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时空穿梭是否可能? – 译学馆
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时空穿梭是否可能?

Is Time Travel Possible? | Unveiled

时间旅行可行吗
Is Time Travel Possible?
每个人一生中或多或少都思考过时间旅行
Everyone has thought about time travel at least once in their life.
也许你想回到过去
Maybe you’vewanted to go back in time
改变人生轨迹
and try tochange something from your past.
甚至有许多科幻电影
There are even a lot of
也包含时间旅行的桥段
science fiction movies out there that involve time travel
也可能或多或少受到时间旅行的启发
or were inspired by time travel in some way or another.
但是 时间旅行
But is it really possible to
真的可行吗
travel back or forward in time
假如真的能够时间旅行
and if it is really possible,
我们又必须注意什么
what would we have to do
以确保时间旅行能顺利完成
in order to make time travel a reality?
思考时间旅行及其可行的条件
The very thought about time travel and what it would take
都令人难以想象的
to make it a reality is mind boggling.
这是科学家们
It is something that scientists,
尤其是天体物理学家
especially astrophysicists,
长久思考的问题
have long thought about.
最激动人心的是什么
The most fantastic thing?
那就是时间旅行是有可能实现的
It’s probably possible.
不过我们应该从时间旅行的坏消息入手
We should probably start with the bad news about time travel.
那就是 我们可能不能回到过去
We probably can’t travel back in time
比如看埃及人是怎样建造了金字塔
and watch the Egyptians build the pyramids.
然而 仍有不少理论认为
However,there are a number of theories that have suggested that
时间旅行到未来是有可能的
it’s possible to take a leap forward in time,
但回到过去
but going back in time
可就更加困难了
is far more complected.
不过这也不是说回到过去是不可能的
That’s not saying it’s impossible though.
二十世纪伟大的科学家阿尔伯特•爱因斯坦
The great twentieth century scientist Albert Einstein
曾提出过一个叫狭义相对论的理论
developed the theory called Special Relativity.
对许多人来说 时间是连续的线性
While most people think of time as a constant,
而爱因斯坦认为时间是一种错觉
Einstein showed that time is an illusion,
它是相对的
it is relative.
时间会随着观测者的不同而发生改变
In that it can vary for different observers,
这取决于你在空间里的速度
depending on your speed through space.
狭义相对论的理念
The ideas of Special Relativity
理解起来会很困难
are very hard to imagine
因为它不是我们日常生活所经历的事
because they aren’t about what we experience in everyday life.
但其他科学家也同意了这个理论
But other scientists have confirmed this theory.
这个理论说时间和空间
The theory says that space and time
其实都是一个东西也就是“时空”的不同方面
are really aspects of the same thing which is called ‘ space-time.
对于在时空中运动的物体
There is a speed limit of 300,000 km/s
它的速度有个上限
(or 186,000 milles per second)
不会超过300000千米每秒(即186000英里每秒)
for anything that travels through space-time.
而这正是光在真空中运动的速度
And light always travels this speed limit through empty space.
再谈一下时间的错觉
So more about this illusion of time,
狭义相对论认为当你以一定速度穿越空间移动
special relativity says that a suprising thing happens to you
尤其是你的速度
when you move through space-time,
相对其他物体接近光速
especially when your speed relative to other objects
那么就会发生一个特殊现象
is close to the speed of light,
那就是你的时间 相对其他人
time goes slower for you
会移动的更慢
than for the people you left behind.
而且除非你回到这些人身边
You won’t notice this effect
你不会注意到这种现象
until you return to thosestationary people.
有一个假想的实验是这样的
So as an experiment,
假设你在十五岁时
let’s say you were 15 years old
搭乘太空飞船 以接近光速的速度
and you left Earth in a spacecraft
离开地球
traveling at about close to the speed of light.
你在太空路途中仅过了5个生日
And you celebrated only five birthdaysduring your space voyage.
当你归来已经二十岁了
When you got home at the age of 20,
然而你会发现你当初的同龄人
you would find thatall your classmates
都已经六十五岁
who were the same ageas you when you left
纷纷退休
were 65 years old
带着孙儿们尽享天伦之乐
retired , and hanging out with theirgrandchildren.
