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可持续发展的城市之歌

Jaime Lerner: Sing a song of sustainable cities

我希望你们能听懂我的话
I hope you’ll understand my English.
早上我说的就挺糟糕 下午就更别提了
In the mornings it is terrible, and the afternoon is worst.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
很多年以来 我以这个为开头 做了一些演讲
During many years, I made some speeches starting with this
“城市并不是一个难题 而是一种解决方案”
saying: “City is not a problem, it’s a solution.”
我越来越相信
And more and more, I’m convinced that
这不仅仅是一项针对某个国家的解决方案
it’s not only a solution for a country,
而且是应对气候改变的办法
but it’s a solution for the problem of climate change.
但是我们对于城市却持有一种非常悲观的态度
But we have a very pessimistic approach about the cities.
我在城市中工作了将近40年
I’m working in cities for almost 40 years,
每个城市的市长都试图告诉我 哦 他的城市太大了
and where every mayor is trying to tell me his city is so big,
或者另一些市长会说 我们没有财政来源
or the other mayors say, “We don’t have financial resources,”
我想说
I would like to say
从我的经历来看 世界上的每个城市
from the experience I had: every city in the world
都能在3年之内得到改善
can be improved in less than three years.
规模大小并不重要 并且这跟规模无关
There’s no matter of scale. It’s not a question of scale,
这也不是财政来源的问题
it’s not a question of financial resources.
城市中的每个问题都必然有形成它的诸多原因当然
Every problem in a city has to have its own equation of co-responsibility
还有城市的设计
and also a design.
我想以一些作图片为开始
So to start, I want to introduce some characters
这些图片来自一本我为青少年写的书
from a book I made for teenagers.
要说明生活质量 最好的例子是乌龟
The best example of quality of life is the turtle
因为乌龟是一个将工作和生活结合在一起的例子
because the turtle is an example of living and working together.
当你们看到乌龟壳
And when you realize that the casque of the turtle
他看起来像是市区
looks like an urban tessitura,
我们可以想象 如果我们把龟壳从乌龟身上拿走 那乌龟得多难过啊
and can we imagine, if we cut the casque of the turtle, how sad she’s going to be?
然而这就是我们对我们的城市所做的!
And that’s what we’re doing in our cities:
住在这里 在那里工作 又在这里休闲
living here, working here, having leisure here.
并且大多数人正准备离开城市
And most of the people are leaving the city
然后在市区之外住
and living outside of the city.
另一张图片是Otto
So, the other character is Otto, the automobile.
就是汽车他被邀请去一个派对 他根本不想离开
He is invited for a party — he never wants to leave.
椅子放在桌子上 然后还在喝酒
The chairs are on the tables and still drinking,
还喝了不少(笑声)
and he drinks a lot. (Laughter)
他咳嗽得很厉害
And he coughs a lot. Very egotistical:
还很自大他只能载一到两个人
he carries only one or two people
但是他总是要求更多的基础建设
and he asks always for more infrastructure.
高速公路
Freeways.
他有很多要求然后
He’s a very demanding person.
另一边 像手风琴一样的 友好的公交车
And on the other hand, Accordion, the friendly bus,
可以载300人
he carries 300 people —
在瑞典的话是275 进了巴西就能载300
275 in Sweden; 300 Brazilians. (Laughter)
谈到规划 每一个城市都有它自己的规划
Speaking about the design: every city has its own design.
库里蒂巴(巴西南部巴拉那州首府) 我的城市 市内住着30万人总共1
Curitiba, my city: three million in the metropolitan area,
800 000人住在这座城市
1,800,000 people in the city itself.
库里蒂巴 里约热内卢:它就像两只互相亲吻的鸟
Curitiba, Rio: it’s like two birds kissing themselves.
瓦哈卡(墨西哥)、旧金山–图形很简单市场街
Oaxaca, San Francisco — it’s very easy:
、凡尼斯大道还有滨水地区(均位于旧金山)
Market Street, Van Ness and the waterfront.
