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二战中意大利的步兵武器 – 译学馆
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二战中意大利的步兵武器

Italian Infantry Weapons of WWII

Italian infantry weapons World War II.
二战期间意大利步兵装备一览
The distinctive feature of the Italian Army in World War II
二战中意大利军队的鲜明特质
was its poor and insufficient armament.
就是其武器质量和数量上的不足
Even though weapons produced at the famous Italian arms factory
尽管出产于意大利知名军备工厂
Beretta were of the highest quality
贝雷塔出产的武器以高质量著称
the rest were known for their very low quality and obsoleteness.
但后来它们也成为了粗制滥造的代名词并被遗弃
Since the Italian industry of the 1930s was
1930年代意大利工业因受到
undermined by financial crisis and government bureaucracy.
金融危机和政府官僚做派主义的影响而日渐衰微
the production of weapons did not meet Mussolini’s imperial aspirations.
所以生产的武器不能满足墨索里尼的称雄野心
Pistols.
手枪
Glisenti M1910.
格里森蒂M1910
The Glisenti M1910 was a standard pistol of the Italian Army in World War I.
格里森蒂M1910虽然是意大利军队一战的标配
but remained in service until the end of World War II.
但仍继续服役工作至二战结束
It fired a unique 9x19mm Glisenti round.
该手枪装备的是特制的9×19毫米子弹
It was quite unpopular in the army as it was considered a second-rate pistol.
但在军队中由于相当不受好评而被当作二流手枪使用
However, since the army was in desperate need for pistols
然而由于军队亟需手枪
the Glisenti was issued to Army Reserves and Carabinieri Units.
格里森蒂也就继续装备给陆军预备队和宪兵队
Beretta M1934
伯莱塔M1934
The Beretta M1934 was the most commonly used pistol
伯莱塔M1934是整个二战中
in the Italian Army during World War II.
意大利军队使用率最高的手枪
The pistol was made in two versions.
该手枪有两个版型
The most common type was chambered for 9x17mm colt short rounds.
最通用的版型是子弹径身为9×17毫米的科尔特短弹
And the less common version was the M1935
而较为不常用的版型则是M1935
which fired 7.65x17mm rounds and was for the Air Force and Navy.
那是由于M1935装备的是7.65×17毫米子弹 主要服务于空军和海军
The Beretta M1934 was a blowback action, relatively small, very light,
贝雷塔M1934发枪机制采用气体反冲式原理 小巧轻便
but had less power than most service pistols of the war.
但同时威力也小于当时战争中使用的主流手枪
Because of its good quality the Germans continued the production of the M1934
不过由于该枪的性能优良 当1943年德国接手贝雷塔军工厂时
when they took over the Beretta factories in 1943.
德国军方仍然继续了M1934手枪的生产
Rifles.
步枪
Carcano M1891.
卡尔卡诺M1891
As with all other armies in the war
和当时战争中的其他军队一样
the Italians also used the old designed, single-shot rifles
意军中的装备部队使用的
to arm infantry units.
也是老式单发手动步枪
In their case. It was one of the most outdated service rifles
不过意军使用的步枪是最过时的
the Carcano M1891.
卡尔卡诺M1891
Since it was introduced in 1891,not much had changed
该步枪自从1891年引进意大利以来
about the rifle until the Second World War.
直到二战 都没有做出什么改动
It’s main features were a modified Mauser design bolt
其主要的特征是采用了改良版的毛瑟式枪机
and Mannlicher magazine holding six rounds.
并且曼利夏弹匣能够容纳六发子弹
The magazine was loaded via loading a clip
弹匣依靠弹夹条进行装填
that couldn’t be ejected until the last round was fired.
并且弹夹条在子弹发射完毕后才会弹出
The Carcano fired old 6.5 by 52 millimeter rounds.
卡尔卡诺装备6.5x52mm子弹
With a round nose bullet,
并采用圆形弹头
they were obsolete even during the First World War.
这种子弹即使在一战中都曾被视作过时货
During the Ethiopian campaign of 1935-37,
在1935-1937年的埃塞俄比亚战役中
Italian commanders realized all the weaknesses of the round.
