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关于以色列定居地的历史 – 译学馆
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关于以色列定居地的历史

Israeli settlements, explained

这次由我开车驶入一个地区我觉得它是世上最奇特的地方之一
This is me driving in what I think is one of the most bizarre places in the world.
只需要越过以色列到达西岸地区
I just crossed over from Israel into the West Bank.
如果你能从地图上观察到我现处的地方你会发现显示绿色的巴勒斯坦城镇
If you look at a map of where I am right now, you will see a jumbled mess of of Palestinian
杂乱不一   而蓝色的是以色列人的聚居地
towns and villages which are shown here in green, and Israeli settlements, which are blue.
很多人把这块领域当作是巴勒斯坦的领土
Many people think of this territory as Palestine.
但三百万的居民生活在此其中将近五分之一的人口都是以色列犹太公民
But of the 3 million people living out here, almost twenty percent of them are Jewish Israeli citizens.
居住在这里的以色列人被称为殖民者
The Israelis living out here are called settlers.
他们居住在西岸 却仍是以色列公民
They live in the West Bank but are citizens of Israel.
随着我开车驾驶 我边观看这数十年间矛盾交织
As I drive I’m looking at effectively two different nations, woven into each other through
泾渭分明的两个民族我造访了西岸的15个聚居地
decades of conflict, I visited 15 settlements all over the West
并和那些决定要收拾家当 转移到这片争夺之地的中部地区的人进行谈话
Bank, talking to the people who’ve decided to pack up and move out of the middle of this disputed land.
我们会在接下来的视频会接触他们
We’ll meet them in coming videos.
但首先我们来看一下能解释西岸地区是如何形成如此的地图
But first let’s look at the maps that explain how the West Bank got to looking like this.
让我们先回到1948年那时候的版图相比现在有很多不同
So let’s first go back to 1948, when the map looks a lot different.
回到当年 这块陆地全部被大不列颠所控制
Back then, all this land was controlled by Great Britain.
由于犹太人与阿拉伯人之间的随之加剧的紧张局势 联合国与英国
Due to growing tension between Jews and Arabs, the UN worked with the Britain to split the
联合起来把这土地分裂成两块其一属于犹太人 剩下就属于阿拉伯人和巴勒斯坦人
land into two states, one for Jews, Israel, and one for Arabs, Palestine.
犹太人接受这种分配 并宣告独立
The Jews accepted the plan and declared independence.
但在这地区的阿拉伯国家知道这种分配偏向了欧洲殖民主义
But the Arab states in the region saw this plan as just more European colonialism.
他们不接受这样的分配 并向以色列宣战
They didn’t accept the plan and declared war with Israel.
以色列赢得了这次战争 并把联合国界定属于他们的边境扩大
Israel won the war, pushing well past the borders of the UN plan.
经过数次和平谈判一条停火线被规划在绿色区域内
During the peace negotiations, a ceasefire line was drawn in green ink.
它演变成人们熟知的”绿线”
It became known as the green line.
它并不是边界 仅仅是一条处在以色列内的停火线
It wasn’t necessarily a border, it was just a ceasefire line with this being the state of Israel, and this
并且被约旦所控制 约旦早已在双方交战期间控制了它
section being controlled by Jordan, who had taken control of it during the war they just fought.
约旦人将这新夺取的领土为西岸地区因为它位处约旦河的西边
The Jordanians named this newly-seized land the West Bank because it was West of the Jordan River.
脆弱的停火协议很快失去了作用,1967年以色列又和它的阿拉伯邻居打了一仗。
The fragile ceasefire remained until 1967 when Israel fought another war with its Arab neighbors.
以色列并没有期望在这场作战中扩大国土,但就在六天的战斗中,
Israel wasn’t looking to take over land in this war, but In just six days of fighting,
以色列跨越了停火线,夺占了包括整个西岸地区在内的一段狭长地带,
it blew past the Green Line and seized a whole swath of land, including the entire West Bank.
接着以色列就要做出选择:是把西岸地区变成以色列的一部分并且
Suddenly Israel had a decision to make: do they make the West Bank a part of Israel and
给予生活在那的110万阿拉伯人以色列的公民权和选举权,
give the 1.1 million Arabs living there Israeli citizenship and voting rights?
还是把土地还给他们的敌人约旦,或者是让那里的人民建立他们
Do they give the land back to their enemy Jordan or else do they let the people create their
自己的巴勒斯坦国家?
own Palestinian state?
