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意想不到之处的巧妙家园

Iwan Baan: Ingenious homes in unexpected places

在我的职业生涯里,我非常幸运的
Throughout my career, I’ve been fortunate enough
和很多著名的
to work with many of the great
国际建筑师一起工作过,
international architects,
整理他们的工作,并观察
documenting their work and observing
他们的设计是如何有能力
how their designs have the capacity
去影响其所在的城市。
to influence the cities in which they sit.
我想到了如迪拜一样的新城市
I think of new cities like Dubai
或者像罗马一样的老城市
or ancient cities like Rome
拥有扎哈·哈迪德不可思议的设计——21世纪国家艺术博物馆
with Zaha Hadid’s incredible MAXXI museum,
或者像这里,高楼林立的纽约
or like right here in New York with the High Line,
一个被摩天大楼的建筑
a city which has been so much influenced
深深影响的城市。
by the development of this.
但是我发现最吸引我的是
But what I find really fascinating
当这些城市的建筑师和规划者离开
is what happens when architects and planners leave
人们开始使用这些地方时,城市将会发生怎样的变化
and these places become appropriated by people,
比如印度的昌迪加尔
like here in Chandigarh, India,
一个完全由建筑师 勒·柯布西耶
the city which has been completely designed
设计的城市。
by the architect Le Corbusier.
60年后的今天,这个城市已经被
Now 60 years later, the city has been taken over
居民以一种当初设计时不可设想的方式
by people in very different ways
所使用,
from whatever perhaps intended for,
像这里
like here, where you have the people
有人们坐在礼堂的窗户上。
sitting in the windows of the assembly hall.
但是在这几年期间,
But over the course of several years,
我在记录雷姆·库哈斯
I’ve been documenting Rem Koolhaas’s
设计的北京CCTV大楼
CCTV building in Beijing
和同一个城市里由赫尔佐格和德·梅隆设计的
and the olympic stadium in the same city
奥运主体育场。
by the architects Herzog and de Meuron.
在这些中国的大型基建项目里,
At these large-scale construction sites in China,
你可以看到一种临时的帐篷营地
you see a sort of makeshift camp
是工人在整个施工期间居住的地方。
where workers live during the entire building process.
由于施工期需要多年的时间,
As the length of the construction takes years,
工人最终形成一种非常原始和简单的
workers end up forming a rather rough-and-ready
非常规城市,和他们正在建设的
informal city, making for quite a juxtaposition
复杂结构的建筑并存。
against the sophisticated structures that they’re building.
在过去的七年里,我一直在追随着
Over the past seven years, I’ve been following
我对建筑环境的兴趣,
my fascination with the built environment,
并且对你们当中了解我的人,你们会说
and for those of you who know me, you would say
这种痴迷使我
that this obsession has led me to live
一年365天提着行李生活
out of a suitcase 365 days a year.
一直四处奔波
Being constantly on the move
意味着有时我可以
means that sometimes I am able
抓住生活中最不可预测的时刻,
to catch life’s most unpredictable moments,
比如在纽约这里
like here in New York
在桑迪飓风袭击城市后的一天。
the day after the Sandy storm hit the city.
正好在三年前,
Just over three years ago,
我第一次来到委内瑞拉的加拉加斯
I was for the first time in Caracas, Venezuela,
当飞机飞过城市上方时,我很惊讶于
and while flying over the city, I was just amazed
这里的贫民窟
by the extent to which the slums
已经遍布了城市的每个角落,
reach into every corner of the city,
一个百分之七十的居民
a place where nearly 70 percent of the population
生活在贫民窟里的地方,
lives in slums,
贫民窟满山遍野的搭建着
draped literally all over the mountains.
在和当地的城市设计智库的谈话中,
During a conversation with local architects Urban-Think Tank,
我了解到托雷·大卫
I learned about the Torre David,
一个45层高的办公楼,坐落在
a 45-story office building which sits
加拉加斯的中心。
right in the center of Caracas.
这个高楼一直在施工
The building was under construction
直到90年代初委内瑞拉经济大崩盘
until the collapse of the Venezuelan economy
并且设计者去世。
and the death of the developer in the early ’90s.
