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玩不了游戏?你的大脑太老了

Is Your Brain Too Old For Video Games?

现今 百分之六十三的美国家庭
Today, 63% of U.S.
都有经常玩电子游戏的成员
households are home to someone who plays video games
广义上讲 我们大部分人都算是“玩家”“来开一局吧!”已经成为了国民座右铭
regularly. In the broadest sense most of us are “gamers” and “Let’s play” has become a national motto
但早至弹球游戏机和传统电玩城的时期 我们就已经清楚地明白
But since the early days of pinball machines and classic arcades, one thing has been crystal clear
一些人真的比其他人更擅长游戏
Some people are way better at this than others
没有比游戏竞技联赛更能明显表现这一点的地方了
Nowhere is that more apparent that at a competitive gaming tournament
来自世界各地上百名玩家参赛竞争高达50000美金的奖金
Hundreds of players from around the world compete for prizes up to 50,000 dollars
看这些世界顶级玩家键盘上飞快敲击的手指 连续消灭对手 大家很想知道“他们怎么这么厉害!”
Watching the furious fingers of the world’s top players, flying playing combos and kills, the obvious question is “What makes them so good?”
是什么让这些游戏高手的水平远超常人?
What makes the experts better than the rest of us? The obvious answer is
大家首先都会想到的答案是:练习 但纵观像这样的游戏联赛 我们注意到这些玩家非常年轻
practice, but looking around a tournament like this, one can’t help but notice these players are young
在美国 游戏玩家的平均年龄是35岁 将近一半的玩家大于36岁
The average American gamer is 35 years old and nearly half of all gamers are older than 36
但在这里 许多精英玩家都是离开了学校的高中生
But not here. Many of these elite players are barely out of high school
你会以为年龄较大的玩家会更有经验 更厉害
You’d think older players could be more experienced, be better
但是在高级别联赛中似乎并不是这样 年长的玩家们是否具有某些劣势呢?
But that doesn’t seem to be the case here at the highest level. Are older gamers at some disadvantage?
他们的大脑都已经不在最佳状态了? 为了解开这个谜团
Are their brains already over the hill? To solve mysteries about how we think and learn
科学家们自己深入到游戏中
Scientists have turned to games themselves
最有名的是最古老的国际象棋游戏
And the most famous is one of the oldest
数十年来一直被用来研究复杂的思维和科学的专业知识 举个例子 当展示一些国际象棋比赛棋盘的截图后
For decades chess has been used to study complex thinking and the science of expertise. For instance, when shown snapshots of chess games
专业国际象棋选手可以回想起几乎每一个棋子的位置 而普通玩家无法做到
Expert chess players can recall the position of nearly every piece, where average players cannot
而当展示任意放置的棋子的截图时
but when shown snapshots of pieces arranged randomly
专业选手并不能做得比初学者们好 这告诉我们
Expert players did no better than novices. This tells us that part of being an expert is extracting and processing
专业玩家提取并加工信息比普通人更快
information faster than the average person
但可能也只是在这种环境下才有特殊的技能
but maybe only in the context of that particular skill
然而在现实生活中 需要我们思考出 比国际象棋能教会我们的方法更多的办法来解决问题
Real life, however, demands way more from our brains than what chess can teach us
当火车驶来时我们无暇考虑往不同方向逃命的后果
We don’t spend minutes pondering the strategic consequences of taking a left or right to avoid an oncoming train
我们也不会为上班之路设计一个“L形”的路线
And we don’t plan our route to work in strange L shapes.
为了研究我们的大脑在更加真实的世界里的表现 科学家选择了另一个游戏
But for a more real world look at how our brains perform scientists are turning to a different game
星际争霸2
Starcraft 2
在星际争霸2中 两名玩家激烈对打争夺可支配的领土
in Starcraft 2, two players battle head-to-head for domination of a territory
你的军队彻底打败了对手的军队你就赢了 就像是真实的战争 没有退路
Winning means your army totally defeating the other. Just like real life, there’s no turns
你竭尽所能去争取胜利 一些要素让星际争霸2非常具有挑战性
You simply do as many things as you can but a few things make Starcraft especially challenging
我总是喜欢拿星际争霸2和国际象棋对比
I always like to compare Starcraft 2 to playing several games of chess, but in real-time
星际争霸2是即时游戏 它需要
So it is a game which requires
高超的灵活机动性
Extreme physical dexterity
在紧张敏锐的心理下
But in terms of mental acuity you need to be able to make decisions in
你需要能够靠着一部分不完整的信息在极快的游戏环境下即时做出决定
real-time at an incredibly fast place while working with incomplete information
想要在星际争霸中比其他人更胜一筹最重要的一点是你被称作“宏观经济”的能力
First most important thing to even get beyond average in Starcraft 2 is your ability to do what’s called “macro”
即尽可能最有效管理游戏中的经济的能力
Which is the management of your economy in the most efficient way possible
与此同时
But while doing so,
在屏幕的另一处非常迅速地作出反应并进行复杂精细的操作
simultaneously perform extremely rapid and intricate micro-actions somewhere else on the screen
所以拥有同时做到以上两点的能力 是真正专业玩家的标志
so the ability to do both those without compromising the other, that’s the mark of a true pro player
在宏观及微观上 游戏中不同的地方同时有那么多事情发生
With so much happening in different places on Micro and Macro levels
星际争霸2真的会让你的大脑认知超负荷
Starcraft 2 is a recipe for cognitive overload
神族 人族 虫族在太空中战斗争夺矿产资源并不是现实存在的
Granted, Protoss, Terrans and Zerg warring over vespene gas and space minerals isn’t exactly “realistic”
但研究玩星际争霸2是有用的现实实验
But playing Starcraft 2 is a useful real-world experiment. Multiple simultaneous goals, constantly