这是因为
The reason for this
时间在你身上流逝的更慢
is because as time passed more slowly for you.
在你看来 时间仅仅过去了五年
You would have experienced only fiveyears of life
而对于你在地球上的同龄人则过去了五十年
while your classmates will have experienced a full 50 years.
但在爱因斯坦的广义相对论中还有一个要素
But there are something else that Einstein’s theory of General Relativity
那就是引力能够使时间弯曲
and that is gravity that bend time.
想象一块四维的布叫做时空
Picture of four dimensional fabric called space-time.
任何具有质量的物体落在那块布上
When anything that have mass in that piece of fabric
都会在时空中造成沟壑 或者说弯折
it causes dimble or bending of space-time,
时空的弯曲会导致物体运动轨迹呈现弯折
the bending of space-time causes objects to move on a curved path.
空间中的弯折
That curvature of space
就被称为引力
is what we know as gravity.
那么我们怎样才能穿梭时空呢
So how could we travel through space-time?
一种方法就是利用虫洞
One option would be a wormhole,
或者叫爱因斯坦——罗森桥
also known as an Einstein Rosen Bridge.
在一九三五年
Along with physicist Nathan Rosen,
爱因斯坦和罗森共同提出虫洞的概念
Einstein suggested the existence of wormhole in nineteen thirty-five.
即使目前还没有发现过虫洞
And although with yet discovery one,
许多科学家已经提出了不少虫洞是如何运作的理论
many scientists have contributed their own theories about how wormholes might work.
史蒂芬•霍金和基普•索恩
Stephen Hawking and Kip Thorne
或许是其中最著名的科学家
were probably the most well known.
基普•索恩是加州理工学院的理论物理学教授
Thorne,a theoretical physics at Caltech,
甚至曾帮助过克里斯托弗•诺兰解决《星际穿越》科学方面的问题
even helped Christopher Nolan with the science behind Interstellar.
那么我们假设虫洞确实存在
So let’s just assume that wormholes do exist.
索恩曾在上世纪八十年代提出
In the late nineteen eightieth,
虫洞可以用来建造时间机器
Throne said that a wormhole could be made into a time machine.
根据爱因斯坦的广义相对论
According to Einstein’s theory of General Relativity,
虫洞可以像桥梁一样连接时空中的两地
a wormhole could act like a bridge through space-time
从而创造捷径
by connecting two distant points with a shortcut.
特定的虫洞
certain types of wormholes
可以允许两个方向都能时空旅行
could allow for time travelling either direction.
如果我们可以加速虫洞的一端
If we could accelerate one month of the wormhole
一直到接近光速
to near light speed
然后再让它反过来回到它之前的位置
and then reverse it back to it’s original position.
同时 虫洞的另一端则保持固定不动
Meanwhile,the other mouth will remain stationary.
结果是时间会在虫洞移动的一端
The result will be that the moving mouth
流逝得比固定的一端慢
would age less slowly than the stationary month.
这都是时间膨胀效应的作用
Thanks to the effect of time dilation.
但虫洞是很奇妙的
But wormholes are tricky,
它会创造出很多悖论
they create all kinds of paradoxes.
比如 人们穿越虫洞后
For instance,through a wormhole,
可以看见一分钟前的自己
a person can see themselves as they were one minute age.
但如果那个人利用虫洞
But what if that person use the wormhole
去射杀之前的自己
But what if that person use the wormhole
现在他们死了
They are now dead.
那么是谁开枪射击的呢
So who fired the shoot?
这就是一个悖论
It’s a paradox.
这根本说不通
It just doesn’t make sense.
你或许在某个有时间机器的著名科幻电影中
You might have seen some of the paradox stuffs in a famous science fiction movie
看到这种悖论的元素
that had an interesting time machine,
能猜出电影名字的观众有奖励
bonus points for the viewer who can name a film.
我们再回到时间膨胀效应的话题
And back on the subject of time dilation,
国际空间站的时钟相对于地球上的时钟
The clocks on the International Space Station
会行走得慢一点
tick just a little bit more slowly than clocks on earth do.
