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时间旅行是否可能 – 译学馆
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时间旅行是否可能

Is time travel possible? - Colin Stuart

你曾幻想过穿越时间旅行吗?
Have you ever daydreamedabout traveling through time,
或是快进几个世纪去看看那遥远的未来?
perhaps fast forward in the centuriesand seeing the distant future? Well,
好吧 时间旅行是有可能的
time travel is possible,
更重要的是 它已经被实现了
and what’s more, it’s already been done.
谢尔盖·克里卡列夫是人类史上最伟大的时间旅行者
Meet Sergei Krikalev, the greatest time travelerin human history.
苏联宇航员保持着环绕地球
This Russian cosmonaut holds the record
时间最久的记录
for the most amount of timespent orbiting our planet,
总共803天9小时39分钟
a total of 803 days,9 hours, and 39 minutes.
在太空逗留期间
During his stay in space,
他到达了自己0.02秒后的未来
he time traveled into his own future by 0.02 seconds.
以每小时17500英里的速度行驶
Traveling at 17,500 miles an hour,
他历经了一种称为时间膨胀的效应
he experienced an effectknown as time dilation,
总有一天这个效应会
and one day the same effect might make
使影响深远的时间旅行变得稀松平常
significant time travel to the future commonplace.
要了解为什么在太空中更快地移动会影响时间的流逝
To see why moving faster through spaceaffects passage of time,
我们需要追溯到19世纪80年代
we need to go back to the 1880s,
当时 两个美国科学家 阿尔伯特·迈克尔逊和爱德华·莫雷
when two American scientists, Albert Michelson and Edward Morley,
试图测量
were trying to measure the effect
地球绕太阳运动
of the Earth’s movement around the Sun
对光速的影响
on the speed of light.
当一束光
When a beam of light was moving
在与地球相同的方向移动时
in the same direction as the Earth,
他们猜测光速更快
they expected the light to travel faster.
且当地球向相反的方向移动时
And when the Earth was movingin the opposite direction,
他们猜测光速会减缓
they expected it to go slower.
但他们发现了一些非常古怪的事情
But they found something very curious.
无论地球往哪个方向移动 光速都保持不变
The speed of light remained the same no matter what the Earth was doing.
20年后 爱因斯坦开始思考
Two decades later,Albert Einstein was thinking
光速恒定不变这个结论
about the consequencesof that never-changing speed of light.
这是他在狭义相对论中
And it was his conclusions,
提出的结论
formulated in the theory of special relativity,
打开了时间旅行的大门
that opened the doorinto the world of time travel.
想象一个叫杰克的人
Imagine a man named Jack,
站在平稳行驶的
standing in the middle of a train carriage,
列车车厢中间
traveling at a steady speed.
杰克觉得有些无聊 开始上下拍球
Jack’s bored and starts bouncinga ball up and down.
站在月台上的吉尔 当火车鸣笛经过时
What would Jill, standing on the platform,see through the window
透过窗户会看到什么? 蒽
as the train whistles through? Well,
在杰克抛下球并再次抓住球之间
between Jack dropping the balland catching it again,
吉尔本应该看见他在火车的下方微微移动
Jill would have seen him moveslightly further down the track,
结果她看到是球以三角形的路线移动的
resulting in her seeing the ballfollow a triangular path.
这意味着 吉尔看到的球在同一时间段内
This means Jill sees the balltravel further than Jack does
比杰克所看到的移动得更远
in the same time period.
由于速度等于距离除以时间
And because speedis distance divided by time,
所以吉尔看到的球移动得更快
Jill actually sees the ball move faster.
但如果杰克的弹力球被两面镜子所取代会怎么样呢?
But what if Jack’s bouncing ballis replaced with two mirrors
且这两面镜子之间有一束光来回反弹
which bounce a beam of light between them?
杰克仍然看到光束顺着向下移动
Jack still sees the beam dropping down
吉尔仍然看到光束传播了更长的距离
and Jill still sees the light beamtravel a longer distance,
不同的是 这次两人会测出相同的光速
except this time Jack and Jillcannot disagree on the speed
因为无论如何 光速始终保持不变
because the speed of lightremains the same no matter what.
且如果速度一样的话
And if the speed is the same
而距离却不一样
while the distance is different,