大概八年前,人们开始搬进
About eight years ago, people started moving
被废弃的大楼里
into the abandoned tower
并开始在这个未完工的大楼的每个间隙里
and began to build their homes right in between
搭建他们自己的房子。
every column of this unfinished tower.
整座大楼只有一个小小的入口,
There’s only one little entrance to the entire building,
3000居民从这里
and the 3,000 residents come in and out
通过这一个门进出。
through that single door.
居住者合力建立了公共空间
Together, the inhabitants created public spaces
并设计德使这里多一点家的感觉
and designed them to feel more like a home
少一点烂尾楼的感觉。
and less like an unfinished tower.
在大堂,他们粉刷了墙面,种植了树
In the lobby, they painted the walls and planted trees.
他们还建了一个篮球场。
They also made a basketball court.
但是当你近距离观察时,
But when you look up closely,
可以看到很多的洞,这是当初设计给电梯
you see massive holes where elevators
和其它的服务设施。
and services would have run through.
在大楼里,人们想出了
Within the tower, people have come up
各种解决方案
with all sorts of solutions
以应对不同的需求
in response to the various needs
由于居住在这个烂尾楼里。
which arise from living in an unfinished tower.
由于没有电梯
With no elevators,
大楼像个45层的步行高楼。
the tower is like a 45-story walkup.
这群没有受过任何建筑和设计培训的居民
Designed in very specific ways
以一种独特的方式
by this group of people
设计了大楼的使用。
who haven’t had any education in architecture or design.
而当每个居住者发现他们自己
And with each inhabitant finding their own
独特的生活居住方式时,
unique way of coming by,
这座大楼好像变成了一座居住的城市,
this tower becomes like a living city,
一个伴随着微观的经济
a place which is alive with micro-economies
和小商户的地方。
and small businesses.
比如,这些有创造力的居住者
The inventive inhabitants, for instance,
在最不可思议的情况下发现机遇,
find opportunities in the most unexpected cases,
比如毗邻的停车场
like the adjacent parking garage,
被重新规划为一条出租车的路线
which has been reclaimed as a taxi route
搭载居民通过坡道
to shuttle the inhabitants up through the ramps
以缩短到公寓的
in order to shorten the hike
爬坡的距离。
up to the apartments.
穿过大楼的一路上
A walk through the tower
展现了居民是如何想出
reveals how residents have figured out
怎么搭建墙体,怎么让空气流通,
how to create walls, how to make an air flow,
怎么让大楼更加透亮,
how to create transparency,
大楼的循环系统,
circulation throughout the tower,
尤其是创造一个
essentially creating a home
完全适应于
that’s completely adapted
周围环境的家园。
to the conditions of the site.
当一个新的居住者搬进这座大楼,
When a new inhabitant moves into the tower,
他们已经有一个可以遮盖的房顶,
they already have a roof over their head,
所以他们通常只是使用
so they just typically mark their space
很小的窗帘和单子来突出他们的地方。
with a few curtains or sheets.
慢慢地,从现成的材料,高墙,
Slowly, from found materials, walls rise,
人们创造了一个从任何现成物体
and people create a space out of any found objects
和材料搭建的空间。
or materials.
看到他们的设计规划决定
It’s remarkable to see the design decisions
很让人惊叹,
that they’re making,
例如当所有东西都是红砖建的时候,
like when everything is made out of red bricks,
一些居民会在红砖墙外覆盖上
some residents will cover that red brick
另一层红砖样式的墙纸
with another layer of red brick-patterned wallpaper
只为了让它看上去有干净的感觉。
just to make it a kind of clean finish.
这些居住者真的是
The inhabitants literally built up these homes
用他们的双手来搭建自己的房子,这种充满着爱的劳动
with their own hands, and this labor of love
渗透出一种伟大的自豪感
instills a great sense of pride
充盈在很多住在这儿的家庭里。
in many families living in this tower.
他们特别是要尽最大可能利用他们周围的环境
They typically make the best out of their conditions,
来让他们的生活空间更温馨,更有家的感觉,
and try to make their spaces look nice and homey,
或者至少做到他们能尽的最大可能。
or at least up until as far as they can reach.