每座城市都有自己的设计
And every city has its own design.
但是为了使它实现 有时候你不得不提出一个方案
But to make it happen, sometimes you have to propose a scenario
并且准备好一个设计
and to propose a design —
还有一个能令所有人 或者是大多数人满意的主意
an idea that everyone, or the large majority,
使得他们能够帮助你实现
will help you to make it happen.
这是库里蒂巴的城市结构
And that’s the structure of the city of Curitiba.
这就是一个工作与生活在一起的样本
And it’s an example of living and working together.
这是这个城市中人口密度最大的地方
And this is where we have more density;
也是公共交通最集中的地方
it’s where we have more public transport.
这个交通系统在74年开始建设 我们计划每天运载25 000名乘客现在
So, this system started in ’74. We started with 25,000 passengers a day,
这个数据变成了2 200 000人每天
now it’s 2,200,000 passengers a day.
这个过程花费了25年的时间 知道另一个城市
And it took 25 years until another city …
就是波哥大 他们做的也非常好现在
which is Bogota, and they did a very good job.
全世界有83个城市正在应用
And now there’s 83 cities all over the world that they
他们所谓的库里蒂巴快速公交系统
are doing what they call the BRT of Curitiba.
还有一点:这很重要 不仅是针对你们的城市
And one thing: it’s important not for only your own city;
每个城市 不仅是那些普通的问题
every city, besides its normal problems,
城市有它们的角色–一个非常重要的角色–
they have a very important role
它们伴随着人类
in being with the whole humanity.
这意味着两个主要问题
That means mostly two main issues —
灵活性和可持续性 正在成为对城市而言非常重要的因素
mobility and sustainability — are becoming very important for the cities.
这是一辆铰接式的公交车 是二级链式的
And this is an articulated bus, double-articulated.
这个地方离我家非常近
And we are very close to my house.
要是你来到库里蒂巴 你可以到我家喝杯咖啡
You can come when you are in Curitiba and have a coffee there.
这张图是库里蒂巴交通系统的发展
And that’s the evolution of the system.
那些设计真正成功的
What in the design that made the difference
是那些便捷登车通道
is the boarding tubes:
它使的公交可以向地铁一样工作
the boarding tube gives to the bus the same performance as a subway.
这就是为什么我说
That’s why, I’m trying to say,
这是种地铁化的公交
it’s like metro-nizing the bus.
这就是公交的设计并且
This is the design of the bus,
你可以在登车前购买车票
and you can pay before entering the bus you’re boarding.
对于残障人士 它们可以利用这个进出站然而
And for handicapped, they can use this as a normal system.
我所试图表达的是
What I’m trying to say is
碳排放主要排放来源是汽车
the major contribution on carbon emissions are from the cars —
50%以上是这样的 所以当我们只依靠我们的汽车时
more than 50 percent — so when we depend only on cars, it’s …
这是为什么我们讨论可持续性是不够的
— that’s why when we’re talking about sustainability,
绿色建筑?
it’s not enough, green buildings.
也不够
It’s not enough, a new materials.
新型材料?不够
It’s not enough, new sources of energy.
新能源?是城市的理念 市城市的设计
It’s the concept of the city, the design of the city,
而且这也是非常重要的 教育儿童的方法
that’s also important, too. And also, how to teach the children.
我之后还会讨论这个
I’ll speak on this later on.
我们对于交通的构想是尝试
Our idea of mobility is trying
在各个系统之间建立联系
to make the connections between all the systems.
我们在1983年开始 为里约热内卢计划
We started in ’83, proposing for the city of Rio
连接地铁和公交的方式
how to connect the subway with the bus.
地铁公司当然很反对这个然后
The subway was against, of course.
23年之后 他们叫我们去开发–我们的计划正在进展中
And 23 years after, they called us to develop — we’re developing this idea.