这成为了以色列政治中的主要论题
became a major debate in Israeli politics.
许多以色列人将这场胜仗不仅看作是一次军事胜利,并且认为是一个
Many Israelis saw this war they just won not only as just a military victory but a religious
宗教性的预示—犹太人注定会回到有深厚犹太历史渊源的
sign that the Jews were meant to return to the the place where a huge amount of Jewish
古朱迪亚和古撒玛利亚地区,基本上就是
ancient history happened, the hills of ancient Judea and Samaria, which was basically the
整个西岸地区。
entire West Bank.
所以当政府还没做出决定时,以色列平民就在未经政府批准的情况下
So while the government was debating what to do, Israeli civilians began moving into
开始向西岸地区迁移。
the West Bank without any permission from the government.
他们开始在那安家,宣告犹太人来到了这个地区,
They just starting setting up homes, establishing a Jewish presence in this region.
于是,所有关于怎样处理西岸地区的讨论都必须将这些越来越多的搬迁的
Suddenly, any debate about what to do with the West Bank had to take this growing number
以色列公民考虑在内。
of Israeli civilians into consideration.
于是移民运动诞生了。
This is how the the settler movement was born.
其他国家和地区都不赞同移民运动。
The rest of the world did not approve of this.
随着移民越来越多,联合国发布了一份决议,决议上写到移民
As the settler presence grew, the UN issued a resolution saying that the settlements had
“没有合法的有效性,而且给在中东达成广泛的、公正的、长久的和平的目标
“…no legal validity and constitute a serious obstruction to achieving a comprehensive,
造成了阻碍。
just and lasting peace in the Middle East.”
然后出现了两种观点:一种认为犹太人民主要是搬迁到他们在战争中占领的
Two different narratives emerged here: One said Jewish civilians were moving onto mostly
没有人居住的地方,这对他们来说具有重要的
empty plots of land that they had captured in a war and that had deep historical and
历史和精神意义。
spiritual significance to them.
另一种世界上大部分其他国家支持的观点,认为那些移民
The other side, which is the side most of the world took, said that these settlers were
是在为他们的国家开拓殖民地。
colonizing land to expand their nation.
这个移民项目被广泛地看作是对西岸地区的非法占领。
The settler project was widely seen as apart of an illegal occupation of the West Bank.
尽管国际上发出了谴责,移民的数量还是在快速增长。
In spite of international condemnation, the number of settlers grew quickly.
接下来的几十年,越来越多的以色列政府部门开始支持
Over the next few decades, more and more factions of the Israeli government began to support
移民运动,他们在西岸地区安置公共资源,批准房屋建设。
the settler movement, allocating public resources and granting permits for building.
以色列住房建设部和军事部开始为如何建设西岸地区
The Israeli housing ministry and military began developing plans for how to build up
制定计划。
the West Bank.
他们建造跨越整个地区的马路,为在移民区和以色列本土的进出提供
They built roads throughout the entire region, allowing easy access between settlements
便捷途径。
and mainland Israel.
更多的房屋建造被许可,计划好的新社区开始不断
More building permits were given out and new planned communities began popping
在整个西岸地区出现。
up all over the West Bank.
移民慢慢地从一个边缘性的自发性的公民小团体转变为国家完全支持的有组织的
The settlements slowly shifted from a fringe group of motivated civilians to an institutionalized
以色列社会的一部分。
part of Israeli society, totally supported by the state.
这些是西岸地区的巴勒斯坦城镇。
Here are the Palestinian towns in the West Bank.
注意移民区是怎样迂回在
Watch how the settlements weave around
这些城镇之间的。
these towns.
巴勒斯坦人不喜欢这样的侵犯。
Palestinians didn’t like this encroachment.
他们开始抗议,有时还使用极端暴力。
They began protesting, sometimes with extreme violence.
暴力和国际移民组织的谴责
Between the violence and the condemnation from the international community of the settlements,
使形势变得十分严峻。
the situation became unsustainable.
所以在20世纪90年代中期,美国总统Bill Clinton,以色列总理Yitzhak Rabin
So in the mid 1990s American president Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin,
和巴勒斯坦领导人Yasser Arafat签订了奥斯陆协议,同意
and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat signed the Oslo Accords, agreements that established
巴勒斯坦成立政府,并且将西岸地区划分为三个部分。
Palestinian government and split the West Bank into 3 sections.