由于空间站的高速运动
Since the space station is moving so fast
以及所受的引力更小
and it’s effected by less gravity,
时间流逝得更快
time moves more quickly.
这也是为什么地球上没有一块完全准确的钟
It’s also why no clock on earth is perfectly accurate
由于时间膨胀效应的影响
since the effect of time dilation,
时间会随着高度的下降而变慢
means that time moves more slowly closer to the planet surface.
你可以认为那些登上国际空间站的宇航员们
You could see that everyone aboard the International Space Station
都是时间旅行者
is a time traveller.
通过观察全球定位系统的卫星
You can get a better understanding of how time dilation works
你可以更好地了解时间膨胀效应
by looking at GPS satellites.
你手机上的全球定位系统芯片能用的原因是因为
The GPS trip in your smartphone works
二十四个卫星不断在地球周围圆周运动
because there are twenty four satellites circling the global all times
利用三角定位
that triangulate your location
基于信息往返你的手机
based on how long it takes time stamp information
所利用的时间 来得到你的位置
to travel to and from the device.
不过 科学家们在建造这个系统时
However,scientists learned when building the system
发现由于卫星以九千英里每小时的速度围绕地球
that the atomic clock on GPS satellites
其上的原子钟确实比地球上的时钟
do indeed run a little bit fast,
运动得更快
since they are moving nine thousand miles per hour in orbit.
准确来说
To be specific,
每天都会快八微秒
it lose eight microseconds a day.
这么短的时间是很难察觉到的
That’s hardly perceivable.
但也足够位置信息偏差
But it’s enough to throw up the location data.
正因如此 全球定位系统上的时钟会调整
And so,GPS technology makes adjustments for the clocks on board
来抵消这种相对论效应
to account for the Relativity’s effects.
这并不是时钟的问题
The problem doesn’t lie with the clocks,
而是因为时间本身就在太空中
they run fast because time itself runs fast in space
流逝得更快
than it does down below.
这种非同寻常的效应
And reason for this extraordinary effect
正是由地球的引力造成的
is the mass of the earth.
爱因斯坦发现物质会扭曲时间
Einstein realized that matter drags on time
并且像河流中的缓处一样使时间变慢
and slow it down like the slow part of a river.
物体越重 对时间的影响就更大
The heavier of the object,the more it drags on time.
而这令人震惊的事实
And this startling reality
便打开了通向未来的可能之门
is what opens the door to the possibility of time travel to the future.
在银河系的中心
Right in the center of the Milky Way,
(距地球两万六千光年)
twenty six thousand light years from us
有着银河系中最大的物体
lies the heaviest subject in the Galaxy.
那是一个超大质量的黑洞
It’s a super massive black hole
质量相对于四百万个太阳
containing the mass of four millions suns,
由于自身极大的引力而坍缩为一点
crush down into a single point by its own gravity.
离黑洞越近
The closer you get to the black hole
其引力越大
the stronger the gravity.
在一定的距离
Get really close
即使光也无从逃逸
and not even light can escape.
一个如此巨大的黑洞
A black hole like this one,
对时间有着极大的影响
has a dramatic effect on time.
它对时间的降速的程度是银河系其他星体无法比较的
Slowing it down far more than anything else in the Galaxy.
这就成了一个自然的时间机器
That makes it a natural time machine.
所以说 一个超级黑洞就是一个时间机器
So,a super massive black hole is a time machine.
但当然 这并不太可行
But of course,it’s not exactly practical.
它比虫洞好
It has advantages over wormholes
又不制造悖论
and it doesn’t provoke paradoxes.
还有 它不会在信息传输过程中就自我毁灭
Plus,it wouldn’t destroy itself in the flash of feedback.
不过它相当危险
But it’s pretty dangerous
不仅路途遥远
It’s a long way away
而且也不能向未来前进多少
and it doesn’t even take us very far into the future
幸运的是 穿越时间还有另一种方法
Fortunately,there is another way to travel in time.
这也是我们建造时间机器
And this represent our last and the best hope
最后也是最好的方法
of building a real time machine.
你只需要运动得非常非常快
You just have to travel very very fast.
