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国际热核聚变实验反应堆是如何建造的 – 译学馆
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国际热核聚变实验反应堆是如何建造的

ITER - the world's largest puzzle

世界上最大的难题
The world’s largest puzzle.
组装国际热核聚变反应堆的低温恒温器
Assembly of the ITER Cryostat.
国际热核聚变反应堆会是世界上最大的论证
ITER will be the world’s largest experimental facility
核聚变动力在科学和技术上的可行性的实验设备
to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of fusion power.
直径三十米以及近乎同等的宽度
30 meters in diameter and nearly as many in height,
国际热核聚变反应堆的托卡马克装置会容纳大量的子系统和各种部件
the ITER tokamak will house a large number of sub-systems and components.
主要部件的尺寸和宽度
The size and weight of the major components,
主系统装配的微小容限
the tiny tolerances for the assembly of major systems,
制造商标之间的差异
the diversity of manufacturers,
以及紧凑的排列
the tight schedule,
所有这些都使国际热核聚变反应堆成为工程学和后勤学上的一个巨大挑战
all of these elements combine to make ITER an engineering and logistics challenge of enormous proportions.
主要的组装过程会在托卡马克大楼中演示
The principal assembly activities will be performed in the tokamak building,
在那儿国际热核聚变反应堆的装置会在一个部分嵌入式的混凝土生物防护罩内安装完成
where the ITER device will be installed inside of a partially embedded concrete bio-shield.
为了组装过程进行下去
For the duration of assembly activities,
托克马克大楼会保持干净
the tokamak building will be operated as a clean area,
并维持恒温 以避免最大部件的内部尺寸发生变化
and maintained at a constant temperature to avoid dimensional changes in the largest components.
预组装活动会在毗邻的装配大厅里进行
Preassembly activities will take place in the adjacent assembly hall.
国际热核聚变反应堆托克马克的组装会以自下而上的方式进行
Assembly of the ITER tokamak will proceed in a bottom-up fashion.
首先 提供ITER磁性的下供料器会被放到位
First, the lower feeders for the ITER magnets will be put in place.
接着就是低温恒温器的底部
Then the base of the cryostat,
国际热核聚变反应堆中最大的单部件会被抬升至此位置
the largest single component of the ITER machine is lifted into position.
接下来要组装的部件是低温恒温器的下气缸
The next components assembled are the lower cylinder of the cryostat,
热屏蔽器
thermal shields,
极向场线圈6号的临时支撑结构
and the temporary support structures for poloidal field coils NO.6,
这六套中最小的一个
the smallest of the set of 6.
一套备用的预先压缩的吊环是下一个
A set of spare precompression rings are the next in line.
为国际热核聚变反应堆巨大的环向磁场线圈
Together with the central support structure, and the 18 gravity supports,
安装中央支撑结构和18个重力支撑系统
for ITER’s huge toroidal field coils.
保护铁支架的热屏蔽器接下来会附着上去
Thermal shields that will protect the steel support structure are then attached.
最后 极向场6号会紧跟着脉冲线圈5号
And finally, poloidal field coils NO.6 is lowered into the pit,
被放到这个坑内
followed by PF coil NO.5.
为预组装容器的到来做准备
In order to prepare for the arrival of the preassembled vessel sectors,
内部支撑的圆柱 工作层以及7个梁
The inner supports column, the work floor and the 7 beams
都会在组装阶段被放置到指定位置以稳固整体的结构
are put in place to stabilize the structure during the assembly phase.
当低温恒温器在托卡马克大厅里组装的时候
While the cryostat is being assembled in the tokamak hall,
与之平行的活动也在组装大厅里全面展开
parallel activity is in full swing in the assembly hall.
这儿就是正在准备940度量分区的地方
It’s here where the sub-assembly of the 9 40-degree sectors is being prepared,
每个装置由真空的容器组成
each set made up of a vacuum vessel sector,
周围的隔热罩和两个脉冲线圈
the surrounding thermal shields, and 2 toroidal field coils.
为了成功使上百个大型托卡马克部件调动到位
In order to successfully maneuver hundreds of very large tokamak components into position,