多重目的 不断地注意力转移 即时战斗: 这些都是人脑许多高级功能的测试项目
Redirecting attention, real-time combat: these are test cases for many of our higher brain functions
每一次鼠标的点击和键盘的敲击都计入了星际争霸2的记录文件
Since every mouse click and keyboard stroke in a Starcraft 2 game is saved in a log file
科学家可以重现游戏中的每一秒 在分析了上千场不同技术等级的游戏之后
Scientists can reconstruct every moment in a match and after analyzing thousands of games from every skill level scientists found
科学家不出意料地发现 做出来越多次动作的玩家越会取得胜利 星际争霸精英玩家常常可一分钟作出300次敲击
Unsurprisingly, players who perform the most actions are more likely to win. Elite Starcraft players can regularly hit 300 actions per minute
在紧张的交战中甚至可以高达每分钟600次 即每秒钟10次 不可置信
Even up to 600 in intense battle. That’s an unbelievable 10 actions per second, each with purpose.
让我们探索最重要的一个问题: 是不是年轻玩家总是表现更好呢? 有人认为自然如此
But let’s get to the most important question: Are younger players always better? -Some people think it’s a physical thing
但我真不这么觉得
But I really don’t think so. There’s
世界著名的钢琴家的手做着类似星际争霸2玩家的事情到五六十岁
World-Renowned pianist who have been doing things with their hands like a Starcraft 2 player up into their 50s and 60s
但并没有随着变老而动作变慢
It’s not that we get mentally slower as we get older
我想反而是更加熟练了 但我认为随着变老你有了更多的事情需要顾虑
I think it’s probably the opposite, but what I do think that happens as you get older is you have more things on your mind
税收 妻子 丈夫 等等
Taxes, your wife, your husband, whatever uhh,
并不是你的身心导致不能像年轻时那样在游戏中表现出极高的水准
It’s not that you’re mentally or physically incapable of performing as high as a level as you were as a younger person
我想你是不能将你的所有思想朝向一个方向 专注在游戏中
I think you are not able to put all of your thoughts in one direction, focus on the game.
我们都希望就是如此 但科学家们怎么说?
[Host] We all want that to be true, but what does the science say?
加拿大研究人员观察玩家去到一个新地图后需要多长时间才开始行动
Canadian researchers looked at how long it took players to act after moving to a new map view that lag was lowest at age
小于24岁的延迟最短 越年长的越慢
24 and slowed as players got older.
一名39岁的青铜级别玩家可能在其他所有方面和他24岁的对手齐平
A 39-year-old Bronze player may be equal to their 24-year-old opponent in all other aspects, but if the older player is just
但如果这名玩家在每个地图中有150毫秒的延迟 在15分钟比赛的整个过程中会耽误30秒
150 milliseconds slower at acting after every map movement, that can cost thirty seconds over the course of a 15 minute match
足够精英级别的玩家取得优势了 根据此次对星际争霸的研究
More than enough to make the difference at Elite levels. According to research on Starcraft
似乎超过24岁我们的大脑就开始衰退了 至少是当它需要思考或者行动的时候
It seems that after age 24 our brains are on the decline, at least when it comes to the thinking and moving part
但如果你像我一样大于24岁了 不要失去希望 研究者观察玩家如何同时处理多个任务
But if you’re older than 24, like me, don’t lose hope. When researchers looked at how players multi task, switching between
并在游戏的经济与军事方面来回转换时 他们并未发现与年龄相关的大脑衰退
Economic and military aspects of the game, they didn’t see that age-related decline
年长的玩家可以运用策略以及改变他们玩游戏的方法来弥补一些不足
Older players can use strategy and change the way they play the game to make up for some of the other losses
有的人通过专注于提高游戏操作速度达到了相当成功的职业游戏生涯
-There are people that have made very successful careers for themselves focusing on the speed of the game
可能他们不总能做出极佳的决定
Maybe they don’t always make the most amazing decisions
可能他们对战略有很强的预见性 他们亡羊补牢速度极快 很快地就能把敌人给解决掉
Maybe they are predictable in their strategy, but they’re so darn fast that they will just drown you in actions
也有人无比聪明 在你想好你要干什么之前
Then there’s other people that are so smart, so intuitive they know exactly what you’re gonna
他凭直觉就能知道你到底准备要干啥
Do before you even know what you’re going to do
在星际争霸中你可以通过速度取胜 或者通过智慧取胜 亦可兼而有之
But in Starcraft you can be fast or smart or both
我认为这就已经很棒了
And I think that’s amazing.
所以尽你自己所能去玩就行了 因为不管你是普通玩家还是精英玩家
So play while you can because whether you’re an average or elite player
时间就是一切 保持好奇心
Time is of the essence. GG. Stay curious.
物理学告诉我们宇宙的基本构建组成 生物学让宇宙了解它自己
Physics might show us the universe’s basic building blocks and biology lets the universe understand itself
但化学是所有快乐的起源
But chemistry is where all the fun happens in between.
我们体内每秒有上千个化学反应进行
We have thousands of chemical reactions going on inside us every second
但是正是我们用手熟练操作的实验室 工坊 工厂甚至厨房让我们成为我们自己
But it’s the ones we’ve mastered with our hands in labs and workshops and factories and even kitchens that have made humans what we are
现今 化学科技让我们的生活发生了巨变
today. A few chemical technologies have made such an explosive change in how we live that they’ve altered the very
它已经改变了人类的轨迹
trajectory of humanity

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视频概述

玩不了游戏?你的大脑太老了?看看科学家研究了国际象棋和星际争霸玩家得出的结论

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xLlsIxOBF64

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