别人不会为你着想
Our social worlds shape us, like clay,
我们的社交世界像塑泥一样塑造了我们
into hopeful or cynical versions of ourselves.
把我们塑成满怀希望的或者玩世不恭的自己
And right now,
就在现在
many of us are living in a lake town of historic proportion.
我们中许多人都生活在的史无前例的“湖边小镇”
Inequality has soared, injustice is all around,
不平等愈演愈烈 不公无处不在
self-interest might as well be pumped into the water supply.
就好像利己主义已经泵入了我们的供水系统里
These forces raise cynicism,
这些影响激发了玩世不恭的情绪
and so do times of disaster.
灾难时期也会这样
After the last 18 months,
过去的一年半间
there’s a real chance we could tip into a sort of cynical permafrost.
我们就很有可能陷入玩世不恭的“永冻层”
Now, I’m going to guess there may be some proud cynics in the audience today,
我猜今天的观众中可能就有骄傲的玩世不恭者
and you might be thinking, “Good.
你可能心想 “这挺好
More people should turn to the dark side.
就应该有更多人转向黑暗这一面
Optimism might feel nice —
乐观主义可能让你感觉不错
so would calling tiramisu a health food,
就像把提拉米苏称为健康食品
but we don’t get to go around believing whatever we like.”
但是我们不能随意相信自己喜欢的东西”
George Bernard Shaw tells us
萧伯纳告诉我们
that the power of accurate observation
准确观察的能力
is commonly called “cynicism” by those who haven’t got it.
常常被那些没有这项能力的人称之为“犬儒主义”
[Laughter]
[笑声]
107 years later,
107年以后
the cartoon philosopher Lisa Simpson
卡通哲学家丽莎·辛普森
taught us that as intelligence goes up, happiness goes down.
告诉我们 随着智力的提高幸福感会下降
Maybe hope does, too.
也许希望也会减少
Maybe cynicism is the price of being right.
也许玩世不恭就是正确的代价
Most people think so.
多数人都这么认为的
70 percent think cynics are smarter than noncynics;
70%的人认为玩世不恭者要比非玩世不恭者要聪明
85 percent think they would make better lie detectors.
85%的人认为玩世不恭者能成为更好地识别谎言
Most people are wrong.
然而大多数人都错了
It turns out that cynics tend to perform less well
事实上 玩世不恭者在认知测试中的表现
than noncynics on cognitive tests.
不如非玩世不恭者
They earn less money,
他们挣得也少
and they lose more often in negotiations.
在谈判中输得更多
They’re not even good at spotting bad guys.
他们甚至在识别坏人方面做得也很差
In one study, researchers conducted mock job interviews,
在一项研究中 研究人员进行了模拟求职面试
asking half the candidates to lie and half to tell the truth.
他们要求一半应聘者撒谎 另一半说真话
Cynics and noncynics watched videos of these interviews
玩世不恭者和非玩世不恭者观看了这些面试录像
and guessed who was lying.
然后去猜谁在撒谎
And cynics did way worse.
玩世不恭者表现得非常糟
More generally, they assume liars are everywhere
更普遍的是 他们认为说谎者无处不在
so can’t pick real ones out of a crowd.
所以无法从人群中找出真正的说谎者
So cynicism might not be as smart as you think it is,
因此 玩世不恭可能没有你想象的那么智慧
but it’s still powerful,
但它仍然有强大的影响力
because our stories about each other become self-fulfilling.
因为我们编造的关于彼此的故事会成真
Cynics are more likely to refuse intimacy and cooperation.
玩世不恭者更有可能拒绝建立亲密与合作关系
They hurt others to avoid being hurt.
他们伤害别人是为了避免受到伤害
They tend to spy on their colleagues and suspect their friends,
他们往往会监视同事 怀疑朋友
and other people, unsurprisingly, react badly —
而不出所料 别人的反应也很恶劣
sometimes, acting selfishly in response.
有时候 会做出自私的反应
In other words, by mistreating others,
换句话说 通过苛待他人
cynics create the exact conditions they fear.
玩世不恭者创造的正是他们害怕的局面
They tell a story full of villains and end up living in it.