一套精准定制的工具被放在整个建筑最近的下方
a very precise made-to-order set of tools is currently under construction.
在每个真空容器的9个分区的上方悬挂一个专门的部件装配工具
A special sub-assembly tool will suspend each of the 9 sectors of the vacuum vessel from its top.
安装关联的隔热罩
Install associated thermal shielding,
再在固定位置上缠绕两圈脉冲线圈
and rotate 2 toroidal field coils into position.
整个过程会连续不断的重复来完成9个零部件的安装
This procedure will be repeated consecutively to achieve 9 subassemblies,
这些零部件会被转移入托卡马克坑内为最终的组装做准备
which will be transferred into the tokamak pit for the final sector assembly.
起重系统由一对独立的桥式起重机组成
The lifting system will be comprised of a pair of independent bridge cranes,
按照托卡马克和组装大厅运行的全线轨道上升
mounted on rails that run the entire length of the tokamak and assembly halls
然后形成一个连续不断的175米长的起重机场
to form a continuous 175-meter-long crane bay.
4375吨主要的起重机同时运行
Working together, the 4 375-ton main hoists
可以搬运1500吨的货物
will handle loads of up to 1500 tons.
有着超过18米高的
With more than 18 meters height,
中心螺线管 即机器中心的磁铁
the central solenoid, the magnet in the center of the machine,
会是整个装配业务中被举的最高的一部分
will be the tallest lift of assembly operations.
最重的单个负载则是低温恒温器的底部
The heaviest single load will be the base of the cryostat,
整个底部重1200吨
which weighs in at 1,200 tons.
在某些情况下 立起来会有20米高 重上百吨的部件
In some cases, components standing 20 metres high and weighing hundreds of tons
误差必须要调整在2到3毫米内
will have to be maneuvered into position within tolerances of 2 to 3 millimeters.
托卡马克部件的精准配合
The accurate alignment of the tokamak components,
尤其是磁性系统和容器式部件
particularly of the magnet system and in-vessel components,
是机器成功运作的基础
is essential to the successful operation of the machine.
组装顺序已经在大脑中计划好了
Assembly sequences have been planned with this in mind,
组装过程的每一步都会用到复杂精巧的光学度量衡技术
and will utilise sophisticated optical metrology techniques at each step of the assembly process.
在组装过程中 总共需要161种不同的定制工具
In all, 161 different types of custom tools
装配 吊起并最终为国际热核聚变反应堆的超大尺寸的部件所调遣
will be required to assemble, lift and finally maneuver ITER’s super-sized components.
这些工具拥有载重能力 这些载重能力与经常被重复使用的工具有500吨之差
The tools will have loading capacities that vary from 500 tons for the up ending tool
而这些经常被使用的工具能把真空容器部件从水平方向转到竖直方向
that will turn vacuum vessel components from horizontal to vertical
1500吨的起重工具
to 1500 tons for the heavy lifting tools.
通常会把组装部件吊起来放入托卡马克坑内以便最后的组装和焊接
used to lift the sub-assembled sectors into the tokamak pit for final assembly and welding.
这里 是最大的为特定目的所建造的工具
There, the largest purpose-built tool,
坑内组装工具会同时将9个部件抓起来
the in-pit assembly tool will grasp all 9 sectors together,
这3800吨能够与容器构造匹配
3800 tons in order to align the vessel structure.
国际热核聚变反应堆器械的整个组装过程会耗时大约4年
The complete assembly of the ITER machine will take about 4 years.
随着主装配和真空容器的匹配
Following main assembly and alignment of the vacuum vessel,
第二阶段的组装 容器内部部件的安装
the second assembly phase, the installation of in-vessel components
将会用专门的远程控制系统进行
will proceed with specialized remote handling devices.

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视频概述

这个短视频简洁明了的解释了国际热核聚变反应堆的组装过程 通过这个视频可以了解到这个世界上最先进的组装工程

听录译者

红花老七

翻译译者

chen~คิดถึง

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Y2CBJIp2j8

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