巴勒斯坦对于A部分有完全的维护治安和政府管理权力。
Area A gave Palestinians total control over security and government.
A部分占了西岸地区的百分之18,主要的巴勒斯坦人口聚集地在这一部分。
This makes up about 18% of the West Bank but most of the palestinian population centers are here.
这给了巴勒斯坦人第一次自治的机会,所以意义重大。
This was a big deal,because it gave Palestinians self rule for the first time.
B部分被指派给巴勒斯坦政府管理,但由以色列保留治安权,
B was designated for Palestinian government control while retaining Israeli security control,
这意味着以色列军队仍驻扎在此地区。
meaning the Israeli military remains very present.
B部分大概占了西岸地区的百分之22。
Area B is about 22% of the West Bank.
C部分完全仍由以色列军队和政府管理。
Area C Remained completely under Israeli military and government control.
这些是C部分的移民区,
This is where all the settlements are in area C,
大概占了西岸的百分之60。
It is about 60% of the West Bank.
这基本上就是这杂乱的地图的现状了。
So this is basically how we ended up with this mess of a map.
以色列人能使用直接通向移民区的马路
Israelis can come and go for mainland Israel through really nice roads that go straight
方便地进出以色列本土。
to settlements.
他们把这些马路称作“天桥”,因为它们绕开了巴勒斯坦城镇,并且为从一个移民区到另一个移民区
They call these roads “flyovers” because they bypass Palestinian villages and give easy
提供了便捷途径,但并不是每一个移民区都有像这样的立交桥式马路。
access from one settlement to another, but not every settlement has a flyover road like this.
巴勒斯坦人可以在西岸地区的几乎所有马路上开车,但是他们的行动经常会
Palestinians can drive on almost all roads in the West Bank but their movement is often
更困难,更受限制,他们有时必须在检查站停车,他们的车会受到检查。
more difficult, more restricted,they have to stop at checkpoints and get their car inspected sometimes.
但确定的是,这个土地瓜分情况中最困难的方面之一就是巴勒斯坦人
But certainly one of the most difficult aspects of this carved up land situation is how a palestinian
该如何去建立自己的经济。
from being able to build an economy.
由以色列控制的C区域拥有着西岸主要的农作土地,水源和矿物资源。
Area C which is under Israeli control contains the majority of the West Bank agricultural land,as well as the water and mineral resources.
巴勒斯坦的公司在使用这些资源的时候会被严格限制,这
Palestinians companies are severely restricted in accessing these resources which takes a
对他们的经济造成了很大的影响。
huge hit on their economy.
所以,尽管经双方同意,西岸被划分成了三个区域,移民运动还是不断在C区域进行着。
So with these three sections agreed upon by both sides, the settlements continued to grow
在2005年,一件点燃以色列人民更大的移民热情的事情发生了。
within Area C. But in 2005 something happened that would ignite even more passion for the
以色列总理决定从加沙地带撤回8500个移民,
settler movement in Israel.Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon decided to remove 8,500 settlers
而加沙地带也是一个有着许多移民的争议地区。
from the Gaza strip, which was another disputed area where there were a lot of settlements.
看到以色列人被驱逐,自己的房屋被拆除,给以色列人带来了很大的心理冲击,
Seeing Israelis being evicted, their homes demolished, left a huge mark on the country,
尤其是以色列移民。
especially the settlers.
他们立即加倍了他们向西岸移民的努力。
They immediately redoubled their efforts to settle the West Bank.
移民数量继续增长。
The numbers continued to grow.
大部分想解决这个冲突的人提出了一个两国解决办法,
Most people who think about resolution to this conflict propose a two state solution,
即让巴勒斯坦人在西岸地区的某部分建立一个国家。
meaning giving the Palestinians a state somewhere in the West Bank region.
但如果你仔细看这张地图,你会发现这个想法越来越难实现了。
But if you look at this map you can see what it’s getting harder and harder to do that.
西岸C区域的移民不是住在帐篷或者大篷车里。
The settlers living in Area C of the West Bank are not living in tents or Caravans.
他们住在发达的社区中,建设了学校、医院,甚至一所大学。
They are living in developed communities with schools, hospitals and even a university.
在下一个视频中我会走进移民区,采访住在那里的人们。
In the next video I will go inside the settlements and talk to the people living there.

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