你能理解这将会有多大的不同
And you can understand how different it’s going to be,
当里约热内卢有了这个系统
the image of Rio with the system —
每分钟一趟车
one-minute frequency.
这不是上海在白天
And it’s not Shanghai,
她并非五颜六色 只有晚上这样
it’s not being colored during the day, only at night
她看起来是这样的
it will look this way.
在你说这是Norman Foster的设计之前
And before you say it’s a Norman Foster design,
我们在83年设计的这个
we designed this in ’83.
并且这就是
And this is the model,
她如何工作的模式 所以说这是相同的系统
how it’s going to work. So, it’s the same system;
交通工具并不相同
the vehicle is different. And that’s the model.
而且这是我所试图表达的 我并没有试着
What I’m trying to say is, I’m not trying
证明哪种运输系统更好
to prove which system of transport is better.
我尝试表达出我们需要结合
I’m trying to say we have to combine
将所有的系统结合起来
all the systems, and with one condition:
有一个条件永远不要–如果市内有地铁 如果还有地面交通
never — if you have a subway, if you have surface systems,
如果市内有任何交通系统–
if you have any kind of system —
永远不要在同一空间内竞争
never compete in the same space.
回到汽车
And coming back to the car, I always used to say
我总是说汽车就像是你的岳母
that the car is like your mother-in-law:
不不得不和她建立良好的关系
you have to have good relationship with her,
但她不能左右你的生活
but she cannot command your life.
当你生活中唯一的女性是你岳母的时候
So, when the only woman in your life is your mother-in-law,
你就遇到问题了
you have a problem. (Laughter)
(笑声)所以所有通过设计来改进的设想–采石场
So, all the ideas about how to transform through design —
、开放式的大学
old quarries and open universities and botanic garden —
还有植物园所有这些与我们教育孩子的方式有关
all of it’s related to how we teach the children.
如果孩子们在六个月里学习如何分类垃圾这之后
And the children, we teach during six months how to separate their garbage.
孩子们会教他们的家长
And after, the children teach their parents.
现在有70%–
And now we have 70 percent —
近20年中 是世界垃圾分类率中最高的
since 20 years, it’s the highest rate of separation of garbage in the world.
七十
Seven zero.
(掌声)所以
(Applause)
教育孩子我想说
So teach the children.
如果我们想拥有一个可持续的世界
I would like to say, if we want to have a sustainable world
我们就必须改善我所提到的一切但是
we have to work with everything what’s said,
不要忘记城市和孩子们
but don’t forget the cities and the children.
我在博物馆工作 同时也在一个多功能的城市里工作
I’m working in a museum and also a multi-use city,
因为你不可能在一个空空如也的地方每天呆18个小时
because you cannot have empty places during 18 hours a day.
你总需要
You should have always
一个工作与生活相结合的地方
a structure of living and working together.
尝试理解城市的部分区域
Try to understand the sectors in the city
那些可以在24小时内扮演不同角色的区域
that could play different roles during the 24 hours.
另一个问题是 城市就像是我们的家庭照
Another issue is, a city’s like our family portrait.
我们不会把家庭照撕裂
We don’t rip our family portrait,
即便我们不喜欢叔叔的鼻子
even if we don’t like the nose of our uncle,
因为这照片就像是你
because this portrait is you.
所有城市都可以这样比做一张照片
And these are the references that we have in any city.
这是步行大街
This is the main pedestrian mall;
我们在72小时内建成的 是的 你的速度必须很快
we did it in 72 hours. Yes, you have to be fast.
这些是参照不同民族建设的
And these are the references from our ethnic contribution.
这是意大利式的大门
This is the Italian portal,
乌克兰式的公园、波兰式的公园、日式广场、德国风格的公园
the Ukrainian park, the Polish park, the Japanese square, the German park.
突然之间
All of a sudden, the Soviet Union, they split.