在大楼里,你可以找到
Throughout the tower, you come across
各种各样的服务,比如理发店,
all kinds of services, like the barber,
小铺子,每层都有
small factories, and every floor has
小的食品杂货店和商店。
a little grocery store or shop.
你甚至可以找到一个教堂。
And you even find a church.
并且在30层有一个健身房
And on the 30th floor, there is a gym
那里所有的器械和杠铃
where all the weights and barbells
都是由剩下的滑轮制成的
are made out of the leftover pulleys
这些滑轮是从那些没有安装的电梯上拿来的。
from the elevators which were never installed.
从外面,在这个不断变化的外墙后面,
From the outside, behind this always-changing facade,
你可以看到固定的混凝土梁柱是如何
you see how the fixed concrete beams
为居民提供一个房屋框架
provide a framework for the inhabitants
以便让他们以一种有机而直观的方式
to create their homes
去搭建他们的房子
in an organic, intuitive way
来直接应对他们的需求。
that responds directly to their needs.
让我们现在去看看非洲,尼日利亚,
Let’s go now to Africa, to Nigeria,
来到一个叫马卡卡的住宅区
to a community called Makoko,
一个居住着15万人的贫民窟
a slum where 150,000 people
住在仅在拉各斯湖上面几米的地方。
live just meters above the Lagos Lagoon.
虽然它看上去好像是一个很混乱的地方,
While it may appear to be a completely chaotic place,
但当你从上往下看,那里好像存在
when you see it from above, there seems to be
一个由水路和运河形成的格子网
a whole grid of waterways and canals
连接着每家每户。
connecting each and every home.
从主码头,人们坐上长木做的小木舟
From the main dock, people board long wooden canoes
带他们前往在很大一片区域里的
which carry them out to their various homes and shops
各种房屋和商店
located in the expansive area.
当进入水域时,很明显
When out on the water, it’s clear
生活已经完全融入
that life has been completely adapted
这种特殊条件下的生活方式。
to this very specific way of living.
甚至木筏子也变成各种各样的小店
Even the canoes become variety stores
女人们划着木舟从一家到另一家,
where ladies paddle from house to house,
卖着从牙膏到新鲜水果的各种东西。
selling anything from toothpaste to fresh fruits.
在每一扇窗户和门框背后,
Behind every window and door frame,
你都会看到有小孩子在背后盯着你
you’ll see a small child peering back at you,
虽然马卡卡看上去到处都是人,
and while Makoko seems to be packed with people,
但更让人吃惊的是实际上
what’s more shocking is actually
每座房屋里面拥有的孩子的数量。
the amount of children pouring out of every building.
尼日利亚的人口增长,
The population growth in Nigeria,
尤其是在像马卡卡这样的区域,
and especially in these areas like Makoko,
痛苦地提醒着人们
are painful reminders
生育失控后带来的结果。
of how out of control things really are.
在马卡卡,只有非常少的生活系统
In Makoko, very few systems
和基础设施存在
and infrastructures exist.
电是被垄断的,且干净的水
Electricity is rigged and freshest water
来自于这片区域里自己建造的井。
comes from self-built wells throughout the area.
整个经济模式
This entire economic model
是为了应对特殊的水上生活方式而设计的
is designed to meet a specific way of living
所以捕鱼和造船
on the water, so fishing and boat-making
是普遍的职业。
are common professions.
这里还有一系列的商户
You’ll have a set of entrepreneurs
在这片区域建立经营着自己的生意,
who have set up businesses throughout the area,
比如理发店,CD和DVD商店,
like barbershops, CD and DVD stores,
电影院,裁缝铺,和其它的一切。
movie theaters, tailors, everything is there.
这是甚至有一个照相馆
There is even a photo studio
让你看到一种期望
where you see the sort of aspiration
去住在真正的大房子里或者和一个遥远的地方
to live in a real house or to be associated
产生联系,比如瑞典的旅馆。
with a faraway place, like that hotel in Sweden.
在这个特别的夜晚,
On this particular evening,
我遇到这个
I came across this live band
穿着舞台表演衣服的现场演奏乐队。
dressed to the T in their coordinating outfits.