意大利指挥官意识到了这种子弹的软肋
So they decided to introduce a new, quite unusual
于是他们决定采用新型且特殊的
7.35×51 millimeter round.
7.35×51毫米子弹
Rifles manufactured or modified to fire the new round
之后生产的此款步枪则被改良成
were designated as M1891/38.
能发射新型子弹的新枪型M1891/38
However, in 1940 it was realised that the Italian industry was not capable
然而到了1940年 意大利当时的工业水平
of producing large quantities of new rounds.
已经无法大量生产新型子弹了
So the Italians decided to switch back to
因此意军决定
the old six point five millimeter rounds,
再换用旧式的6.5毫米子弹
and production of the six point five millimeter chambered rifles.
并继续生产装填6.5毫米子弹的步枪
During the War, the Italians used several different versions
在整个二战中 意军使用了很多版本的
of the Carcano rifle with two different calibers.
卡尔卡诺步枪和两种口径的子弹
Submachine guns.
冲锋枪
Beretta M1938.
伯莱塔M1938
Thanks to the engineers at the Beretta Factory,
多亏了伯莱塔工厂的工程师
The Italians had one of the best submachine guns of World War II.
意军才能在二战中获得最好的冲锋枪之一
The Beretta M1938 submachine gun
伯莱塔M1938冲锋枪
resembled many contemporary submachine guns,
该冲锋枪和当时大部分的冲锋枪差不多
but it was its quality of materials and finishing that made it special.
但其高质量的用料和精细的加工使它脱颖而出
The weapon consisted of a long polished wooden stock,
该冲锋枪由抛光长木托
with a steel tubular body and long barrel protected by a perforated jacket.
钢制圆枪身和装有散热套管的长枪管构成
The first variant, the M1938A,
该冲锋枪的第一个变体M1938A
had four slots cut into the muzzle compensator.
的枪口有四道凹槽凿出的制退器
All parts were made from machined steel,
整枪使用机械加工的钢制部件
which added to the overall quality.
用以增强整枪性能
The Beretta M1938 fired a standard 9×19 millimeter parabellum round.
贝雷塔M1938装备9×19毫米巴拉贝鲁姆子弹
There were several sizes of magazines holding 10, 20, 30, or 40 rounds.
弹匣尺寸有10发 20发 30发或40发
A trademark of the Beretta M1938 as well as all other Beretta
伯莱塔M1938冲锋枪和其他伯莱塔冲锋枪的共同标志是
submachine guns was the double trigger system.
双扳机系统
The rear trigger was used to fire full auto,
后扳机用以全自动发射
and the one in front for semi-auto fire.
前扳机则用于单发射
With quality parts and a well-balanced mechanism,
由于该冲锋枪机件质量可靠 机构运行协调
the M1938 was known as a weapon
M1938因不易卡壳而闻名
that rarely jammed and was therefore very popular among soldiers.
因此深受士兵们欢迎
It was also considered as a valuable war trophy.
该枪也被认为是贵重战利品
As the war took its toll on the Italian weapons industry,
由于战争损失对意大利武器工业的影响
the high production cost of the M1938 had to be reduced.
因此M1938的高额生产成本需要被削减
This led to the Beretta M1938/42 and subsequent variants that followed
这就催生了伯莱塔M1938/42和其他的衍生版本
The wooden stock was shortened, its firing mechanism simplified
木质枪托被缩短 击发机构也被简化
as perforated barrel jacket was removed.
同时移除了打孔散热管
The new machine gun still had the distinctive shape of the Beretta.
新版本虽然仍然有着”伯莱塔”的标志外观
But it was a far lower quality.
但是性能却相去甚远
However, it was also much cheaper.
不过好在十分便宜
So it was produced in much larger quantities.
因此也被大量的生产
Machine guns.
机枪
Rita M1930.
布雷达M1930轻机枪
The weakest category of the Italian arsenal
在意大利兵工厂生产的小型步兵武器中
of small infantry weapons goes to its machineguns
性能最差的就是机枪
The leader in machine gun production in Italy was the Breda company.
