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Is Your Brain Too Old For Video Games?

现今 百分之六十三的美国家庭
Today, 63% of U.S.
households are home to someone who plays video games
广义上讲 我们大部分人都算是“玩家”“来开一局吧!”已经成为了国民座右铭
regularly. In the broadest sense most of us are “gamers” and “Let’s play” has become a national motto
但早至弹球游戏机和传统电玩城的时期 我们就已经清楚地明白
But since the early days of pinball machines and classic arcades, one thing has been crystal clear
Some people are way better at this than others
Nowhere is that more apparent that at a competitive gaming tournament
Hundreds of players from around the world compete for prizes up to 50,000 dollars
看这些世界顶级玩家键盘上飞快敲击的手指 连续消灭对手 大家很想知道“他们怎么这么厉害!”
Watching the furious fingers of the world’s top players, flying playing combos and kills, the obvious question is “What makes them so good?”
What makes the experts better than the rest of us? The obvious answer is
大家首先都会想到的答案是:练习 但纵观像这样的游戏联赛 我们注意到这些玩家非常年轻
practice, but looking around a tournament like this, one can’t help but notice these players are young
在美国 游戏玩家的平均年龄是35岁 将近一半的玩家大于36岁
The average American gamer is 35 years old and nearly half of all gamers are older than 36
但在这里 许多精英玩家都是离开了学校的高中生
But not here. Many of these elite players are barely out of high school
你会以为年龄较大的玩家会更有经验 更厉害
You’d think older players could be more experienced, be better
但是在高级别联赛中似乎并不是这样 年长的玩家们是否具有某些劣势呢?
But that doesn’t seem to be the case here at the highest level. Are older gamers at some disadvantage?
他们的大脑都已经不在最佳状态了? 为了解开这个谜团
Are their brains already over the hill? To solve mysteries about how we think and learn
Scientists have turned to games themselves
And the most famous is one of the oldest
数十年来一直被用来研究复杂的思维和科学的专业知识 举个例子 当展示一些国际象棋比赛棋盘的截图后
For decades chess has been used to study complex thinking and the science of expertise. For instance, when shown snapshots of chess games
专业国际象棋选手可以回想起几乎每一个棋子的位置 而普通玩家无法做到
Expert chess players can recall the position of nearly every piece, where average players cannot
but when shown snapshots of pieces arranged randomly
专业选手并不能做得比初学者们好 这告诉我们
Expert players did no better than novices. This tells us that part of being an expert is extracting and processing
information faster than the average person
but maybe only in the context of that particular skill
然而在现实生活中 需要我们思考出 比国际象棋能教会我们的方法更多的办法来解决问题
Real life, however, demands way more from our brains than what chess can teach us
We don’t spend minutes pondering the strategic consequences of taking a left or right to avoid an oncoming train
And we don’t plan our route to work in strange L shapes.
为了研究我们的大脑在更加真实的世界里的表现 科学家选择了另一个游戏
But for a more real world look at how our brains perform scientists are turning to a different game
Starcraft 2
在星际争霸2中 两名玩家激烈对打争夺可支配的领土
in Starcraft 2, two players battle head-to-head for domination of a territory
你的军队彻底打败了对手的军队你就赢了 就像是真实的战争 没有退路
Winning means your army totally defeating the other. Just like real life, there’s no turns
你竭尽所能去争取胜利 一些要素让星际争霸2非常具有挑战性
You simply do as many things as you can but a few things make Starcraft especially challenging
I always like to compare Starcraft 2 to playing several games of chess, but in real-time
星际争霸2是即时游戏 它需要
So it is a game which requires
Extreme physical dexterity
But in terms of mental acuity you need to be able to make decisions in
real-time at an incredibly fast place while working with incomplete information
First most important thing to even get beyond average in Starcraft 2 is your ability to do what’s called “macro”
Which is the management of your economy in the most efficient way possible
But while doing so,
simultaneously perform extremely rapid and intricate micro-actions somewhere else on the screen
所以拥有同时做到以上两点的能力 是真正专业玩家的标志
so the ability to do both those without compromising the other, that’s the mark of a true pro player
在宏观及微观上 游戏中不同的地方同时有那么多事情发生
With so much happening in different places on Micro and Macro levels
Starcraft 2 is a recipe for cognitive overload
神族 人族 虫族在太空中战斗争夺矿产资源并不是现实存在的
Granted, Protoss, Terrans and Zerg warring over vespene gas and space minerals isn’t exactly “realistic”
But playing Starcraft 2 is a useful real-world experiment. Multiple simultaneous goals, constantly
多重目的 不断地注意力转移 即时战斗: 这些都是人脑许多高级功能的测试项目
Redirecting attention, real-time combat: these are test cases for many of our higher brain functions
Since every mouse click and keyboard stroke in a Starcraft 2 game is saved in a log file
科学家可以重现游戏中的每一秒 在分析了上千场不同技术等级的游戏之后
Scientists can reconstruct every moment in a match and after analyzing thousands of games from every skill level scientists found
科学家不出意料地发现 做出来越多次动作的玩家越会取得胜利 星际争霸精英玩家常常可一分钟作出300次敲击
Unsurprisingly, players who perform the most actions are more likely to win. Elite Starcraft players can regularly hit 300 actions per minute
在紧张的交战中甚至可以高达每分钟600次 即每秒钟10次 不可置信
Even up to 600 in intense battle. That’s an unbelievable 10 actions per second, each with purpose.