他们在河道里漂着
They were floating through the canals
坐在一个装了可发光的大船里,
in a large canoe with a fitted-out generator
让所有居民欣赏他们的演出。
for all of the community to enjoy.
深夜降临后,这片区域变得漆黑一片,
By nightfall, the area becomes almost pitch black,
除了一些小的电灯
save for a small lightbulb
或者火光。
or a fire.
最初使我来到马卡卡的原因
What originally brought me to Makoko
是一个我朋友的做的项目,
was this project from a friend of mine,
昆里阿德耶米,它最近修建了
Kunlé Adeyemi, who recently finished building
一个漂在水上的三层学校
this three-story floating school
给马卡卡这里的孩子们使用。
for the kids in Makoko.
由于整个村落都在水上,
With this entire village existing on the water,
公共空间十分有限,
public space is very limited,
所以现在学校建好了,
so now that the school is finished,
底层就变成了孩子们的活动场所,
the ground floor is a playground for the kids,
但是当课上完了,整个平台
but when classes are out, the platform
就变成了一个小的城镇广场,
is just like a town square,
渔民在那里补网
where the fishermen mend their nets
划船卖东西的人们在那里停靠木船。
and floating shopkeepers dock their boats.
另一个我希望和你们分享的地方
Another place I’d like to share with you
是在开罗的扎巴林。
is the Zabbaleen in Cairo.
这里的居民是40年代
They’re descendants of farmers who began migrating
从埃及上部的地区移居过来的农民的后代,
from the upper Egypt in the ’40s,
今天他们靠着
and today they make their living
从全开罗居民家里
by collecting and recycling waste from homes
收集和回收垃圾维生。
from all over Cairo.
很多年来,扎巴林的居民生活在临时的村落里
For years, the Zabbaleen would live in makeshift villages
他们可以随时移动
where they would move around
以试图回避当地政府,
trying to avoid the local authorities,
但是在80年代初,他们在
but in the early 1980s, they settled
摩卡塔姆山区定居下来
on the Mokattam rocks
就在城市东边的边缘地区。
just at the eastern edge of the city.
今天,他们生活在这片区域,
Today, they live in this area,
大约5万到7万人,
approximately 50,000 to 70,000 people,
住在自己建的
who live in this community of self-built
多层房屋的社区里
multi-story houses
三代同堂。
where up to three generations live in one structure.
虽然这些他们建给自己的公寓
While these apartments that they built for themselves
看上去缺少规划或者正规的架构
appear to lack any planning or formal grid,
但每家都擅长收一种特殊的回收方式
each family specializing in a certain form of recycling
这意味着每个公寓的底层
means that the ground floor of each apartment
被预留给进行垃圾处理相关的工作
is reserved for garbage-related activities
上层是用于居住的空间。
and the upper floor is dedicated to living space.
我很不可思议地看到
I find it incredible to see
这些成堆成堆的垃圾是如何
how these piles and piles of garbage
能被住在这里的人们所忽视
are invisible to the people who live there,
像这个正在端坐的有威望的长者
like this very distinguished man who is posing
他的后面却仿佛有大量垃圾要溢出,
while all this garbage is sort of streaming out behind him,
或者像这两位年轻人正坐着聊天
or like these two young men who are sitting
在他们之间却有着成吨的垃圾。
and chatting amongst these tons of garbage.
虽然对我们大部分人,生活在
While to most of us, living amongst
这些成堆成堆的垃圾中间
these piles and piles of garbage
可能似乎无法适应,
may seem totally uninhabitable,
但对那些生活在扎巴林的人来说,这只是
to those in the Zabbaleen, this is just
一种与众不同的平常。
a different type of normal.
在所有我今天说到的地方,
In all these places I’ve talked about today,
我发现最有意思的是
what I do find fascinating is that there’s really
没有一种叫寻常的东西,
no such thing as normal,
这证明人们有能力适应
and it proves that people are able to adapt
各种生存环境。
to any kind of situation.
一天中,遇到一个正在街上进行的小型派对
Throughout the day, it’s quite common
是非常正常的。
to come across a small party taking place
就像这个订婚的派对
in the streets, just like this engagement party.
在这种传统中,准新娘
In this tradition, the bride-to-be
展示出她们要带给未来新丈夫的
displays all of their belongings,
所有个人物品
which they soon bring to their new husband.