布雷达公司是意大利机枪生产领头人
They begun producing machine guns during World War I
这家公司自一战起开始生产机枪
and continue to develop them after the war.
战后也在继续研发机枪
One of their weapons was the Beretta M1930 light machine gun.
他们的产品之一就是布雷达M1930轻型机枪
It was a weapon of quite awkward appearance
该枪外形笨拙
and very poor quality with a number of flaws.
性能低劣并且有一连串的缺点
One important drawback was that
其中很严重的一个就是
the weapon recoiled violently as did the barrel.
开火时的后坐严重 枪管也是如此
The rear and front sights were mounted to the body of the gun to compensate for this
为了克服这个缺点 该枪的准星和照门都在枪身上
had to be re-zeroed owed each time the barrel was changed.
所以每次更换枪管后都需要重新校枪
Another awkward solution was a fixed folding magazine
另一个拙劣的设计就是固定的折叠式弹匣
that was fed with stripper clips containing 20
该弹匣依靠填弹条填装
6.5by 52 millimeter rounds.
可容20发6.5×52毫米的子弹
the problem with such a magazine was that if it was broken,
问题在于这种弹匣一旦破损
the entire weapon couldn’t be used
就会导致整个机枪都无法使用
The biggest fault however was also connected to its rounds
因此这款机枪最大的硬伤还是和子弹有关
Empty round cases were prone to jam inside the breech during firing.
射击时空弹壳很容易卡在枪膛后部
In order to limit this problem,
为了减少这种情况发生
the manufacturers provided the breda M1930 with a small oil reservoir
制造商为布雷达M1930配备了一个小型油壶
for greasing rounds before loading.
以便在子弹上膛前预先润滑
The problem was and it made the entire mechanism too greasy.
问题在于这让整个机构都变得油腻腻的
So it picked up a lot of debris and dirt.
这使得该枪很容易黏附碎屑和尘土
This drawback was especially obvious in Africa
这一缺点在非洲尤其突出
where sand regularly to oily parts causing frequent jams.
沙子都黏在了油腻的零件里并经常导致卡壳
Being the only light machinegun in the italian army,
作为意军唯一的轻型机枪
M1930 were deployed to every infantry squad.
M1930被装备给了所有步兵小队
Due to its numerous drawbacks,
但由于它的毛病数不胜数
it was the most unpopular weapon among Italian soldiers
它成为意军士兵中最不受欢迎的武器
And as soon as the war ended it was withdrawn from service.
因此 战争一结束 该枪就退役了
The Fiat revelli M1914/35.
菲亚特雷韦利M1915/35
This machine gun was a modified version of the reveille M1914.
这款机枪是雷韦利M1914的改良版
Even though the weapon earned a bad reputation during the first world war,
尽管雷韦利M1914的质量在一战中声名狼藉
the Italians had a narrow choice of machine guns in the 1930s
可由于在1930年代 意大利人的选择有限
M1914 were taken out of warehouses and were modified
因此M1914再次登场并进行了改良
by replacing water cooled with air-cooled barrels and
枪管由水冷式枪管改为气冷式
and by introducing the new more powerful 8 by 59 millimeter round.
并使用了火力更猛的8×59毫米的子弹
The ten rounds strip feed box magazine was updated to a belt feed.
把十发容量的弹夹改为了弹链
Uno engineers did their best to evade potential problems via M1914/35
尽管工程师们在改良M1914/35时尽其所能的避免潜在故障
was no better than its predecessor.
但新款并没有比原版好多少
It had a low rate of fire and it also had problems
该枪不仅射速极低
with oil and dirt and was prone to malfunctions.
且仍然没有解决油腻和脏污的问题 很容易发生故障
Despite all its drawbacks, it was still produced in great numbers
尽管问题诸多 该机枪还是被大量生产
and used until the end of the war.
并一直用到战争结束
Breda M1937.
布雷达M1937
The Breda M1937 was the best Italian machine gun of the Second World War.