他们讲述了一个充斥着恶人的故事 结果也生活于其间
I call this the cynicism trap,
我把这称之为“玩世不恭的陷阱”
and my lab explores ways that people fall into it.
我的实验室在探索人们是怎么陷入其中的
In one study, we asked people how happiness works.
一项研究中 我们向人们询问幸福的运作方式
Some thought that it’s a zero-sum game,
一些人认为这是一个“零和游戏”
meaning that as one person’s happiness goes up,
意味着随着一个人的幸福感上升了
another person’s must go down.
另一个人的幸福感就一定会下降
Now they’re wrong.
他们错了
It turns out that when we act generously towards others,
事实上 当我们慷慨地对待他人时
that tends to increase our happiness.
我们的幸福感往往会提升
But cynics acted on their illusion.
然而玩世不恭者依据他们的幻想行事
When given chances to help strangers, they were less likely to do so.
当有机会能帮助陌生人时 他们可能不会去帮
They ended up less happy as well.
他们最终也变得不那么快乐了
By hoarding well-being, they lost out on one of its key ingredients — other people.
他们偷攒幸福 却错失幸福的关键因素之一 即他人
In other work, we asked Republicans and Democrats
在另一项工作中 我们询问了共和党人和民主党人
what it would mean to empathize with the other side.
问他们与对方共情意味着什么
Some people saw politics as a war,
一些人认为政治就是战争
and thought empathy would be as useful as
觉得拥有同理心就像
bringing cotton candy to a gunfight.
带着棉花糖去参加枪战 根本没用
These folks didn’t want to cooperate with the other side, or even to know them at all.
这些人不想与对方合作 甚至根本不想认识他们
In one study, we measured college students’
在一项研究中 我们测量了大学生对同理心
cynicism about empathy
持有的玩世不恭态度的程度
and asked about the friends they made on campus.
并询问了在校园里其结交朋友的状况
Here, each dot is a person,
这里 每一个点都代表一个人
coded blue to red based on ideology,
根据意识形态其颜色从蓝到红
and each line is a friendship.
每一条线都代表建立了友谊
Now, this was a pretty liberal campus,
这是一个相当自由开放的校园
but nonetheless, noncynics managed to
但非玩世不恭者还是设法
find ideologically diverse friends.
找到了意识形态上不同的朋友
Cynics stuck to their own kind.
而愤世嫉俗者坚守着自己的同类
Now that’s, of course, their right.
当然 这是他们的权利
But most of us wish our country was less divided,
但我们中大多数人都希望国家少些分裂
and empathy is critical to moving us towards that goal.
而同理心是推动我们朝着这个目标前进的关键
By giving up on it, cynics lose that chance.
放弃同理心 玩世不恭者就失去了这个机会
Our studies and many others give us
我们的研究和其他许多研究让我们
a clear picture of the cynicism trap.
清楚地了解了“玩世不恭的陷阱”
When we decide everyone’s out for themselves,
当我们认为所有人都只为自己着想时
we stop seeing their kindness.
我们就看不到他人的善意了
When we think the world is zero-sum,
当我们认为这个世界就是个零和游戏时
everyone becomes a potential enemy.
其他人都会成为潜在的敌人
These views spread across us, too.
这些观点也普遍流传
Parents pass on their suspicions to their kids.
父母将他们的怀疑传递给孩子
Politicians act in bad faith and damage voters’ faith in each other.
政客们背信弃义 损害了选民对彼此的信任
Media companies trade in judgment and outrage.
媒体公司贩卖的是评判与愤怒
Our cynicism is their product,
我们的玩世不恭就是他们的产品
and it is a growth industry.
而且这是个增长型行业
So no, cynicism doesn’t help us see reality more clearly,
所以 玩世不恭并不能帮助我们更清楚地了解现实
but it does change reality,
但它确实改变了现实
poisoning our relationships, our lives and our culture.
它毒害我们的人际关系 生活和文化
It is not a system upgrade,
这可不是“系统升级”
it’s mental malware.
这是“心理恶意软件”
But we don’t have to accept it.
所以我们没必要接受它
We can take control of our stories.