像这样的物品的堆放
A gathering like this one
展示出一种东西放在一起的情形
offers such a juxtaposition
所有新的物品被展示出来
where all the new stuff is displayed
而所有的垃圾被用作
and all the garbage is used
展示他们新家所有小装饰的道具。
as props to display all their new home accessories.
像马卡卡和托雷大卫一样,
Like Makoko and the Torre David,
通过扎巴林你可以发现在任何典型的社区里
throughout the Zabbaleen you’ll find all
都完全一样的设施。
the same facilities as in any typical neighborhood.
那里有零售店,咖啡厅
There are the retail shops, the cafes
和餐厅,并且这个社区
and the restaurants, and the community
是一个埃及基督徒社区,
is this community of Coptic Christians,
所以你也会发现一个教堂,
so you’ll also find a church,
以及大量的宗教图像
along with the scores of religious iconographies
贯穿于这片区域,
throughout the area,
还有日常的服务设施
and also all the everyday services
比如电器维修点,
like the electronic repair shops,
理发店,任何设施。
the barbers, everything.
参观扎巴林的住家
Visiting the homes of the Zabbaleen
同样充满惊喜。
is also full of surprises.
虽然从外面看,
While from the outside,
这些房子看上去跟其他在城市里非常规结构的住宅没什么两样
these homes look like any other informal structure
但当你走进去,
in the city, when you step inside,
你可以看到它所有设计的形式
you are met with all manner of design decisions
和内部装饰。
and interior decoration.
虽然空间和资金都很有限,
Despite having limited access to space and money,
但这里房子的设计
the homes in the area are designed
都十分体贴,注重细节。
with care and detail.
每个公寓都独一无二,
Every apartment is unique,
这种个性告诉我们一个故事
and this individuality tells a story
关于每家的情况和价值观念。
about each family’s circumstances and values.
他们很多人对待自己的家
Many of these people take their homes
和内部空间十分认真,
and interior spaces very seriously,
在细节方面
putting a lot of work and care
花费大量时间和精力。
into the details.
公共区域也被用同样的态度对待,
The shared spaces are also treated in the same manner,
墙面由人造大理石装饰。
where walls are decorated in faux marble patterns.
但是除了这些精致的装饰,
But despite this elaborate decor,
这些公寓里有时候
sometimes these apartments are used
也会以一种与众不同的方式被使用。
in very unexpected ways,
比如这个吸引我注意的房子
like this home which caught my attention
很多泥土和杂草
while all the mud and the grass was literally
从前门渗了进去。
seeping out under the front door.
当我进去的时候,这个五层楼的公寓好像
When I was let in, it appeared that this fifth-floor apartment
被完全改造成一个农场,
was being transformed into a complete animal farm,
六七头牛站在里面吃草
where six or seven cows stood grazing
而这里本来应该是客厅。
in what otherwise would be the living room.
不过从这个牛棚穿过楼道的这个公寓
But then in the apartment across the hall
住着一对新婚的夫妻
from this cow shed lives a newly married couple
这里被当地人形容为
in what locals describe
当地最好的一座公寓之一。
as one of the nicest apartments in the area.
公寓里对细节的注意使我震惊,
The attention to this detail astonished me,
并且当公寓的主人很自豪地
and as the owner of the home so proudly
让我在这个公寓里随便走动时
led me around this apartment,
从地板到屋顶,这里的每处都经过装点。
from floor to ceiling, every part was decorated.
但假如不是那让人无法忍受的
But if it weren’t for the strangely familiar
持续穿过公寓的
stomach-churning odor that constantly
让人恶心的气味,
passes through the apartment,
你会非常容易忘记
it would be easy to forget
你正站在牛棚的隔壁
that you are standing next to a cow shed
和垃圾清理厂的上方。
and on top of a landfill.
让我感动的是除了
What moved me the most was that despite
那些看上去不宜居的条件,
these seemingly inhospitable conditions,
我被非常热情地邀请
I was welcomed with open arms
进入一个充满爱,关怀
into a home that was made with love, care,
和没有保留热情的家。
and unreserved passion.