布雷达M1937虽然是二战中意军最好的机枪武器
But it was still far from competing with other machine guns of the time.
但仍旧比不过同时代的其他机枪
Unlike the two other machine guns,
与前两款机枪不同的是
The M1937 was a gas-operated weapon
M1937采用了导气式结构
and was therefore reliable in action.
因此运行稳定
It also had problems with case extraction,
但在弹壳抽取上 M1937依旧存在一些问题
but it was not as serious as the M1930 and M1914/35.
不过没有M1930和M1914/35一样严重
Distinctive feature of the Breda M1937 was
布雷达 M1937的一个鲜明特点就是
that it was fed by ten tray cassettes or strips.
它是弹盘或者弹板供弹的
The interesting thing about these trays was that
有趣的是 当你使用弹板时
after each round was shot,
每次打完一颗子弹
the guns mechanism reinserted the empty case back into the tray.
空弹壳会被重新压回弹板中
The reason behind this was so that the cases could be recycled at factories.
这么做是为了能让工厂回收弹壳
While economical this design feature could slow down the gunners assistant
虽然经济实惠
when reusing these trays in the heat of battle
但在激烈战斗中 会降低机枪副射手的装填速度
Another drawback of the system was
这个系统的另一个缺点就是
that the trays only held 20 rounds.
一个弹盘只能容纳20发子弹
Which meant that machine gun crews
这意味着机枪小组
had to reload the weapon after each short burst.
打不了多久就要重新装填子弹
Hand grenades.
手榴弹
During World War two Italian soldiers used three hand grenade models,
整个二战中意军就使用了三种手榴弹
all carrying the same designation
型号都是一个
M35
即M35
Even though they had the same principle of operation.
尽管每款手榴弹的原理相同
They were different in design and complexity of mechanism.
它们在设计以及机制复杂性上却各有不同
The simplest and the smallest was the OTO M35.
最简单也是最为小巧的一款是OTO M35
It was loaded with thirty six grams of TNT
它内装36克TNT
and a lint ball filled with shrapnel.
并填充了一个装满弹片的布球
More sophisticated and powerful design was the Breda M35
相对精密且威力较大的版本是伯莱塔M35
It was loaded with 63 grams of TNT and was larger.
它内装63克TNT 外形更大
The SRC M35 had the most complicated mechanism
SRC M35的机构最为复杂
It had a charge of 43 grams of TNT which was wrapped with wire
它的TNT装药为43克 并被金属丝围绕
that dispersed into shrapnel after the explosion.
这些金属丝在爆炸后会变成飞散的弹片
M35 hand grenades were offensive grenades
M35手榴弹属于进攻型手榴弹
and had an explosive radius of 10 to 15 meters.
杀伤半径在10到15米
They were also distinctive for their red color,
并因红色的外观而十分显眼
which was the Italian official color code for the explosive.
这是因为红色是意大利表示炸药的官方指定颜色
The interesting feature of all three models was
这三款手榴弹都有一点令人注目的特点
that they had an impact fuse unlike standard hand grenades
三款手榴弹附有的碰炸引信不同于
of World War two that had a timed chemical fuse.
二战标准的化学延时引信
This meant that the Italian bombs were designed
这意味着意大利的手榴弹
to explode immediately on impact with.
是受到冲击就会爆炸的设计
A double safety system M35 grenades were very reliable
M35手榴弹的双重保险系统相当可靠
but misfires happened from time to time.
但有时也会出现哑炮
In such occasions they were still a threat
哑炮仍然具有威胁
since they were prone to detonate once they were picked up.
因为捡起来仍有可能爆炸
It was because of this nasty habit
因为这个原因
that British soldiers in North Africa nicknamed them
北非的英国士兵将其称为
Red Devils.
红魔
What’s your favorite Italian infantry weapon of World War II?
你最喜欢的二战意大利武器是什么呢
leave a comment below.
留下你的评论
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译制信息
视频概述

介绍了意大利二战时期的手枪,冲锋枪,机枪和手榴弹类型。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Sol

审核员

审核员GS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ncx12zlq3cs

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