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手机为上瘾而设计,所以这并不是你的错

It’s not you. Phones are designed to be addicting.

I can’t stop looking at my phone
我无法停止查看我的手机
but I’m not alone.
但我并不是个例
Over 2.5 billion people have smartphones now,
现如今 拥有智能手机的人数超过25亿
and a lot of them are having a hard time putting them down.
并且这其中有许多人离不开手机
There’s a new app that aims to curb phone addiction.
人们开发了一种新的应用软件 来控制手机瘾
Addiction is money.
沉迷即金钱
Are we a nation of smartphone addicts?
我们是一个手机成瘾的国家吗?
The problem is, our devices are designed to keep us engaged.
问题在于 手机就是为了吸引我们而设计的
They’re intentionally addicting.
它们是有意让人上瘾的
But if you understand the tricks that grab your attention,
但如果你能识破吸引你注意力的小技巧
you can learn to have a healthier relationship with your phone.
你就可以学会与手机建立一个更健康的关系
《Vox观点》:因为设计
I think we’re living inside of two billion Truman Shows
我想我们正生活在 二十亿人出演的《楚门的世界》里
where you know Truman Show
你知道 在楚门的世界里
there you wake up and everything has coordinated just for you.
一觉醒来后 所有的事情都在配合你
And you really don’t even realize it,
而你甚至都意识不到
but it’s coordinating just to entertain you,
这样的设计只是为了取悦你
or just to engage you.
或者说吸引你
That’s Tristan Harris,
这位是Tristan Harris
he worked as Google’s design ethicist,
他曾担任过谷歌的伦理学设计师
and now he runs a nonprofit initiative
现在他在运营一个
called Time Well Spent,
名叫“欢乐时光”的非营利组织
advocating for awareness of
倡导让用户意识到
how tech companies profit off of users’ attention.
科技公司是如何通过吸引用户注意力来获取利益
It’s not designed to help us,
手机的设计并不是为了帮助我们
it’s just designed to keep us hooked.
而是为了让我们上瘾
So I handed him my phone
所以我把我的手机交给他
and asked him how he’d fix it.
想问问他该怎样处理手机
It starts with turning off all notifications,
首先关闭所有的消息通知
except for when a real human is trying to reach you.
除非现实中有人想要联系你
When you get a call, a text, or a message,
当你接到一个电话 收到一条短信 或消息
it’s usually because another person wants to communicate with you,
这常常是因为有人想要联系你
but a lot of today’s apps
但如今很多应用软件
simulate the feeling of that kind of social interaction,
模仿那种社交的感觉
to get you to spend more time on their platform.
目的是让你在他们的平台上 花费更多时间
If Facebook sends you a push notification
当脸书发给你推送一条消息
that a friend is interested in an event near you,
告知你 一个朋友对你附近的事情感兴趣时
they’re essentially acting like a puppet master,
他们就像木偶师一样
leveraging your desire for social connections
通过利用你对社交的渴望
so that you use the app more.
来使你更加频繁地使用这个软件
But notifications didn’t always work like this.
但最初通知并不是这样用的
When push notifications were first introduced for email
当2003年黑莓手机第一次推出推送服务时
on Blackberries in 2003
其实是为了推送邮件
they were actually seen as a way for you to check your phone less.
它们实际上被看作是一种减少翻看手机次数的方式
You could easily see emails as they came in,
你可以轻松看到发过来的邮件
so you didn’t have to repeatedly open your phone to refresh an inbox.
而不需要频繁地打开手机刷新收件箱
But today you can get notifications from any app on your phone.
但现在你可以从手机的任何软件中收到通知
So, every time you check it,
因此 每次你查收时
you get this grab bag of notifications
看到一大堆混杂的信息
that can make you feel a broad variety of emotions.
会使你会有非常复杂的感受
If it wasn’t for random,
如果信息不是胡乱出现的
if it was predictably bad or predictably good,
如果可以预见它是不好的还是有用的
then you would not get addicted.
那你就不会上瘾
The predictability would take out the addictiveness.
这种可预见性可以去除成瘾姓
That’s the same logic behind slot machines
老虎机也是依靠这样的逻辑
and it’s effective.
并且十分有效
Slot machines make more money in the US
在美国 老虎机比棒球运动
than baseball, movies, and theme parks combined
电影和联合主题公园加起来还要赚钱
and they become addicting about 3-4 times faster
他们使人上瘾的速度
than other kinds of gambling.
比其他博彩游戏都要快3到4倍
Some apps even replicate
一些软件甚至效仿了
the process of pulling a slot machine lever with the”pull to refresh” feature.
老虎机下拉拉杆刷新的操作
That’s a conscious design choice.
那是有意设计的
Those apps are usually capable of continuously updating content,
那些应用软件能够持续地更新内容
but the pull action provides an
但是下拉这一行为给人们一种
addicting illusion of control over that process.
控制了那个过程的错觉并为之上瘾
In the future,
在未来
we might see healthier ways of delivering notifications.
我们或许能用更健康的方式推送信息
Research shows that bundling notifications,
研究表明绑定消息
where phones deliver a batch of updates at set times,
即手机定时推送一系列更新
reduces users’ stress.
能降低使用者的压力
Then you have to grayscale your screen.
然后你必须灰度化你的手机屏幕
The easiest way to attract your eyes’ attention on a screen is through color.
屏幕最容易通过色彩来吸引你的注意力
Human eyes are sensitive to warm colors.
人类的眼睛对暖色敏感