让我们跨越来到中国,
Let’s move across the map to China,
来到一个叫陕西,河南和甘肃的区域。
to an area called Shanxi, Henan and Gansu.
一个以柔软松散的黄土高原黄沙而闻名的地区,
In a region famous for the soft, porous Loess Plateau soil,
最新估计那里
there lived until recently an estimated
有四千万人住在地下的房屋里。
40 million people in these houses underground.
这种住宅称为窑洞。
These dwellings are called the yaodongs.
通过这种往下建的建筑方式,
Through this architecture by subtraction,
这些窑洞真的是建在土地下面
these yaodongs are built literally inside of the soil.
在这些村子里,你可以看到完全改变了的地貌,
In these villages, you see an entirely altered landscape,
而在这些土丘背后
and hidden behind these mounds of dirt
藏着的是广场,长方形的房子
are these square, rectangular houses
坐落在地下7米的地方。
which sit seven meters below the ground.
当我问人们为什么要
When I asked people why they were digging
地上往下挖洞建房子时,
their houses from the ground,
他们只是很简单的告诉我,
they simply replied that they are poor wheat
他们是种小麦和苹果的穷农民,没钱
and apple farmers who didn’t have the money
买材料,而这种挖窑洞
to buy materials, and this digging out
是他们最符合逻辑的居住方式。
was their most logical form of living.
从马卡卡到扎巴林,这些社区
From Makoko to Zabbaleen, these communities
解决了规划,
have approached the tasks of planning,
设计的任务,并总结了一套管理社区
design and management of their communities
和邻里的的方法,以一种特别针对
and neighborhoods in ways that respond
他们的环境和实际情况的方式。
specifically to their environment and circumstances.
由那些居住,
Created by these very people who live,
工作,生活在这种特殊空间的人们创造而成,
work and play in these particular spaces,
这些社区是由人们本能地设计
these neighborhoods are intuitively designed
来最大利用他们的生活环境。
to make the most of their circumstances.
这些大多数地方,政府
In most of these places, the government
完全没有管理,因此让居民
is completely absent, leaving inhabitants
没有选择只能重新利用现成的材料,
with no choice but to reappropriate found materials,
虽然这些社区的环境十分恶劣,
and while these communities are highly disadvantaged,
他们却真的显示出
they do present examples
一种杰出的创造力,
of brilliant forms of ingenuity,
证明我们确实有能力
and prove that indeed we have the ability
适应不同的生存环境。
to adapt to all manner of circumstances.
让像托雷大卫这样的地方
What makes places like the Torre David
尤其突出的就是
particularly remarkable
这种框架建筑
is this sort of skeleton framework
让人们可以有一个
where people can have a foundation
能够进入改造的基础。
where they can tap into.
设想这些已经很有创造力的社区
Now imagine what these already ingenious communities
可以创造出什么,
could create themselves,
而他们的解决方案将有多么特别,
and how highly particular their solutions would be,
假如他们拥有使他们可以进入的
if they were given the basic infrastructures
基本的设施。
that they could tap into.
今天,你看到这些大型的房屋住宅建设工程
Today, you see these large residential development projects
给大量的人
which offer cookie-cutter housing solutions
提供千篇一律的住房解决方案。
to massive amounts of people.
从中国到巴西,这些工程试图
From China to Brazil, these projects attempt
提供给人们尽可能多的房子,
to provide as many houses as possible,
但他们完全是大众化的,
but they’re completely generic
并且简单来说不是一个
and simply do not work as an answer
针对人们个体需求的解决方法。
to the individual needs of the people.
我想引用一句话来收尾
I would like to end with a quote
它来自于我的一个朋友和一种期望,
from a friend of mine and a source of inspiration,
查塔·科巴
Zita Cobb, the founder of the wonderful
出色的Shorefast基金会创始人,
Shorefast Foundation,
总部在纽芬兰的福戈岛。
based out of Fogo Island, Newfoundland.
她说:”这里有一种名为‘相同’的瘟疫
She says that “there’s this plague of sameness
在杀死人类的快乐,”
which is killing the human joy,”
而我非常赞同这句话。
and I couldn’t agree with her more.
谢谢
Thank you.
(鼓掌)
(Applause)

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