让我们探索最重要的一个问题: 是不是年轻玩家总是表现更好呢? 有人认为自然如此
But let’s get to the most important question: Are younger players always better? -Some people think it’s a physical thing
But I really don’t think so. There’s
World-Renowned pianist who have been doing things with their hands like a Starcraft 2 player up into their 50s and 60s
It’s not that we get mentally slower as we get older
我想反而是更加熟练了 但我认为随着变老你有了更多的事情需要顾虑
I think it’s probably the opposite, but what I do think that happens as you get older is you have more things on your mind
税收 妻子 丈夫 等等
Taxes, your wife, your husband, whatever uhh,
It’s not that you’re mentally or physically incapable of performing as high as a level as you were as a younger person
我想你是不能将你的所有思想朝向一个方向 专注在游戏中
I think you are not able to put all of your thoughts in one direction, focus on the game.
我们都希望就是如此 但科学家们怎么说?
[Host] We all want that to be true, but what does the science say?
Canadian researchers looked at how long it took players to act after moving to a new map view that lag was lowest at age
小于24岁的延迟最短 越年长的越慢
24 and slowed as players got older.
A 39-year-old Bronze player may be equal to their 24-year-old opponent in all other aspects, but if the older player is just
但如果这名玩家在每个地图中有150毫秒的延迟 在15分钟比赛的整个过程中会耽误30秒
150 milliseconds slower at acting after every map movement, that can cost thirty seconds over the course of a 15 minute match
足够精英级别的玩家取得优势了 根据此次对星际争霸的研究
More than enough to make the difference at Elite levels. According to research on Starcraft
似乎超过24岁我们的大脑就开始衰退了 至少是当它需要思考或者行动的时候
It seems that after age 24 our brains are on the decline, at least when it comes to the thinking and moving part
但如果你像我一样大于24岁了 不要失去希望 研究者观察玩家如何同时处理多个任务
But if you’re older than 24, like me, don’t lose hope. When researchers looked at how players multi task, switching between
并在游戏的经济与军事方面来回转换时 他们并未发现与年龄相关的大脑衰退
Economic and military aspects of the game, they didn’t see that age-related decline
Older players can use strategy and change the way they play the game to make up for some of the other losses
-There are people that have made very successful careers for themselves focusing on the speed of the game
Maybe they don’t always make the most amazing decisions
可能他们对战略有很强的预见性 他们亡羊补牢速度极快 很快地就能把敌人给解决掉
Maybe they are predictable in their strategy, but they’re so darn fast that they will just drown you in actions
也有人无比聪明 在你想好你要干什么之前
Then there’s other people that are so smart, so intuitive they know exactly what you’re gonna
Do before you even know what you’re going to do
在星际争霸中你可以通过速度取胜 或者通过智慧取胜 亦可兼而有之
But in Starcraft you can be fast or smart or both
And I think that’s amazing.
所以尽你自己所能去玩就行了 因为不管你是普通玩家还是精英玩家
So play while you can because whether you’re an average or elite player
时间就是一切 保持好奇心
Time is of the essence. GG. Stay curious.
物理学告诉我们宇宙的基本构建组成 生物学让宇宙了解它自己
Physics might show us the universe’s basic building blocks and biology lets the universe understand itself
But chemistry is where all the fun happens in between.
We have thousands of chemical reactions going on inside us every second
但是正是我们用手熟练操作的实验室 工坊 工厂甚至厨房让我们成为我们自己
But it’s the ones we’ve mastered with our hands in labs and workshops and factories and even kitchens that have made humans what we are
现今 化学科技让我们的生活发生了巨变
today. A few chemical technologies have made such an explosive change in how we live that they’ve altered the very
trajectory of humanity