我们可以掌控自己的故事
To escape the cynicism trap, we have to.
为了摆脱“玩世不恭的陷阱” 我们必须这样做
My lab tries to help.
我的实验室力图提供帮助
In one study, we taught people that happiness is not a zero-sum game,
在一项研究中 我们告诉人们幸福不是零和游戏
and that helping others helps us, too.
帮助他人对我们也有益处
These folks, compared to those in a cynical condition, donated more to charity afterwards,
后来 这些人比玩世不恭者向慈善机构捐了更多钱
and they ended up happier as well.
而且最终他们也更快乐了
In other work, we changed how people
在另一项工作中 我们改变了人们
thought about empathy in politics.
在政治方面对同理心的看法
Some people were randomly chosen
一些人被随机挑选出来
to read a cynical essay.
去阅读一篇玩世不恭风格的文章
It began, and I’m paraphrasing,
文章是这样开始的 我转述一下
“You might think empathy is a weakness
“你可能认为有同理心是一个弱点
that will make you lose every argument, and you’d be right.”
它会让你输掉每一场辩论 你是对的”
Afterwards, we asked these folks to write a note about gun control
之后 我们让这些人在枪支管制方面写几句话
to someone they disagreed with,
写给与其意见向左的人
and they sniped at each other.
他们就互相攻击批评起来
Here’s a voice actor reading
下面是位配音演员朗读
what one Democrat wrote to a Republican.
一位民主党人写给一位共和党人的话
Recording: “It’s hard not to state this bluntly.
录音:“请恕我直言不讳
You should be in favor of stricter gun laws
您应该赞同更严格的枪支法
because you should care about the lives of other people
因为您应该更关心他人的生命
more than your outdated feelings of machismo.”
而不是过时的男子汉气概”
And here’s a Republican writing to a Democrat.
这是一位共和党人写给一位民主党人的话
Recording: “People need to know they’re able to have the freedom
录音:“人们需要知道 为了保护自己
to bear arms in order to protect themselves.
他们有携带武器的自由
You democrats don’t get to take that away from us.”
你们民主党不能剥夺我们的自由”
Basically, we recreated Twitter, by accident.
我们差不多是无意间重现了推特
[Laughter]
[笑声]
Other people read a different essay.
实验中其他人读了一篇不同的文章
It began,
文章是这样开始的
“You might think empathy is a weakness
“你可能会认为有同理心是一种弱点
that will make you lose every argument,
会让你在每一场辩论中都输掉
and you’d be wrong.”
那你就错了”
…and went on to describe empathy as a strength in politics.
文章后面继续讲述同理心能在政治中彰显力量
Again, we asked these folks to write to an opponent about gun control,
同样 我们要求这些人就枪支管制问题给对手写信
but this time, things changed.
但这一次 情况发生改变
Here’s a Democrat.
这是一位民主党人写的
“There are some common-sense regulations
“为了保护人民的安全
that we should implement to keep people safe.
我们应该实施一些常识性规定
We all want what is best for the country,
我们都希望我们的国家更美好
and there are things we can meet in the middle on
在解决枪支暴力问题上
to tackle the issue of gun violence.”
我们可以找到中间地带”
And a Republican.
这是位共和党人写的
“Horrible crimes can be committed using guns …
“使用枪支可以犯下很可怕的罪行……
everything from school shootings to murders
由于种族主义和白人至上主义
because of racism and white supremacy.
像校园枪击案 谋杀案这样的案件 层出不穷
It’s very understandable that you think it makes sense
你认为制定更严格的枪支法是有意义的
to make gun laws more strict.
这点可以理解
We’re all reasonable people,
我们都是有理性的人
and we just want what’s best for our loved ones.”
我们只想把最好的给予我们所爱的人”
To us, this was wild.
这真是难以置信
Remember,
记得吧
just like ocean and lake fishermen,
就像海岸边和湖边的渔民们
these people did not start out any different,
这些人一开始并没有什么差别
but just reading one essay
但仅仅读了一篇文章
turned some of them into new optimists
他们中的一些人就变成了新乐观主义者
and others into new cynics.