苏联解体了由于我们这有来自
And since we have people from
乌兹别克斯坦、哈萨克斯坦、塔吉克斯坦、[说的不清楚]
Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, [unclear],
我们不得不停止这个计划
we have to stop the program.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
不要忘记:创意源于从预算表里去掉的一个零
Don’t forget: creativity starts when you cut a zero from your budget.
如果少了两个零
If you cut two zeros, it’s much better.
创意会更多这是Wire歌剧院 我们在两个月内建成
And this is the Wire Opera theater. We did it in two months.
公园–由旧矿场改建成的公园矿场
Parks — old quarries that they were transformed into parks.
曾经是自然的一部分有时
Quarries once made the nature, and
我们接手然后加以改造并且
sometimes we took this and we transformed.
每部分都能改变
And every part can be transformed;
每只青蛙都可以变成王子所以
every frog can be transformed in a prince.
在城市中 你的动作必须快
So, in a city, you have to work fast.
规划需要时间 我正在做城市针灸计划
Planning takes time. And I’m proposing urban acupuncture.
意思是我 用一些焦点问题来帮助日常规划工作
That means me, with some focal ideas to help the normal process of planning.
这是一份针灸的记录–
And this is an acupuncture note —
或是贝聿铭的建筑 一些小的–
or I.M. Pei’s. Some small ones
她们可以使城市更好
can make the city better.
或者是纽约最小但是最美的公园:
The smallest park in New York, the most beautiful:
只有32米长所以
32 meters.
我想在结尾说
So, I want just to end saying
你们可以经常研发新材料 新的可持续性材料
that you can always propose new materials — new sustainable materials —
但是记住 我们必须快点行动在最后
but keep in mind that we have to work fast
因为我们没有那么多时间去计划
to the end, because we don’t have the whole time to plan.
我认为创造性和革新是开端
And I think creativity, innovation is starting.
而且我们不会找到所有的答案那么
And we cannot have all the answers.
当你开始的时候–另外
So when you start —
我们也不会因为又有所有的答案而拥有什么优势
and we cannot be so prepotent on having all the answers —
人们的贡献是非常重要的
it’s important starting and having the contribution from people,
他们可以教你
and they could teach you
如果你没有走上正轨最后
if you’re not in the right track.
我希望你能帮我唱可持续之歌好
At the end, I would like if you can help me to sing the sustainable song.
么?
OK?
请允许我再给我两分钟
Please, allow me just two minutes.
你们来打拍子、
You’re going to make the music and the rhythm.
唱旋律♫咚咚! 咚咚! 咚咚!
♫ Toonchi-too! Toonchi-too! Toonchi-too! ♫
♫♫咚咚! 咚咚! 咚咚!
♫ Toonchi-too! Toonchi-too! Toonchi-too! ♫
♫♫这是可能的!这是可能的!你能做到!你能做到!
♫ It’s possible! It’s possible! You can do it! You can do it! ♫
♫♫少点开车!下定决心!
♫ Use less your car! Make this decision! ♫
♫♫避免碳排放!这是可能的!这是可能的!
♫ Avoid carbon emission! It’s possible! It’s possible! ♫
♫♫你能做到!你能做到!
♫ You can do it! You can do it! ♫
♫♫住处离工作更近♫
♫ Live closer to work! ♫
♫工作离家更近!在家节约能源!
♫ Work closer to home! Save energy in your home! ♫
♫♫这是可能的!这是可能的!你可以做到!
♫ It’s possible! It’s possible! You can do it! ♫
♫♫你可以做到!分类你的垃圾!
♫ You can do it! Separate your garbage! ♫
♫♫有机的 还是有机的!节约更多!减少浪费!这是可能的!
♫ Organic, schmorganic! Save more! Waste less! It’s possible! ♫
♫♫你可以做到!快点!现在-就做!
♫ You can do it! Please, do it now! ♫
♫谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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