In eye-tracking tests like this one,
在类似这种的眼动追踪测试中
they gravitate particularly to bright red.
测试者们尤其容易被亮红色吸引
That’s why so many apps have redesigned their icons
这就是为什么这几年很多应用软件重设了图标
to be brighter, bolder, and warmer over the years.
使它们变得更加明亮 醒目以及温暖
It’s also why notification bubbles are red.
这也是信息通知的泡泡是红色的原因
A little icon like this, or this,
像这样蓝色的小图标 或者这样绿色的
doesn’t have the same impact on your attention as this.
并不能像这种红色泡泡吸引你同等的注意力
But you can neutralize that distracting effect
但你可以
by selecting a greyscale color filter
通过在你手里的访问设置里选择灰色滤镜
in your phone’s accessibility settings.
来消除手机分散注意的作用
When you make everything black and white,
当你把一切变成黑白的时候
your brain isn’t tricked into
你的大脑就不会被迷惑
thinking this is any more important to you than this.
不会认为这个比这个对你来说更为重要
I mean, there’s a reason why slot machines
我是说 这就是为什么老虎机
are bright and color and flashing lights and
都有明亮的颜色和闪闪的灯光
ding ding ding ding ding.
以及叮叮叮叮叮的声音
They have the sensory input too, right.
它们也有感官信息的输入 没错
And so, just noticing that if I take out the color,
因此 请注意如果我把手机调成灰度
it changes some of the addictiveness.
就可以改善一些上瘾现象
Finally, restrict your home screen to everyday tools.
最后 保持你的主屏幕上只留有日常工具
Make sure that your home screen, when you unlock it,
确保当你解锁手机时 主屏幕上
doesn’t have anything
除了一些生活必须的即时工具
except for the in-the-moment tools that help you live your life.
没有其他任何东西
I have like Lyft, to get somewhere when I need to get somewhere,
我有来福 可以带我去我想去的地方
Maps, Calendar.
还有地图 日历
None of these are apps that I can fall into and
这些应用软件没有一个可以让我沉迷
then get sucked down some bottomless vortex of stuff.
并陷入无底的物欲漩涡
If you’re not sure what counts as a bottomless vortex of stuff,
如果你不确定哪些软件是无底漩涡
it helps to filter out apps that use infinite scrolling.
过滤掉无限滚动刷新的应用软件会帮到你
Unlike pagination,
那些软件与网页不一样
where users have to click
网页必须通过点击
to load new content on another page,
才可以在另一页加载新的内容
infinite scrolling continuously loads new material
无限滚动的软件能够持续下载新内容
so there’s no built-in endpoint.
因而不存在内置终点
Video autoplay works in a similar way.
视频自动播放也是这样的工作原理
These interfaces create a frictionless experience,
这些界面连接带来更流畅的体验
but they also reduce a user’s sense of control
但它们也降低了使用者的手动控制感
and make it harder to stop.
并使使用者很难停下
Research shows that people rely on visual cues more than internal cues
研究表明 比起内部暗示人们更加信任可见暗示
to stop consuming something.
来停止对事物的消耗
In a 2005 study,
2005年的一项研究发现
individuals who ate soup out of a self-refilling bowl,
用自助餐碗喝汤的人
ate 73 % more than those who ate out of a normal bowl filled up by servers.
比用由服务员盛满的正常碗的人多喝了73%
But those who ate from the self-refilling bowl,
但那些用自助餐碗的人
didn’t feel any more satisfied.
并没有感到更满足
So, a visual cue, like an endpoint
因此 一个视觉暗示 就像一个终点
is better at telling you the right time to stop
相比于你自己的满足感
than your own sense of satisfaction.
更好的方式是告诉你该停止
And because so many apps don’t have an endpoint,
由于很多应用软件没有设定一个终点
you have to build your home screen
你必须设置自己的主屏幕
around the eventuality of distraction.
以防分心
We check our phones a lot.
我们经常翻看手机
Most of us drastically underestimate how often we do so.
大多数人都会过度低估自己做这些事的频率
But technology might not always look this way.
但科学技术并不总像这样
There are ideas for alternative interfaces
现在已经有了替代界面的想法
that give you functional choices and are more transparent about
它可以提供功能选择并使你更明确地认识到
how much time you’ll lose with one action, versus another.
你做一件事情相比做其他事情所花费的时间
But it’s a really deep philosophical question:
但这的确是一个很深刻的哲学问题
what is genuinely worth your attention
在注意力会被干扰的情况下
on an interruptive basis?
到底什么才值得你去注意关心?
Do people even know how to answer that question?
人们知道怎么回答那个问题吗?
It’s a really hard question,
这很难回答
it’s not something we think about.
也不是我们一般会考虑的问题
But, for now,
但是现在
it’s a question that everybody needs to start asking.
我们每个人都应该思考一下了
Thank you so much for watching,
谢谢您的观看
this has been episode 1 of By Design,
这是《因为设计》系列的第一期
this is gonna be a new series looking at different topics
这个新系列的视频将会用来
in design, in technology,
讨论关于设计 技术的话题
looking at how human decisions on one end of creating something
探讨人们的决定如何创造事物
affect people on the other end.
又如何影响人们
《Vox观点》

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视频概述

手机为上瘾而设计,我们应该持有怎样的心态?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

潘魁

审核员

审核员CL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NUMa0QkPzns

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