而另一些人则变成了新玩世不恭者
This shaped how they acted, and their effect on other people.
这塑造了他们的行为方式 并对他人产生影响
We sent all of these notes
我们把所有这些话语
to people who really disagreed with
都寄给了那些在枪支管制问题上
the writer about gun control,
确实与写者意见不同的人
and found that notes written by new optimists
我们发现新乐观主义者所写
were more persuasive than those written by new cynics,
要比新玩世不恭者所写更有说服力
more likely to make other people change their mind.
更有可能让他人改变主意
In other words, we taught these people that empathy was useful,
换言之 我们告诉这些人同理心是有用的
they used it, and it became useful.
而他们运用了同理心 而同理心也起了作用
This is what I want you to remember and what I want you to know:
这就是我想让你们记住的 也是我想让你们知道的
that if cynical stories can become self-fulfilling,
如果玩世不恭的故事可以成真
our work shows that hopeful ones can as well.
我们的研究工作表明充满希望的故事也可以成真
Now, cynicism is not the only root of our problems,
玩世不恭并不是我们问题的唯一根源
and optimism alone will not fix them.
仅靠乐观是解决不了问题的
But it’s hard to change a broken system if you think it’s a mirror
但是 如果你认为一个烂系统是人性本恶的映照
reflecting our broken nature.
那就很难改变它
If people are selfish to our core,
如果人们自私自利到极点
then toxic laws and practices are here to stay.
有危害性的法律和做法就会继续存在
But we can all choose to tell a different story.
但我们都可以选择讲述一个不同的故事
We can be skeptical —
我们可以持怀疑态度
demanding evidence before we believe in people —
可以要求他人证实自己以取得我们的信任
but hopeful, knowing they can change for the better.
但要充满希望 因为我们知道他们能变得更好
We can notice their kindness even when the media doesn’t
即便媒体没能注意到他们的善意 但我们能
and envision systems built on that kindness.
而且能设想出建立在这种善意基础上的体系
We can find other people in our neighborhoods,
我们可以在社区 工会和宗教团体中
unions and faith communities who want the same thing.
找到其他有着同样追求的人
We can use our collective optimism
我们可以利用集体乐观主义
to build pockets of solidarity and mutual aid,
来建设团结互助的一片片小区域
miniature ocean villages that can grow over time.
建立这些微型海洋村 让其能随着时间的推移而发展
Now, this is the part of the talk
讲述到这里
where I’m supposed to tell you how I cured my own cynicism.
我本应该告诉大家我的“玩世不恭症”已经痊愈了
But the truth is, I still struggle.
但事实上 我还在与之斗争
Depending on the day or the hour,
这得取决于是哪一天或者哪一刻
I promise, I can be as cynical as anyone here.
我保证 我会和现场的你一样玩世不恭
But I see cynicism for what it is —
但是我了解玩世不恭到底是什么
a psychological quicksand
它是一种“心理流沙”
that will pull me in deeper, the more I move through it.
我越想穿越过去 就陷得越深
So I fight to believe in people,
所以我努力去相信别人
not because it feels good,
不是因为这样才心安
but because stories matter,
而是因为我们讲述的故事很重要
and we’re telling ours all the time, together.
我们一直在一起讲述故事
We all get stuck in quicksand — sometimes, that’s OK.
我们有时都会陷入流沙中 但那没关系
But the next time you manage to pull yourself out,
但是 下一次当你设法摆脱了困境
and find some faith in humanity,
找到了对人性的一些信心时
try to remember to reach back and grab someone else who’s stuck,
要记得回过身 抓住其他被困住的人
until more of us can make it to solid ground.
直到更多的人能够站立在坚实的地面上
Because optimism is not a relic of the past.
因为乐观主义并非昔日遗迹
It’s one key to building a better future
它让我们更清楚地看到未来
by letting us see it more clearly.
这是建设美好未来的关键之一
Thank you.
谢谢
[Applause]
[鼓掌]

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视频概述

面对负面信息,处于艰难时刻,人们可能会变得玩世不恭,但这样的态度真的能保护自我不受伤害吗?请观看视频,了解真相。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Ada

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ABHdTi1If0c

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