甚至要比逃逸黑洞的速度
Much faster even than the speed required to
还要快
avoid being sucked into a black hole
这又是关于宇宙的另一个奇妙的现象
This is due to another strange fact about universe.
宇宙中有一个速度的限制
There is a cosmic speed limit.
最快不超过十八万又六千英里每秒
One hundred eighty six thousand miles per second,
也就是光速
also known as the speed of light.
没有什么能突破这个限制
Nothing can exceed that speed.
这也是科学界的一个基本定律
It’s one of the best established principles in science.
无论你相信与否
Believe it or not,
以近光速前进可以穿越到未来
travel at near the speed of light transport you to the future.
要理解这个 我们来假象一个科幻的运输系统
To explain why,let’s dream of the science fiction transportation system.
想象一个围绕地球的超级铁轨
Imagine a track that goes right around the earth,
上面是一个超快列车
a track for a super fast train
我们要利用这个列车
We are going to use this imaginary train
加速到接近光速
to get as close as possible to the speed of light.
然后看它如何成为一台时间机器
And see how it becomes a time machine.
列车上 乘客们都有一张通向未来的单程车票
On board,our passengers with a one-way ticket to the future.
列车开始加速
The train begins to accelerate,
越来越快
faster and faster.
很快 它开始不断围绕地球运动
Soon,it circling the earth over and over again.
要接近光速
To appose the speed of light
需要围绕地球运动非常快
means circling the earth pretty fast.
每秒要绕地球七圈
Seven times a second.
但无论这辆列车有多少能量
But no matter how much power does the train has,
由于物理定律的制约
it can never acquire reach the speed of light.
它仍不能超越光速
Since the laws of physics forbid it.
那么假设列车不断地接近这个终极速度
Instead,let’s say gets close,just shy of that ultimate speed.
现在 不同寻常的事情发生了
Now,something extraordinary happens.
列车上的时间开始比外界流逝得慢
Time starts flowing slowly on board relative to the rest of the world.
就像黑洞 甚至超越黑洞
Just like near the black hole,or be more so.
列车上的一切运动都成了慢动作
Every thing on the train is in slow motion.
其实很简单 想要超越到未来
It really is that simple,if we want to travel into the future
我们需要高速运动
we just need to go fast,
非常地快
really fast.
目前 历史上最快的载人工具就是阿波罗十号
The fastest man on vehicle in history was the Apollo X.
其速度达到了每小时二万五千英里
It reached twenty five thousand miles per hour.
但要穿越时间
But to travel in time,
速度要达到它的两千倍
we’ll have to go more than two thousands times faster.
为了做到这点 我们需要一个很大的飞船
To do that,we need a much bigger ship.
一个真正硕大的机器
A truly enormous machine.
这艘飞船需要非常大才能携带充足的燃料
The ship would have to be big enough to carry a huge amount of fuel.
去加速到光速
Enough to accelerate it near the speed of light.
有了这样大小的飞船
With the ship the size we would need,
我们将它加速到近光速
getting to just beneath the cosmic speed limit
需要整整六年的全力加速
will require six whole years of full power.
即使时间旅行在目前还无法实现
While time travel doesn’t pure possible at this point of time,
但人类文明仍有可能存活到那一天
or at least possible at the sence that the humans will survive it.
利用我们现在所用的物理
With the physics that we use today,
不断改变的场域
the field is constantly changing,
加上量子理论上的进展
advancing Quantum theory
或许能提供一些克服
could perhaps provides some understanding
时间旅行的悖论的方法
of how to overcome time travel paradoxes.
有一种可能 虽然不能直接实现时间旅行
One possibility,although we wouldn’t necessarily need to time travel,
就是解释为何某些粒子之间能立刻进行
is solving the mystery of how certain particles
超越光速的信息交流
can communicate instantaneously with each other faster than the speed of light.
那么 在此之前
In the meantime,however,
有兴趣的人们可以通过
interest time travellers at least experiencing
电影 电视和小说感受时间旅行
some vicariously through movies,television and books.

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时间旅行需要什么?穿越时空要怎样做到?回到过去还是前进未来?

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