也就意味着花的时间也将不一样 因此
this means the time takenwill be different as well. Thus,
当人们相对他人运动时
time must tick at different rates
时间会以不一样的速率流逝
for people moving relative to each other.
想象一下 杰克和吉尔都有非常精确的手表
Imagine that Jack and Jillhave highly accurate watches
他们在杰克上火车之前就校对好时间
that they synchronizebefore Jack boards the train.
在此次实验当中 杰克和吉尔会看到
During the experiment,Jack and Jill would each see
自己的手表正常地走动
their own watch ticking normally.
但是如果后面再次遇见再比较手表
But if they meet up again laterto compare watches,
杰克的手表会走得慢些
less time would haveelapsed on Jack’s watch,
因此解释了这一事实 吉尔看到的光束移动得更远
balancing the fact that Jill sawthe light move further.
这个想法听上去挺疯狂的 但就像任何一个完善的科学理论一样
This idea may sound crazy, but like any good scientific theory,
是可以被检验的
it can be tested.
在20世纪70年代 科学家们将
In the 1970s, scientists boarded a plane
一些超精确的原子钟带上了飞机
with some super-accurate atomic clocks
这些钟与当时留在地下的其他钟是同步的
that were synchronizedwith some others left on the ground.
当飞机环球飞行后
After the plane hadflown around the world,
飞机上的原子钟显示的时间
the clocks on boardshowed a different time
与地面的不一样
from those left behind.
当然 在火车与飞机的速度下
Of course, at the speedof trains and planes,
这个效应是极小的
the effect is minuscule.
但速度越快 时间膨胀效应就越明显
But the faster you go,the more time dilates.
如果航天员环绕地球800天
For astronauts orbitingthe Earth for 800 days,
它就开始显现了
it starts to add up.
但影响人类的也会影响机器
But what affects humansalso affects machines.
全球定位系统卫星
Satellites of the globalpositioning system
也以每小时数千英里的速度绕着地球飞行
are also hurdling around the Earth at thousands of miles an hour. So,
因此 时间膨胀效应也出现在这儿
time dilation kicks in here, too.
事实上 飞行速度导致飞机上的原子钟
In fact, their speed causesthe atomic clocks on board
与地上的原子钟每天产生七百万分之一秒的差异
to disagree with clocks on the ground by seven millionths of a second daily.
如果不校正的话 这将会使GPS失去准确性
Left uncorrected, this would cause GPS to lose accuracy
每天产生几公里误差 那么
by a few kilometers each day. So,
所有的这些与时间旅行
what does all this haveto do with time travel
和去遥远的未来有什么关系呢?
to the far, distant future? Well,
速度越快 时间膨胀的效应也就越明显
the faster you go, the greater the effect of time dilation.
如果你的速度真的能够接近光速的话
If you could travel really close to the speed of light,
不如 以光速的99.9999%
say 99.9999 %,
绕太空来回一圈
on a round-trip
对你来说可能像过了10年
through space for what seemed to you like ten years,
但当你回到地球时 差不多是9000年后了
you’d actually return to Earth around the year 9000.
谁知道回来你会看见什么呢!
Who knows what you’d seewhen you returned?!
有人类的地方就有机器?
Humanity merged with machines,
人类因全球变暖或小行星撞击而灭绝了?
extinct due to climate change or asteroid impact,
又或是人类已在火星定居了?
or inhabiting a permanent colony on Mars.
但问题是 把像人这样重的物品
But the trouble is, getting heavy things like people,
先不提太空飞船
not to mention space ships,
加速到接近光速 将需要无法想象的巨大能量
up to such speeds requiresunimaginable amounts of energy.
它需要巨大的粒子加速器
It already takes enormousparticle accelerators
如大型强子对撞机来加速
like the Large Hadron Collider to accelerate tiny
微小的亚原子粒子以接近光速
subatomic particles to close to light speed.
但总有一天
But one day,
我们能发明一些工具 让我们自身加速到如光速一般
if we can develop the tools to accelerate ourselves to similar speeds,
那么 我们或许可以定期地把时间旅行者以及
then we may regularly send time travelers into the future,
我们古老被遗忘过去送到那遥远的未来了
bringing with them tales of a long, forgotten past.

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你曾幻想过时间旅行吗?或是穿越到几百年后去看看那遥远的未来呢?好吧 时间旅行是可能的,而且已经实现了哦,一起来看看吧

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